Social media chapter three


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Social media chapter three

  1. 1.   Social  Media:  The  Revolution  Will  Be  Socialized   by   Andrew  Pearson         Overview   Although   it   is   one   of   today’s   buzzwords,   “Social   Media”   is   a   generic   term   that   refers   to   websites   that   allow   one   or   more   of   the   following   services:   social   networking,   content   management,   social   bookmarking,   blogging   and   micro-­‐blogging,   live   video-­‐casting   and   access   into   virtual   worlds.   Social   Media—the   technology   as   we   know   it   today—has   its   roots   in   Usenet,   a   worldwide   discussion   system   that  allowed  users  to  post  public  messages  to  it  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  60,  2010).     Usenet   was   created   by   Tom   Truscott   and   Jim   Ellis   at   Duke   University   in   1979   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   60,   2010)   and   it   is   still   in   use   today.   According   to   its   website,   Usenet   is   “a   world-­‐wide   distributed   discussion   system.   It   consists   of   a   set   of   ‘newsgroups’   with   names   that   are   classified   hierarchically   by   subject.   ‘Articles’   or   ‘messages’   are   ‘posted’   to   these   newsgroups   by   people   on   computers   with   the   appropriate   software—these   articles   are   then   broadcast   to   other   interconnected   computer  systems  via  a  wide  variety  of  networks.”[1]  Obviously,  1979  was  a  long  time  ago,  it  was  long   before   what   most   people   would   consider   the   true   era   of   social   media,  which   began   with   the   creation   of   “Open   Diary”,   an   early   social   networking   site   that   brought   online   diary   writers   together   into   one   community”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  60,  2010).     In   their   influential   article   Users   of   the   world,   unite!   The   challenges   and   opportunities   of   Social   Media,  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  60,  2010)  explain  that  a  formal  definition  of  social  media  first  requires   an   understanding   of   two   related   concepts   that   are   often   referred   to   when   describing   it:   Web   2.0   and   User  Generated  Content.  As  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  60,  2010)  see  it:   Web   2.0   is   a   term   that   was   first   used   in   2004   to   describe   a   new   way   in   which   software   developers  and  end-­‐users  started  to  utilize  the  World  Wide  Web;  that  is,  as  a  platform  whereby   content   and   applications   are   no   longer   created   and   published   by   individuals,   but   instead   are   continuously  modified  by  all  users  in  a  participatory  and  collaborative  fashion.  While  applications   such  as  personal  web  pages,  Encyclopedia  Britannica  Online,  and  the  idea  of  content  publishing   belong  to  the  era  of  Web  1.0,  they  are  replaced  by  blogs,  wikis,  and  collaborative  projects  in  Web   2.0.  Although  Web  2.0  does  not  refer  to  any  specific  technical  update  of  the  World  Wide  Web,   there  is  a  set  of  basic  functionalities  that  are  necessary  for  its  functioning.     The  “basic  functionalities”  that  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  61,  2010)  refer  to  are;  Adobe  Flash,  the   popular   animation   tool,   interactivity,   and   web   streaming   audio/video   program,   Really   Simple   Syndication  (RSS),  a  family  of  web  feed  formats  used  to  publish  frequently  updated  works—such  as  blog   entries  or  news  headlines,  as  well  as  audio  and  video—in  a  standardized  format;  and  Asynchronous  Java   Scrip   (AJAX),   a   group   of   web   development   methods   that   can   retrieve   data   from   web   servers   Page  1  of  51  
