Assessment feedback- Assessment Feedback What Can We Learn from Psychology Research?

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Assessment feedback- Assessment Feedback What Can We Learn from Psychology Research?

  1. 1. Assessment Feedback What Can We Learn from Psychology Research? John Kleeman Questionmark Chairman 2013 Users Conference Baltimore | March 3rd – 6thCopyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmarkis a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  2. 2. Can assessment and feedback help reduce forgetting curve? 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 2 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  3. 3. How psychology gathers evidence Group A Group B Learn in Learn in one way another way Wait a Wait a period period Measure Is learning Measure learning improved? learning 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 3 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  4. 4. Summary of paper in Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Jan 2013) High utility • Practice testing • Distributed practice Moderate • Elaborative interrogation • Self-explanation utility • Interleaved practice • Summarization • Highlighting/underlining Low utility • • Keyword mnemonic Imagery for text • Re-reading 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 4 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  5. 5. Retrieval practice (practice testing) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 5 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  6. 6. Retrieval helps you learn  Francis Bacon, 1620 If you read anything over twenty times, you will not learn it by heart so easily as if you were to read it only ten, trying to repeat it between whiles, and when memory failed, looking at the book. 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 6 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  7. 7. Learning Receive Working Long term information memory memory 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 7 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  8. 8. Learning useful if can retrieve • Question  Research shows Cue • Other stimulus retrieval practice helps future retrieval • Retrieve from long term memory  Successful retrieval Search modifies memory making it more • Act or respond retrievable in future Act 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 8 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  9. 9. Roediger & Karpicke experiment 2006  120 students divided into groups randomly  Given reading comprehension passages used in TOEFL  Some students  Study for 14 mins  Some students  Study for 7 mins  Recall material for 7 mins  Compared results after 5 mins and 1 week 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 9 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  10. 10. How much learners retained 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Study 40% Study + Test 30% 20% 10% 0% After 5 mins After 1 week 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 10 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  11. 11. Karpicke & Blunt experiment 2011  80 students in 4 groups, studying a science text  Study  Repeated Study  Concept Mapping (mind maps)  Retrieval Practice  Surveyed learners on expectation of retention  Tested a week later to see how much retained 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 11 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  12. 12. How much learners retained Actual retention Learner expectation of 80% retention 70% 80% 70% 60% 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 12 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  13. 13. Larson experiment 2009 Quizzes reduce forgetting curve In real-life, not in the laboratory Medical residents (doctors in training) 20 doctors in each group Quiz group Restudy group Day 1 Study Study Day 1 Quiz Re-study 2 weeks later Quiz Re-study 2 weeks later Quiz Re-study 6 months later Final exam Final exam 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  14. 14. Part of the results Quiz group Re-study group 62% 48% 44% 36% 19% Initial Quiz Quiz 6 months 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 14 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  15. 15. Retrieval practice key findings #1  Retrieval practice helps retention of learning  Applies to facts  And also concepts  Retrieval practice includes  Recall  Formative quizzes/tests  Self-assessment  Explain or read back of material  We think we will remember better than we will  Advantage of formative quizzes/tests is that they force retrieval practice  And so encourage retention 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 15 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  16. 16. Retrieval practice key findings #2  Question types  Unprompted (short answer, fill-in-blanks) best  Multiple choice questions useful  Include feedback with multiple choice quizzes to avoid reinforcement of errors.  Timing of retrieval  Works best when spaced out  Strongest effect when retrieval is difficult  Repetition of retrieval  Research suggests 5-7 spaced repetitions helpful 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 16 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  17. 17. Computer quizzes are effective retrieval practice because …  Learners do not realize they will forget  Quizzes encourage/force retrieval practice  Quizzes give corrective feedback  And also:  Randomize so easy to repeat  Mobile devices  Accessible  Measure that practice has happened 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 17 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  18. 18. If you are a manager …  How easy is it for learners to take quizzes?  How easy is it for your instructors to quiz learners?  Could you make it easier? 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 18 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  19. 19. Distributing learning aids retentionDistributing / Spacing Massed 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  20. 