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Five Steps to Better Tests: Best Practices for Design and Delivery

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  • 1. Five Steps to Better Tests: Best Practices for Design and Delivery Doug Peterson, Questionmark 2013 Users Conference Baltimore | March 3rd – 6thCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmarkis a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 2. Psst… Who’s the Ugly Dude Up Front?  Doug Peterson  Product Owner for Authoring  (Which means what?) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 2 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 3. Test Design and Delivery Certificate Program May 4 & 5, 2012 in Denver, CO Prior to ASTD conference Content developed by ACT Presented by Dr. Cindy Hill, Industrial/Organizational Psychologist for ACT’s Workforce Development Division 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 4. Agenda Planning the Test Creating the Test Items Creating the Test Form Delivering the Test Evaluating the Test 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 5. Planning the Test 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 6. Establishing reliability and validity from the beginning Reliable: dependable, repeatable, consistent Valid: measures the specific knowledge and skills that were intended to be measured 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 7. Establishing reliability and validity from the beginning Validity established in reference to specific purpose and target population. Target population characteristics to take into account:  Job qualifications (JTA question type)  Local laws/regulations  Company policies  Language localization  Reading level  Geographic dispersion  Comfort with technology (age, income) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 8. Identifying content areas to be tested Job Task Analysis used to describe content of test Test Content Outline (TCO) / Test Blueprint / Test Specification built from JTA, drives test item development Test Items Ensuring Valid Content JTA TCO 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 9. Determining the number of test items Factors when determining length of test:  Criticality (Must know? Nice to have?)  Size (Large amount of content? Small amount?)  Homogeneity (Similar KSAs?)  Consequences (More training? Lose job?)  Resources (Open book? Open notes?) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 10. Determining the number of test items Test content areas should be weighted to help determine number of questions for each Much like an Angoff exercise SMEs rate each content area of TCO by  How critical to performance of job?  How difficult to learn?  How large relative to other content areas? Average the values from the SMEs 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 11. Determining the number of test items For each content area:  Multiply criticality x size x difficulty for # items on test  # items x 3 for # items to write  10 min per item to write  Revision time allowance = amount of time to write x .25 No content area < 4 – 6 items (drop or combine) Allow time for directions / practice questions 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 12. Determining the number of test items  Time required by examinees depends on type of test:  Power test – what examinee knows  Speeded test – how quickly a skill can be performedItem Type Time Estimate per ItemMultiple-Choice 1 – 1.5 minuteT/F 30 secondsMatching 30 seconds/responseShort Answer 2 minutesFIB 1 minuteVisual image included Add 30 seconds 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 13. Identifying benefits and challenges of delivery methods Paper / pencil Computer-based (including Internet-based) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 14. Determining the item format Pros/cons of T/F, MC, & essay Recommended T/F for pre-test, but not post-test MC:  Good for recall  Properly written, can test higher cognitive skills  Easy / quick / objective to score Essay:  Evaluate ability to formulate a correct answer  Evaluate ability to apply concepts to new situation  Scoring is longer and more subjective 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 15. Creating the Test Items 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 16. Writing test items Anatomy of a multiple-choice item  Stimulus/Stem  Choices (correct & distractors)  Feedback  Scoring Use style guide for consistency 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 17. Well-Written Stimulus Carefully worded Clear Concise – avoid window dressing Avoid jargon Positive phrasing Specific focus Ask a single question 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 18. Well-Written Choices Plausible distractors, only one correct answer Same length As short as possible Avoid keywords Avoid grammatical cues 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 19. Example Yes or No: When loading your snarkleblaster, should you beedle the diggle or zix the frondle? o Yes o No 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 20. Example When putting a child to bed for the night, you should: a. Blast him/her with a fire hose. b. Create a calm and relaxing atmosphere. c. Parade 3 elephants through the room. d. Paint yourself purple with pink polka dots and dance a jig. 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 21. Example A chimpanzee’s favorite treat is a: a. Apple b. Banana c. Orange d. Eggplant 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 22. Example When replacing strings on a bass guitar: a. Change the pre-amp’s battery. b. Seat the thick end of the string in the bridge, lightly tighten the string with the tuning machine in the headstock, then stretch the string before fully tightening and tuning it. c. Set the equalization. d. Adjust the strap. 