  2. 2. asynchronously,  allowing  the  update  of  one  source  of  web  content  without  interfering  with  the  display   and  behavior  an  entire  page.     For   Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   61,   2010),   Web   2.0   represents   the   ideological   and   technological   foundation,   while   “User   Generated   Content   (UGC)   can   be   seen   as   the   sum   of   all   the   ways   in   which   people  make  use  of  social  media.  The  term,  which  achieved  broad  popularity  in  2005,  is  usually  applied   to  describe  the  various  forms  of  media  content  that  are  publicly  available  and  created  by  end-­‐users.”       The  Four  Steps  of  Social  Media   When  a  company  is  first  delving  into  social  media,  Eley  &  Tiley's  (pg.  85,  2009)  state  that  there  are  four   steps  of  social  media  that  should  be  followed—listen,  join,  participate  and  create—and  these  steps  must   be  strictly  followed  in  that  order.   Listening  is  the  most  important  step.  People  online  are  frequently  mentioning  and  commenting   on  a  company  and  its  products,  so  all  you  have  to  do  is  listen.  Even  if  you  do  not  choose  to  participate  in   the   discussion   yourself,   you   will   discover   valuable   information   about   your   company   or   even   about   yourself  if  you  are  an  artist  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009).  Instead  of  doing  expensive  surveys,  focus  groups   or   other   experiments,   the   best   information   is   often   found   right   there   in   front   of   you   for   free   (Eley   &   Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009).  You  will  find  out  what  your  customers  think  of  you  and  what  they  are  looking  for  as   well   as   the   problems   and   frustrations   they   have   about   dealing   with   you   and/or   your   business.   Most   importantly,  you  will  get  the  inside  scoop  of  what  is  actually  important  to  your  target  audience  (Eley  &   Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009),  whether  that  audience  is  a  retailer’s  customer  base,  a  band’s  rabid  fans,  an  airline’s   frequent  flyer  members  or  one  of  a  million  other  business  users.   Listening  can  be  useful  in  the  following  ways:   • • • • • Monitor  for  buying  indication  terms  and  reply  with  helpful  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Listen  for  recommendation  requests  and  share  helpful  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Listen  for  discussions  of  your  product  or  category  and  provide  web  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Share  relevant  web  content  with  prospects  (Nelson,  2013).   Discover  relevant  blogs  and  ask  for  backlinks  (Nelson,  2013).   Once  you  understand  the  community  and  what  it  is  all  about,  it  is  time  to  join  a  social  network.   Many  networks  require  that  you  have  an  account  on  their  site  to  participate  in  the  discussions  and  you   should  sign  up  as  it  is  always  better  to  have  an  account  even  if  you  are  not  required  to  have  one  because   you  always  want  to  claim  your  brand  and/or  company  name  to  gain  credibility.     You  should  always  join  communities  where  you  are  most  likely  to  find  your  customers  (Eley  &   Tilley,   pg.   86,   2009).   If   you   start   out   by   listening,   you   will   know   where   your   customers   tend   to   congregate   online.   Facebook,   MySpace,   LinkedIn,   YouTube,   Flickr,   Delicious,   Digg   and   Twitter   are   big   networks  which  should  be  on  your  radar  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  87,  2009).  I  mention  many,  many  other  Social   Media   sites   throughout   this   chapter   and   the   companion   website   to   this   article–­‐media-­‐—also   includes   a   searchable   database   of   over   600   social   media   websites   that   I   constantly  update.  Many  of  these  sites  can  be  used  to  listen  to  your  audience  or  to  start  a  discussion.   Many  are  niche  websites  where  business  can  discover  very  selective  audiences.     Page  2  of  51  
  3. 3. Businesses  should  set  up  accounts  at  all  the  major  social  networking  sites  and  link  back  to  their   website(s)  (Nelson,  2013)  as  well  as  link  content  and  similar  keywords  throughout  their  social  channels   (Nelson,  2013).   Once   the   discussion   has   been   initiated,   then   it   is   time   to   participate   in   the   community.   Participating  includes  replying  and  posting  to  online  forums  and  blogs,  reviewing  products  and  services   and   bookmarking   sites   that   you   like   or   find   interesting   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).   By   participating,   you   will   build   your   online   brand   and   people   will   start   to   respect   you   as   a   valuable   contributor   to   the   community   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).   