20. Potential objections No time We teach creativity not facts How sure are you of the research? Our learners don’t like to be tested 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 20 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  21. 21. Your questions 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 21 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  22. 22. Feedback in Formative Assessments 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 22 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  23. 23. Where does feedback fit in? • Question Cue • Other stimulus • Retrieve from long term Search memory • Act or respond Act • Correct misconceptions Feedback • Re-encode 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 23 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  24. 24. Types of Assessment Feedback For direction For – what to Topics Being Assessment correction - Participant Answering Item Level Questions Feedback Assessed study next where was I wrong?For pass/fail – was I good Item Topic Level enough? Feedback Item Item Assessment Topic Level Level Feedback Feedback Item Item Topic Level Feedback Item…. 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  25. 25. Two key uses of item level feedback Build understanding Remediate forgetting  Early in learning a topic  Supplements retrieval  Corrects misconceptions practice  Elaborative and longer  Corrects errors feedback more helpful here  Short and to the point 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 25 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  26. 26. Simple feedback – remediate forgetting Name What it means Application No feedback No question or topic Typically in higher stakes feedback tests where content confidential Verification Told right or wrong for Doesn’t usually help question/topic, but not learning given correct answer Correct Response Told right or wrong for a Useful question. Given correct answer Try-Again or Repeat-Until- Told right or wrong for a Useful Correct question. Allowed to redo Error-flagging Shown errors but not given Can be useful correct solution 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 26 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  27. 27. Elaborated Feedback – includes a “why”, if done well, useful for building understanding Name What it means Example Attribute Isolation Feedback isolating key You chose C which is incorrect. All attributes of concepts being choices except A are connected by assessed following … so A is correct Topic-Specific Diagnosis or feedback on topic, Your responses indicate further study is can include where to learn needed on topic X. You can learn more more here … Response-Specific Feedback on question, You chose B which is incorrect. You can including why answer is right or learn why here … wrong Hints/Cues/ Provides guidance without Here is a demo of why your answer is Prompts giving correct answer incorrect Misconceptions Diagnoses misunderstanding by Your answer indicates that you are learner and explains why confusing concept X and Y, this error often relates to a lack of understanding of … 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 27 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  28. 28. Why item level feedback can be useful  Learner never learned the answer  Learner learned answer wrongly  Learner forgot the answer  Learner remembered incorrectly  Learner remembered concept but can’t apply  Learner has a misconception 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 28 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  29. 29. Fazio experiment 2010  Students: Improvement on second test  Study words or text 35% passages 30%  First test 25%  No feedback 20%  Right/wrong feedback 15%  Correct answer feedback 10%  (Review)  Second test 5% 0% No feedback Right or Correct  Chart from Table 1 in paper, averaging Change wrong answer across experiment 1 and 2 feedback feedback 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 29 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  30. 30. Pashler experiment 2005 Test One Initial learning with/without week Final test feedback  250 subjects  Foreign language words  Variables  No feedback  Feedback saying right/wrong  Feedback giving the correct answer  Correct answer feedback improves learning for answers that were wrong  No significant help if original answer was right 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 30 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  31. 31. Data from Roediger & Butler : The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2010. 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Study only Study, quiz without Study, quiz Study, quiz delayed feedback immediate feedback feedback 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 31 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  32. 32. Feedback tip #1 – give feedback in formative assessments  Students only know wrong if you tell them  Multiple choice questions can have mild negative impact for learning without feedback  Include correct answer  In most contexts, just telling people they are wrong doesn’t help learning  Feedback most useful on incorrect answers  Some value on correct answers, especially if learner guesses 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 32 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  33. 33. Feedback tip #2 – get people to pay attention Feedback only useful if learners pay attention Give feedback so that people will attend • Consider attention span • Vary feedback methods (e.g. graphics) • Review whether to give feedback on correct answers • Monitor effect of feedback Keep feedback simple, clear and not too long 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 33 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  34. 34. Feedback tip #3 – delay feedback if can  Slight delay on feedback is usually better than immediate feedback for retention  Probably due to spacing effect in learning  End of test / after each block feedback better than after each question feedback  Research not conclusive 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 34 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  35. 