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 23. Example Which of the following is not a characteristic of a friggle in a state of grex? a. Hoomishness b. Blue rickles c. Excessive sninishness d. Lack of nongs 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 24. Example You are a Questionmark help desk technician. A customer calls to ask for advice about putting together an assessment. You demonstrate the assessment creation process in Questionmark Live. You discuss how to schedule an assessment. When the customer asks about using assessments in solving business problems, which video do you suggest? a. “Assessments Through the Learning Process” b. “Assessments Through the A-model” c. “Writing Good Assessment Items” d. “Engaging with Questionmark” 2013 Users Conference  BaltimoreCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 25. Increasing the cognitive level Use verbs to increase cognitive level Recall: define, list, identify Interpretation: differentiate, contrast, categorize, distinguish Problem Solving: formulate, value, rate, revise, evaluate HP item writing workshop started with an exercise to develop lists of verbs 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 26. Avoiding bias and stereotyping Bias: one group’s advantage over another group in responding correctly Use neutral terms (sales agent instead of salesman) Balanced representation of various groups in diverse roles Standard, formal English Be wary of condescending tone (differing abilities, low socioeconomic status, etc.) Avoid references to race, ethnicity, gender, age, etc. Avoid idioms and colloquialisms Avoid obscure language, ambiguous acronyms, etc. 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 27. Avoiding bias and stereotyping Stereotyping: way in which individuals and groups are depicted Include positive depictions of individuals in non-traditional roles Item review by diverse group of reviewers Present people with disabilities in active, capable and independent positions Avoid common racial/ethnic stereotyping Do not portray either sex as submissive or having inferior status Do not demean elderly by portraying as feeble, lonely or dependent 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 28. Linking Items to TCO Indicate content area to which item belongs for use when assembling form(s) Item writers may want to include notes to item reviewers  Explain the rationale behind an item  Explain why key is correct or distractor is plausible  This information can help explain why an item belongs to a certain content area 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 29. Creating the Test Form 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 30. Developing test directions Include:  Purpose of test  Amount of time allowed  Procedures for asking questions  Procedures for completing the test  Procedures for returning test materials Consider sample items to aid fairness  Test format unusual or unfamiliar  Reduces test anxiety Administrator directions help ensure consistency of test delivery  Read-along instructions  Handling / documenting irregularities  Monitoring responsibilities / methods  Hardware / software requirements & instructions 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 31. Complying with ADA Possible required accommodations  Accessible or alternate test site  Alternative test procedure  Different form of test (e.g., oral instead of written)  Compensation for impaired ability (e.g., extra time or larger print) English as a second language  Can’t require a skill to take the test that isn’t required by the job itself 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 32. Allocating sufficient time for the test Seat time includes time spent  Reading instructions  Reviewing sample items  Completing practice items  Completing demographic info  Taking breaks Pilot test best way to determine required time Time developers take x 3 if can’t pilot 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 33. Assembling the test form Select calculated number of items from pool by content area Avoid enemy items or overlap Provide alternate for each item in case test review reveals enemy item or overlap Test Assembly Form:Content Area # items Item # Keyword Alternate neededSoftware 1 0002 Formatting 0004HR 2 0006 Discipline 0008 0007 Compensation 0010Org Plan/Dev 1 0014 Planning 0015 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 34. Setting passing standards Angoff  Choose expert panel of SMEs  Define minimal competence  SMEs review items (or take test) and rate percentage of minimally competent employees would answer item correctly  Average ratings of all SMEs  Average the averages for cutscore May go through group review of ratings followed by second round of item rating May provide pilot results to SMEs for consideration prior to second round of item rating 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 35. Setting passing standards “Cutscores: A Manual for Setting Standards of Performance on Educational and Occupational Tests” by Zieky, Perie and Livingston 18 different methods for setting cutscores, including Angoff, Angoff Mean Estimation, and Angoff Yes or No methods Includes what to do leading up to, and after, cutscore exercise 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 36. Delivering the Test 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 37. Ensuring test security Paper & Pencil testing  Test booklets and answer sheets numbered  Test admins complete tracking forms Computer-Based testing  Questionmark Secure & ProctorU!  