When   respected,   others   will   help   to   promote   you   and,   possibly,   your  company  without  even  being  asked  to  do  so,  which,  as  most  marketers  will  tell  you,  is  one  of  the   best   forms   of   marketing   around.   Not   only   is   word-­‐of-­‐mouth   marketing   one   of   the   most   trusted   forms   of   marketing   around,   but   it   can   help   spread   the   word   about   a   brand   virally.   Two   words   of   warning,   however;   your   role   models   should   always   be   very   experienced   and   remain   very   active   users   in   the   community;   and,   most   of   all,   remember   that   it   is   never   okay   to   spam   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).     Participation  can  be  fostered  in  the  following  ways:   • • • • • • • • • Ask  readers  to  sign  up  for  an  RSS  feed  (Nelson,  2013).   Answer  all  questions  and  share  peer  referrals  (Nelson,  2013).   Feature  community  members  on  your  site  (Nelson,  2013).     Share  customer  stories  (Nelson,  2013).     Ask  influencers  to  share  your  web  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Interview  an  influencer  for  web  content  (Nelson,  2013).   Have  an  influencer  guest  blog  (Nelson,  2013).   Help  an  influencer  write  content  about  your  brand  (Nelson,  2013).   Share  products  with  influencers  for  feedback  and  web  content  (Nelson,  2013).   Finally,  it  is  time  to  create.  Once  you  have  built  yourself  an  online  brand  by  listening,  joining  and   participating,   it   is   time   to   create   your   own   content   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   89,   2009).   You   will   now   have   an   audience  to  share  your  content  with  and  this  audience  will  help  you  spread  your  content  far  and  wide.  It   should  be  noted  that  you  have  to  create  value;  ads  are  not  generally  seen  as  valuable  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.   89,  2009).  Posting  “buy  my  stuff”  on  twitter  will  fail  to  achieve  the  results  you  want,  and  this  practice   may   even   get   you   banned   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   89,   2009).   By   making   beneficial   contributions   to   the   community,  people  will  notice  you  and  want  to  know  more  about  your  company  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  89,   2009).  If  you  have  listened  properly,  you  should  have  a  solid  idea  of  the  type  of  content  people  would   like  to  see  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  89,  2009).  Then,  simply,  give  it  to  them.  You  can  be  creative  in  the  following   ways:   • • • • • Divide  a  piece  of  content  into  multiple  Slideshare  presentations  that  link  to  your  site  (Nelson,   2013).   Start  a  LinkedIn  group  (Nelson,  2013).   Tie  content  together  so  an  ebook  links  to  a  relevant  blog  post,  which,  in  turn,  links  to  a  topical   webinar  (Nelson,  2013).   Build  a  forum  or  community  section  on  your  website  (Nelson,  2013).   Create  referral  programs  (Nelson,  2013).     Page  3  of  51  
  4. 4. Six  Types  of  Social  Media   According   to   their   influential   article   Users   of   the   world,   unite!   The   challenges   and   opportunities   of   Social   Media,  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (2010)  break  Social  Media  down  into  the  following  six  different  types:     • • • • • • Collaborative  projects   Blogs  and  micro-­‐blogs   Content  communities     Social  networking  sites   Virtual  game  worlds   Virtual  social  worlds   Throughout   the   rest   of   this   chapter,   I   will   break   down   each   of   these   types   of   social   media   individually   as   well   as   explain   how   a   business   and/or   an   individual   can   use   them   on   their   own   or,   preferably,  combined  together.           Collaborative  Projects   Probably   the   most   democratic   form   of   all   UGC,   collaborative   projects   enable   the   joint   and   simultaneous   creation  of  content  by  many  end-­‐users  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  62,  2010).  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  62,   2010)  believe  collaborative  projects  can  be  split  into  two  different  categories:   • • Wikis–these  are  websites  that  allow  users  to  add,  remove,  and  change  text-­‐based  content;  and     Social  bookmarking  applications—these  enable  the  group-­‐based  collection  and  rating  of  Internet   links  or  media  content.     