Russian Art and Music in the Twentieth Century
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Russian Art and Music in the Twentieth Century






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Russian Art and Music in the Twentieth Century Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Russian Music in the Twentieth Century
  • 2. Communist Perspective on the Arts
    • Art was supposed to be understood by and created for the whole nation, not just the well-educated.
    • Art and music were not forms of self expression.
    • Glorification of the state, reflection of Marxist ideals.
  • 3. Communist perspectives continued…
    • Socialist Realism – Connection between music and imagery of real life. Musical expression and emotional content.
    • Bourgeois Formalism – Anything which contradicts socialist realism.
  • 4.
    • “ Can the true artist stand aloof from life and confine his art within narrow bounds of subjective emotion? Or should he be where he is needed most, where his words, his music, his chisel can help the people live a better, finer life?” --Sergei Prokofiev
  • 5. Sergei Prokofiev
    • Born in 1891
    • Wrote his first piece at age 5.
    • Entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory at age 13.
    • Reputation as enfant terrible of Russian music.
    • Exempt from military service during WWI.
    • After 1917 Revolution, he considered moving to the United States.
    • 1918, he left Russia. Arrived in NYC in September. His performance of his music was met with criticism.
    • Better reception in Chicago.
    • Moved to Paris, where he lived for 10 years.
  • 6. Sergei Prokofiev continued…
    • Collaborated with Diaghilev, who produced Chout, a ballet.
    • Prokofiev travelled throughout Europe and the U.S.
    • Returned to Russia in 1934.
    • Honored by the Soviets on his return.
    • 1948 – Central Committee of the Communist Party accused Soviet composers of bourgeois formalism due to Western influences.
    • Seventh Symphony (1952) in response to criticism.
    • Died in 1953.
    • Suggestion Diabolique
  • 7. Dmitri Shostakovich
    • Born 1906 in St. Petersburg.
    • Relatives were involved in the Revolution.
    • Studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory.
    • First Symphony was written at age 19 as a graduation exercise.
  • 8. Dmitri Shostakovich cont…
    • Fifth Symphony (1937).
    • “ Creative reply of a Soviet artist to just criticism.”
    • 1940 – Piano Quintet awarded the Stalin Prize of 100,000 rubles.
    • Seventh or Leningrad Symphony (1941).
    • Ninth Symphony (1945)
    • Lady Macbeth of Mzensk (1934).
    • Hugely popular opera about a woman who kills her husband and father for her lover.
    • 1936 – editorial published in the Pravda criticizing the opera, the day after Stalin attended a performance.
  • 9. Dmitri Shostakovich cont…
    • Pravda attack on formalism of 1948.
    • Withheld the publication of some works.
    • Death of Stalin 1953.
    • Order of Lenin, 1956.
    • Died in Leningrad in 1975.
    • “ By studying my music you will find the whole truth about me as a man and as an artist.”
    • – Dmitri Shostakovich
    • Symphony 15 4th mvt
  • 10. Sergei Diaghilev
    • Born 1872.
    • Attended the St. Petersburg Conservatory.
    • Left Russia in 1901.
    • Based in Paris. Founded the Ballet Russe .
    • Condemned by the Soviet government.
    • Commissioned works by Debussy, Ravel, and Stravinsky.
    • Died in 1929.
  • 11. Igor Stravinsky
    • Born in 1882 near St. Petersburg.
    • Father was bass player with the Imperial Opera.
    • Studied law at the University of St. Petersburg.
    • Studied with Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov for three years.
  • 12. Igor Stravinsky cont…
    • Sergei Diaghilev commissioned him to write ballets for Ballet Russe.
    • The Firebird (1910)
    • Petrushka (1911)
    • The Rite of Spring (1913)
    • Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring).
    • Pagan ritual in which a young girl is chosen to dance herself to death.
    • Premiered in Paris.
    • Polytonality.
  • 13. Igor Stravinsky cont…
    • 1914 – took refuge in Switzerland with wife and children.
    • 1920 to 1939 – lived in France.
    • Moved to the United States during WWII.
    • Lived in California.
    • Became a U.S. citizen in 1945.
    • Died in 1971.
    • Rite of Spring
  • 14. Russian Art in the 20 th Century
  • 15. Introduction
    • Early 20 th century changed the face of the art by more creativity
    • Abstract or non-objective art-Kazmir Malevich's
    • The abstract art that has developed through different movements throughout the century-
      • Cubism, Cubo-futurism, rayonism, neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism
  • 16. Introduction Cont.
    • Due to the wars such as
      • Civil war
      • Communism
      • New economic policy
    • Many artists fled the country until the country was stable
    • Many as well remained in Russia and was protected by the “People’s Commissar of Education”.
    • Consequently, painting literature, and theater boomed not long after due to the artist freedom in their creativity
    • 1928, the support for the arts were no loner needed, due to Russia’s stability.
  • 17. Movements
    • Constructivism
    • Cubism
    • Cubo-futurism
    • Neo-primitivism
    • Rayonism
    • Suprematism
  • 18. Constructivism
    • This movement help establish abstract pieces in 20 th century
    • Created by a painter named Tatlin in 1915
    • After the revolution it was used by most painters.