IDs & passwords 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 38. Limiting opportunities for cheating Authenticate examinee Testing rules and prohibited behaviors, e.g.,  No talking  No using notes  No cell phone use Testing carrels or minimum amount of space between examinees Test admin duties, e.g.,  Walk around room  Do not allow unauthorized personnel in room  Do not leave room CBTs in secure testing center, or use technology such as Questionmark Secure and ProctorU 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 39. Establishing test-retest policies Depend on basic purpose of test and if multiple forms exist May allow immediate retesting for incomplete test due to illness or emergency, especially if alternate forms exist High stakes test usually requires waiting period for retest to prevent going off to look up answers (unless multiple forms exist) CBT test-retest policy must deal with issues like system crashes 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 40. Controlling item exposure Require signed confidentiality agreement for everyone involved in item and test development Do not allow overly generous time limits which provide time for examinee to review and memorize items (CBTs can prevent going back and reviewing items) CBTs can use random item selection to reduce item exposure Number of times an item is used (P&P or CBT) must be tracked and monitored 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 41. Evaluating the Test 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 42. Using item-level data to improve item quality Recommend data from 100 examinees, but state that “data from any number of examinees is preferable to none.” Looking for:  Miskey – wrong answer flagged as correct  Double key – more than one correct answer  Guessing 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 43. Using item-level data to improve item quality Difficulty index: P value = % who answered correctly  Too high = too easy  Too low = too hard, confusing or misleading, problem with content or instruction Point-Biserial Correlation: how well item discriminated between those who did well on the exam and those who did not  Positive value = those who got the item correct also did well on the exam, and those who got the item wrong also did poorly on the exam  Negative value = those who did well on the test got the item wrong, those who did poorly on the test got the item right  +0.10 or above is typically required to keep an item 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 44. Using test-level data to improve test quality Reliability coefficient: range of 0 – 1.00 Acceptable value depends on consequences of testing error  If failing means having to take some training again, a lower value might be acceptable  If failing means the health and safety of coworkers might be in jeopardy, a high value is required Reliability Coefficient “r” Interpretation .90+ Excellent .80 - .89 Good .70 - .79 Adequate < .70 Limited applicability 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 45. Types of reliability Test – Retest: repeatability of test scores with the passage of time Alternate / Parallel Form: consistency of score across two or more forms by same test taker Inter-Rater: consistency of test score when rated by different raters 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 46. Types of reliability Internal Consistency: extent to which items on a test measure the same thing  Most common: Kuder Richardson-20 (KR-20) or Coefficient Alpha  Items must be single answer (right/wrong)  May be low if test measures several different, unrelated objectives  Low value can also indicate many very easy or hard items, poorly written items that do not discriminate well, or items that do not test the proper content 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 47. Types of reliability Mastery Classification Consistency  Criterion-referenced tests  Not affected by items measuring unrelated items  3 common measures:  Phi coefficient  Agreement coefficient  Kappa  Type of estimate calculated based on certain circumstances  More info: “Criterion-Referenced Test Development” by Shrock and Coscarelli 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 48. Documenting the test development and design process Document design process to establish content validity Show link between job and test items Increases defensibility of test and testing process 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 49. Communicating the test results Examinee typically receives pass/fail information and possibly score and/or feedback Management & trainers look at means and medians, possibly compare to established standards Statistics can also show  Competence of examinees  Effectiveness of training  Areas for future improvements of the test “Evaluation Basics” by McCain (ASTD Press), chapter 8 discusses communicating results 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 50. Addressing legal considerations Employment laws cover testing for hiring, promotion, demotion, membership, referral, retention, licensing/certification Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title I of Civil Rights Act of 1991 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Americans with Disability Act of 1990 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (1999) Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures (2003) Fair employment laws of states and municipalities 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 51. Questions? 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.