The   main   idea   behind   collaborative   projects   is   that   joint   efforts   can   lead   to   a   better   outcome   than   individual   action   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   62,   2010).   Examples   of   collaborative   projects   include   the   web-­‐based   encyclopedia   Wikipedia   and   social   bookmarking   sites   such   as   Delicious   and   Stumbleupon.     Social   bookmarking   is   both   the   method   of   storing   and   managing   Web   page   bookmarks   with   individually   chosen   keywords   as   well   as   the   sharing   of   this   information   with   others.   At   social   bookmarking   sites,   users   can   tag,   save,   manage   and   share   Websites   with   their   friends   and   their   connections.  Users  can  add  descriptions  in  the  form  of  metadata  and  these  descriptions  can  be  anything   from  free  text  comments,  favorable  or  unfavorable  votes,  or  tags  that  collectively  form  a  social  thread  of   information.  This  kind  of  thread  is  also  known  as  a  folksonomy—“the  process  by  which  many  users  add   metadata  in  the  form  of  keywords  to  shared  content”  (Golder  and  Huberman,  2006).     In   his   article   How   to   Use   Social   Bookmarking   for   Business,   Lou   Dubois   (2010)   explains   that   “Social   bookmarking,   at   its   most   basic   form,   is   a   simple   way   to   organize   all   of   the   best   content   from   around  the  web  based  off  your  interests,  all  in  one  place.”  It  is  a  handy  way  to  “sort  the  relevant  from   the  irrelevant,  according  to  their  interests  and  the  value  of  the  information  provided.  And  perhaps  most   importantly,  the  bookmarks  are  transferable  between  computers  and  locations”  (Dubois,  2010).   Founded  in  2003,  Delicious  (then  known  as  coined  the  term  social  bookmarking  and   pioneered  the  concept  of  tagging  (Mathes,  2004).  The  following  year,  similar  sites  such  as  Furl,  Simpy,   Page  4  of  51  
  5. 5. Citeulike   and   Connotea   came   online.   Stumbleupon   also   appeared   around   the   same   time.   There   are   now   countless  other  sites  and  I  have  included  a  list  of  over  40  of  the  most  popular  ones  later  in  this  chapter.     Why  are  these  sites  so  important  and  powerful?  Well,  in  his  book  The  Wisdom  of  Crowds  (2004),   James  Surowiecki  argues  that  the  collective  opinion  of  a  large,  diverse  and  independent  group  of  people   produces   more   accurate   information   than   the   judgment   of   a   single   expert.   According   to   Surowiecki   (2004),   groups   can   excel   even   when   individuals   fail.   “Under   the   right   circumstances,   groups   are   remarkably  intelligent,  and  are  often  smarter  than  the  smartest  people  in  them.”       Using  the  highly  successful  search  engine  Google  as  an  example,  Surowiecki  (2004)  shows  that   Google's   underlying   technology   is   based   on   the   wisdom   of   the   crowd   and   that   the   system   works   so   well   because   it   uses   the   collective   voice—or   votes—of   millions   of   people   to   deliver   its   search   results   (Surowiecki,  2004).  Few  would  argue  that  they  are  incredibly  accurate  and  have  made  Google  the  go-­‐to   search  Internet  destination.     To   augment   his   somewhat   counter-­‐intuitive   argument,   Surowiecki   states   that   for   a   crowd   opinion  to  be  considered  wiser  than  the  judgment  of  an  expert,  three  requirements  must  be  in  place;   the   crowd   must   be   diverse;   the   crowd   members   must   be   independent;   and   the   crowd   must   be   decentralized   (Surowiecki,   2004).   Because   of   the   vast,   decentralized   and   independent   nature   of   the   Internet,   Kaplan   and   Haenlein's   (2010)   “collaborative   projects”   easily   fulfill   all   three   of   Surowiecki's   requirements  (Surowiecki,  2004).     Compared   to   search   engines   and   traditional   automated   resource   location   and   classification   software,  social  bookmarking  systems  are  advantageous  because  the  tag-­‐based  classification  is  done  by   a   human   being,   who   usually   understands   the   content   and   context   of   a   resource   better   than   any   algorithm-­‐based   computer   program.   Human   beings   are   also   adept   at   finding   and   bookmarking   Web   pages  that  often  go  unnoticed  by  web  spiders  (Heymann,  Koutrika,  Garcia-­‐Molina,  2008).  