35. Feedback – tip #4 – get learners to retrieve first  Retrieval practice is a powerful aid to learning  Discourage peeking ahead to see feedback 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 35 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  36. 36. Useful motto: Effective and useful feedback requires: Motive • The learner needs it Opportunity • Have it in time to use it Means • Be able to use it 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 36 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  37. 37. Some perspectives from Scotland 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  38. 38. Professor David Nicol, University of Strathclyde (www.reap.ac.uk) Key direction – learner Interesting tie-in with 70+20+10 metacognition for employability  learners must learn to make evaluative judgements about own work  self-assess own work and appraise others work vs standards  develop learners who can monitor, evaluate & regulate own thinking/actions  in employment settings give feedback on thinking & actions of others 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  39. 39. Nicol’s seven principles of feedback 1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards) 2. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning 3. delivers high quality information to students about their learning 4. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning 5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem 6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance 7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 39 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  40. 40. Dr Steve Draper, University of Glasgow, Psychology Department “There is no point in giving feedback to a learner unless the learner acts on it: does something concrete and differently because of it.” 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 40 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  41. 41. Learners must PROCESS feedback for it to be useful Current State Search / Adjust Retrieval Evaluation Response 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 41 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  42. 42. Tactics to get learners to process  Have learners answer questions on feedback  Why is the score / feedback important for you?  What will you do differently?  How will you apply the feedback?  Perhaps a survey delivered after the test?  Or instructor questions to encourage reflection  How can you direct learning and action? 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 42 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  43. 43. A score is just a number  Help learners understand topic / assessment score  Ipsative (have they improved?)  Criterion referenced (how compare to benchmark)  Normative (how compare to others) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 43 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  44. 44. Learning Curve Purpose: • Content repetition • Memory retrieval practice • Strengthens memory recall Ouch! The Forgetting Curve Knowledge/Skills Experience Experience Questions Experience Questions Learning Learning Time Learning 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 44 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  45. 45. In the Actual World They Forget It! 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 45 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  46. 46. Slow the Forgetting Curve Purpose: • Memory retrieval practice • Strengthens memory recall • Reduce Forgetting Curve Knowledge/Skills Experience Experience Questions Experience Questions Questions Questions Learning Learning Time Learning 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 46 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  47. 47. Recommended reading - feedback  Valerie Shute  Will Thalheimer  ETS Research Report  Research report 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 47 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  48. 48. Papers cited – retrieval practiceWho Title Journal Date Description URLRoegiger & Test-Enhanced Learning Psychological 2006 Widely cited paper HereKarpicke Science showing benefits of testing vs studyingLarsen, Test-enhanced learning in Medical 2009 Shows experiment on HereButler & medical education. Education medical education andRoediger retrieval practiceJacoby, Test-Enhanced Learning of Journal of 2010 Retrieval practice also HereWahlheim & Natural Concepts: Effects on Experimental works in birdCoane Recognition Memory, Psychology classification Classification, and MetacognitionRoediger & The critical role of retrieval Trends in 2010 8 page review article on HereButler practice in long-term retention Cognitive retrieval and retention SciencesKarpicke & Retrieval Practice Produces More Science 2011 Clear paper comparing Select fromBlunt Learning than Elaborative Magazine retrieval with study and here (non- Studying with Concept Mapping mind maps commercial) 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  49. 49. Other papers citedWho Title Journal Date Description URLPashler, When Does Feedback Facilitate Journal of 2005 Experiment on how HereCepeda & Learning of Words? Experimental feedback improvesWixted Psychology learningFazio, Right/wrong feedback: Memory 2010 Research on correct HereHuelser, Consequences for learning answer vs right/wrongJohnson & feedbackMarshDraper What if feedback only counted E-Assessment 2012 More ideas on Here when it changed the learner? Scotland processing feedbackDunlovsky, Improving Students’ Learning Psychological 2013 Ten learning techniques HereRawson, With Science in the – which workMarsh, Effective Learning Techniques: Public InterestNathan & PromisingWillingham Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  50. 50. Your questions and feedback  Email me at john@questionmark.com or engage on Twitter at @johnkleeman 2013 Users Conference  Baltimore Copyright © 1995-2013 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved. QuestionmarkSlide 50 is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.

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