    • This was a 3D piece that used paper glass, metal wood or any physical materials
    • Besides the arts affected different parts the culture
      • Architecture
      • Applied arts ex. Furniture, clothing, textile, books
      • Theatre ex stage setup and costumes
      • Film
  • 19. Tattling: Relive(constructivism)
  • 20. Cubanism
    • Non objective approach to painting Created by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque from France in 1906
    • Still uses the essence of construction however uses more geometric shapes
      • Cube
      • cylinder
      • sphere
    • Painters used the this movement to transform the 3D shapes into the canvas
    • It displayed the three different sides of the item through the different colors.
    • Lasted until the 1920’s
  • 21. POPOVA: Two figures (cubanism)
  • 22. (Cubo-Futurism)
    • Created in 1910, another concept of French cubanism, and Italian futurism,, and with a neo-primitivist in energetic colors and line
    • Many artist were attracted to the idea of this new movement
    • Mostly bold colors and lines
    • Fragments of the objects
    • Focused on movements
  • 23. MALEVICH: The knife-grinder (Cubo-Futursism )
  • 24. Neo-primitivism
    • Due to the folks arts of Africa, Austria and Oceania in Paris it developed in the West.
    • 1907-1912
    • More spontaneous
    • Icon painting
    • 1D paintings
    • Resembled children's paintings but the color and line defined the painting.
  • 25. LARIONOV: Soldier in the woods (Neo-primitivism)
  • 26. Rayonism
    • Only lasted 1 year, but very powerful to the whole world.
    • Created by Mikhail Larionov
    • “ crossing of reflected rays from various objects”
    • Color and line
  • 28. Supremacist
    • Developed by Kazmir Malevich 1913
    • More toward the modern abstract movement
    • Art over its objectivity using geometric forms such as square, triangle or square
    • Different arrangements where the lines can intersect on a canvas
  • 29. Supremacist
  • 30. Painters
    • Leon Bakst (1866-1924)
    • Aleksandr Benois (1870-1960)
    • Mark Zakharovich Shagal (1887-1985)
    • Natal'ia Sergeevna Goncharova (1881-1962)
    • Vasilii Kandinskii (1866-1944)
    • Mikhail Fiodorovich Larionov (1881-1964)
    • Liubov' Sergeevna Popova (1889-1924)
  • 31. Great Russian singers of the beginning of the 20th century
  • 32. Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin (1873 - 1938)
    • Well-known great Russian opera singer-bass and a drama actor.
    • Had voice of unique flexibility, timbre, richness and beauty.
    • Worldwide fame was brought to him by his performing the major part in Musorgsky's opera Boris Godunov.
    • Among the songs performed by him especially popular were the Russian folk song “Hey, uhnem!” ( ) and “The Song about a flea” by Musorgsky.
    • Left Russia in 1922 and settled down in Paris.
  • 33. Sergey Lemeshe v (1902 - 1977) Ivan Kozlovsky (1900 - 1993)
    • Had high lyrical tenor.
    • Were the main tenors in Bolshoy.
    • Russian artistes of the old school.
  • 34. Peter Leshchenko (1898 - 1954)
    • Having comprehended all the secrets of gramophone recording made a great number of superb recordings.
    • Did not have proper voice qualities to perform on stage but his singing on phonograph records is considered one of the best.
    • In March 1951 Leshchenko was arrested for some careless words about the Soviet establishment...
    • D ied in prison.
  • 35. Vadim Kozin (1903-1994)
    • The legend of Russian romance.
    • In the Teheran conference he performed for Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt …
    • His repertoire consists of about three thousand works. And all of his songs went through thorough selection; if a song met no response with the public he never sang it again afterwards.
    • Underwent two imprisonments in the times of repressions.
  • 36. Claudia Shulzhenko (1906-1984)
    • A superstar of the domestic variety stage of the 20th century.
    • She was neither a brilliant beauty nor a possessor of an exclusive voice.
    • Preferred to execute mischievous, cheerful and lyrical songs about love, kind people and simple pleasures of life -songs not burdened with ideology.
    • The simple lyrical waltz “Dark blue kerchief”, ( ) sung by her in the first months of war, unexpectedly became something like a front hymn alongside with the glorified song Katyusha.
  • 37. Leonid Utesov (1895 - 1982)
    • Having listened to foreign the jazz-bands, Utesov decided to create an original orchestra, distinct from the western ones.
    • The synthesis of theatre, jazz and song in Utesov's creativity was a real break through.
    • Musical critics often accused Utesov of the absence of a real singer’s voice. However, his voice is remembered by people of three generations.
  • 38. Mark Bernes (1911-1969)
    • A well-known Soviet cinema actor. But he was also widely known as the singer of songs by Soviet composers on a variety stage, radio and TV.
    • Bernes’s voice did not contain any qualities of a virtuoso data.
    • All in all he performed over a hundred songs, which have entered the golden fund of domestic art.
  • 39. Who is it?
    • Shalapin
    • Lemehsev
    • Kozlivskiy
    • Utesov
    • Bernes
  • 40. Works Cited
    • Introduction to Contemporary Music
    • by Joseph Machlis
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Music Online :
    • Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky,
    • Sergei Prokofiev.
  • 41. Works cited