In  addition,  a   user   will   probably   find   a   system   that   ranks   a   resource   based   on   how   many   times   it   has   been   bookmarked   by   other   users   more   valuable   than   a   system   that   simply   ranks   resources   based   on   the   number  of  external  links  pointing  to  it.   For   the   promotion   of   a   business,   social   bookmarking   is   important   because   it   helps   a   compnay   Website  get  quality  backlinks.  When  a  Website  is  submitted  for  ranking  by  a  search  engine,  the  search   engine  considers  the  quality  of  the  backlinks,  i.e.,  the  quality  of  the  sites  linking  back  to  it.  This  means   that  if  you  bookmark  popular  sites,  the  search  engine  spiders  will  automatically  follow  the  links  back  to   your  site.     Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   62,   2010)   argue   that,   “From   a   corporate   perspective,   firms   must   be   aware   that   collaborative   projects   are   trending   toward   becoming   the   main   source   of   information   for   many   consumers.   As   such,   although   not   everything   written   on   Wikipedia   may   actually   be   true,   it   is   believed   to   be   true   by   more   and   more   Internet   users.”   This   can   have   particularly   damaging   repercussions  during  a  corporate  crisis  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  62,  2010).       Collaborative  projects  can  also  be  used  to  increase  productivity,  for  example,  the  Finnish  mobile   manufacturer   Nokia   “uses   internal   wikis   to   update   employees   on   project   status   and   to   trade   ideas,   which  are  used  by  about  20%  of  its  68,000  staff  members”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).  Also,  the   Page  5  of  51  
  6. 6. U.S.   application   software   company   Adobe   Systems   “maintains   a   list   of   bookmarks   to   company-­‐related   websites  and  conversations  on  Delicious”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).     Dubois  (2010)  explains  that  “From  an  individual  consumption  perspective  for  Internet  readers,   social  bookmarking  can  make  great  sense  to  filter  your  news  and  information  all  into  one  place.”  But  it   also  makes  great  sense  for  businesses  to  utilize  these  tools  as  they  can  increase  Website  traffic  and  grow   brand  recognition  by  curating  information  and  disseminating  client  testimonials  (Dubois,  2010).   Throughout   the   business   world,   content   curators   are   “considered   the   gatekeepers   to   information   for   businesses   and   individuals.   As   a   company,   curating,   or   aggregating   the   best   content   from   around   the   web,   can   make   you   an   industry   leader”   (Dubois,   2010).   For   companies   you   already   work  with,  showing  that  you  are  on  top  of  industry  news  gives  you  a  vaunted  level  of  credibility  (Dubois,   2010).  “Similarly,  if  you  think  of  it  from  the  perspective  of  businesses  who  you  don't  already  do  business   with,  you're  going  to  be  seen  as  a  resource  for  information”  (Dubois,  2010),  which  should  give  you  an   immediate  leg  up  on  your  competition.   Another   way   to   utilize   these   tools   is   by   pulling   together   all   of   your   company’s   best   customer   testimonials   in   a   social   bookmark.   Just   about   every   business   gets   questions   about   its   client   list   and   testimonials   from   its   potential   business   partners.   When   asked   the   question:   "What   have   others   said   about  your  work?",  wouldn’t  it  be  better  to  direct  potential  clients  to  a  site  that  has  all  of  the  company’s   testimonials   in   one   place,   in   a   simple   format   rather   than   sending   them   to   a   Yelp   page,   argues   Dubois   (2010).   Dubois  (2010)  explains  that,  "For  individual  projects  and  campaigns,  the  creation  of  folders  and   tags  within  social  bookmarking  sites  can  make  it  very  easy  to  track  success.  If  you've  recently  launched  a   campaign   and   want   to   see   what   stories,   blog   posts,   Twitter   notes   and   more   have   been   written   about   it,   you  can  very  easily  refer  to  your  social  bookmarks,  where  again  all  of  the  information  is  gathered  in  one   place".  Dubois  (2010)  recommends  the  following  steps:   • • • • • Create  accounts  on  the  sites  you  want  to  be  on.  Fill  out  a  complete  profile  about  you  and  your   company  and  add  a  link  back  to  your  webpage.   Add  the  social  bookmarking  tools  and  buttons  to  your  website  and/or  blog  so  users  can  utilize   them  within  your  community.   Create  lists  and  categories  to  arrange  specific  information  in  neat,  searchable  silos.   Submit  URL  links  to  the  bookmarking  site  and  write  reviews,  rate  other  stories,  etc.,  etc.   Network  with  other  community  members  who  share  similar  interests.   Social   bookmarking   isn’t   as   intuitive   a   process   as   blogging   or   social   networking   on   sites   like   Facebook  or  Twitter,  but  it  is  a  very  valuable  tool  in  its  own  right  and  it  should  be  one  part  of  a  social   media  marketing  plan.     List  of  Collaborative  Projects  Websites   As  the  Collaborative  Projects  landscape  changes  on  a  daily  basis,  it  is  impossible  to  list  all  of  the  available   Websites,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   A1  Webmarks   ABOUT   A1-­‐Webmarks  is  a  free  service  that  combines  the  convenience   of   a   personal   webmark   server   with   the   power   of   social   Page  6  of  51   WEBSITE      a1-­‐  
  7. 7. Blinklist   Blurpalicious   Bookmarky   Delicious   Digg   Diigo   Folkd   Google  Bookmarks   Gravee    ikeepbookmarks   Jeteye   Jumptags   webmarking.   BlinkList   is   a   powerful   productivity   tool   that   makes   is   much   easier   for   anyone   to   share   and   save   their   links   for   later.   With   BlinkList   you   can   save   a   local   copy   of   any   web   page   on   your   computer.  We  give  you  a  website  so  that  you  can  easily  access   all  of  the  links  that  you  saved  from  any  computer.   Social  bookmarking  made  simple.   The  hottest  tags  and  bookmarks  in  one  easy  serving.   Keep,  share,  and  discover  the  best  of  the  Web  using  Delicious,   the  world's  leading  social  bookmarking  service.   Digg  delivers  the  most  interesting  and  talked  about  stories  on   the  Internet  right  now.  The  Internet  is  full  of  great  stories,  and   Digg   helps   you   find,   read,   and   share   the   very   best   ones.   It’s   simple   and   it’s   everywhere:   visit   Digg   on   the   web,   find   it   on   your   iPhone,   or   get   the   best   of   Digg   delivered   to   your   inbox   with  The  Daily  Digg.     If  you  browse  or  read  a  lot  on  the  web,  we  believe  you  will  find   Diigo   indispensable.   Diigo   is   two   services   in   one   -­‐-­‐   it   is   a   research  and  collaborative  research  tool  on  the  one  hand,  and   a  knowledge-­‐sharing  community  and  social  content  site  on  the   other.   Using   social   bookmarks   with   will   enrich   your   web-­‐   surfing   experience.   We   provide   a   simple   website   and   easy   to   use   browser   buttons   which   allow   you   to:   Save   your   favourite   links   and   bookmarks   online   and   access   them   from   anywhere   at   any  time.   Save   time   with   quick   links   to   your   favorite   websites.   Use   Google’s  Web  History  to  find  the  sites  you  visit  frequently  and   bookmark   your   favorites.   Use   the   Google   Toolbar   for   quick   access  to  your  bookmarks  and  to  easily  create  more.  Get  your   bookmarks   on   any   computer.   No   matter   where   you   may   be   surfing   the   web,   your   bookmarks   can   stay   with   you   just   by   signing   in.   Keep   your   bookmarks   organized.   Add   searchable   labels   and   notes   to   your   bookmarks   to   find   them   easily   and   keep  them  organized.   Gravee   takes   three   of   the   most   useful   applications   on   the   Web   and   combines   them   together   in   one   experience   –   search,   recommendations,   and   social   networking   &   sharing.   This   creates   a   rich   social   search   and   recommendation   engine   that   personalizes  results  based  on  your  interests,  as  well  as  those  of   your  friends  (and  other  people  like  you  whom  you  don't  even   know).   allows   you   to   upload,   and   keep,   your   bookmarks   on   the   web   for   free.   You   can   access   them   at   any   time,  from  any  computer...  anywhere!   Jeteye  was  created  to  address  the  difficulty  of  keeping  track  of   good   information   and   resources   that   you   find   online.   The   Jeteye   community   is   a   public   library   where   people   can   freely   use  Jeteye  tools  to  create  and  share  Jetpaks™.   is   a   revolutionary   Web   2.0   social   bookmarking   web  service  for  collecting,  storing,  sharing  and  distributing  web   bookmarks,   notes,   rss   feeds,   contacts,   and   much   more.   Based   Page  7  of  51  
  8. 8. Linkroll   Linksgutter   Mister  Wong   Mylinkvault   Netvouz   Oyax   Plime   Reddit   Squidoo   Startaid   Stumbleupon   Trendhunter   on   AJAX   and   other   next   generation   web   development   techniques,   offers   the   easiest,   fastest,   most   intuitive   and   productive   way   of   maintaining   and   collaborating   bookmarks  and  other  internet  resources  online.   Linkroll   is   a   free   link   blogging   service.   At   a   personal   level   you   can   bookmark,   categorize   and   comment   on   all   the   great   web   pages/links  you  find.     A  complete  free  social  bookmarking  site.   Mister  Wong  is  a  leading  social  bookmarking  service  with  over   1  million  users  globally.   online  links  made  easy  -­‐  store  your  links  online.   Netvouz  is  a  social  bookmarking  service  that  allows  you  to  save   your  favorite  links  online  and  access  them  from  any  computer,   wherever  you  are.  Organize  your  bookmarks  in  folders  and  tag   each  bookmark  with  keywords.   Oyax   is   a   social   bookmark   manager.   It   allows   you   to   add   web   sites  to  your  personal  collection  of  links,  categorize  those  sites   with   tags   and   share   your   collection   not   only   with   your   own   browsers  and  machine,  but  also  with  other  people.   Plime  is  an  editable  wiki  community  where  users  can  add  and   edit  weird  and  interesting  links.   Reddit   is   a   social   news   and   entertainment   website   where   registered  users  submit  content  in  the  form  of  either  a  link  or  a   text.   Other   users   then   vote   the   submission   “up”   or   “down”,   which   is   used   to   rank   the   post   and   determine   its   position   on   the  site’s  pages  and  front  page.  Content  entries  are  organized   by  areas  of  interest  called  “subreddits”.   Squidoo  is  the  popular  publishing  platform  and  community  that   makes   it   easy   for   you   to   create   "lenses"   online.   Lenses   are   pages,  kind  of  like  flyers  or  signposts  or  overview  articles  that   gather   everything   you   know   about   your   topic   of   interest-­‐-­‐and   snap   it   all   into   focus.   Like   the   lens   of   a   camera,   your   perspective  on  something.  (You're  looking  at  a  lens  right  now).   StartAid   is   a   Social   Bookmarking   site.   Startaid   give   you   the   ability   to   make   a   custom   homepage   where   you   can   have   all   your   Bookmarks   at   your   fingertips.   With   Startaid   you   can   you   Category  and/or  Tag  filing  systems.   StumbleUpon  helps  you  discover  and  share  great  websites.  As   you   click   Stumble!,   we   deliver   high-­‐quality   pages   matched   to   your   personal   preferences.   These   pages   have   been   explicitly   recommended  by  your  friends  or  one  of  over  15  million  other   websurfers  with  interests  similar  to  you.  Rating  these  sites  you   like   automatically   shares   them   with   like-­‐minded   people   –   and   helps  you  discover  great  sites  your  friends  recommend.   With   35,000,000   monthly   views,   is   the   world's  largest,  most  popular  trend  community.  Trend  Hunter,   Trend  Hunter  TV  and  Trend  Hunter  PRO  feature  112,000  micro-­‐ trends  and  cutting  edge  ideas.  Routinely  sourced  by  the  media,   Trend   Hunter   is   a   source   of   inspiration   for   industry   professionals,   aspiring   entrepreneurs   and   the   insatiably   curious.     VisualizeUs  is  a  social  bookmarking  website  for  visual  contents   Page  8  of  51   mister-­‐  
  9. 9. Xmarks   Zootool   —  VisualizeUs  (read  visualize  us)  allows  you  to  remember  your   favorite   images   from   all   over   the   web,   and   share   them   with   everyone.   Xmarks   was   founded   in   2006   under   our   original   name   Foxmarks.   Our   bookmark   sync   browser   add-­‐on   is   one   of   the   most  popular  in  the  world  with  over  twenty  million  downloads   and   counting.   Our   products   are   actively   used   in   over   four   million  browsers  and  we  manage  over  a  billion  bookmarks  for   our  users.   Zootool   is   about   collecting,   organizing   and   sharing   your   favorite  images,  videos,  documents  and  links  from  all  over  the   internet.   Driven   by   a   passion   for   design,   web,   code   and   all   kind   of   nerdery,   we   are   working   hard   to   build   the   most   awesome   bookmark  tool  for  geeks  like  us  and  people  who  love  the  web.       Chinese  collaborative  projects  include  Baidu  bookmarks,  QQ  Bookmarks,  Sina  viv,  Hudong,  Soso   baike,  Baidu  baiki  and  MBAlib.       Blogs   In  2005,  Merriam-­‐Webster  added  the  word  “blog”  to  its  dictionary,  calling  it,  “a  web  site  that  contains   an  online  personal  journal  with  reflections,  comments,  and  often  hyperlinks  provided  by  the  writer.”  The   Website  Webopedia  defines  a  blog  as,  “a  web  page  that  serves  as  a  publicly  accessible  personal  journal   for   an   individual.”   The   term   originated   from   the   word   “weblog”,   which   was   coined   by   Jorn   Barger   on   17   December   1997   when   he   used   it   to   describe   the   list   of   links   on   his   Robot   Wisdom   website   that   “logged”   his  internet  wanderings  (Wortham,  2007).     In  April  or  May  of  1999,  Peter  Merholz  broke  the  word  weblog  into  the  two  words  “we  blog”  in   the   sidebar   of   his   blog   (The   Economist,   2006).   The   term   “blog”   was   picked   up   by   Evan   Williams   at   Pyra   Labs   who   used   “blog”   as   a   noun   and   a   verb   to   mean   “to   edit   one's   weblog   or   to   post   to   one's  weblog”  and  created  the  term  “blogger”  for  Pyra  Labs'  Blogger  product,  which  led  to  the  term's   worldwide  popularity  (Baker,  2008).     Representing   the   earliest   form   of   Social   Media,   blogs   are   the   “Equivalent   of   personal   web   pages   and   can   come   in   a   multitude   of   different   variations,   from   personal   diaries   describing   the   author’s   life   to   summaries  of  all  relevant  information  in  one  specific  content  area”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).     In  its  article  “It's  the  links,  Stupid”,  The  Economist  (2006)  claims  that  a  blog  is:    A   web   page   to   which   its   owner   regularly   adds   new   entries,   or   “posts”,   which   tend   to   be   (but   need   not   be)   short   and   often   contain   hyperlinks   to   other   blogs   or   websites.   Besides   text   and   hypertext,   posts   can   also   contain   pictures   (“photoblogs”)   and   video   (“vlogs”).   Each   post   is   stored   on  its  own  distinct  archive  page,  the  so-­‐called  “permalink”,  where  it  can  always  be  found.   The   Economist   (2006)   explains   that   blogging   is   a   quintessentially   social   activity,   highlighted   by   two  features:   Page  9  of  51  
  10. 10. A  “blogroll”,  along  the  side  of  the  blog  page,  which  is  a  list  of  links  to  other  blogs  that  the  author   recommends  (not  to  be  confused  with  the  hyperlinks  inside  the  posts).  In  practice,  the  blogroll  is   an  attempt  by  the  author  to  place  his  blog  in  a  specific  genre  or  group,  and  a  reciprocal  effort  by   a   posse   of   bloggers   to   raise   each   other's   visibility   on   the   internet   (because   the   number   of   incoming  links  pushes  a  blog  higher  in  search-­‐engine  results).  The  other  feature  is  “trackback”,   which   notifies   (“pings”)   a   blog   about   each   new   incoming   link   from   the   outside—a   sort   of   gossip-­‐ meter,  in  short.   According   to   Dave   Winer,   the   influential   software   engineer   who   pioneered   several   blogging   techniques   and   has,   by   his   own   estimate,   the   longest   running   blog   of   all   time   (The   Economist,   2006),   weblogs  should  be:     • • • • Personalized:  Weblogs  are  designed  for  individual  use  (a  multi-­‐person  weblog  is  also  possible   through  collaboration,  such  as  the  ‘‘team  blog’’  offered  by  A  Weblog  style  is   personal  and  informal.     Web-­‐based:  Weblogs  can  be  updated  frequently.  They  are  easy  to  maintain  and  accessible  via  a   Web  browser.     Community-­‐supported:  Weblogs  can  link  to  other  weblogs  and  Websites,  enabling  the  linkage  of   ideas,  and  hence  stimulating  knowledge  generation  and  sharing  between  bloggers.   Automated:  Blogging  tools  help  bloggers  to  present  their  words  without  the  hassle  of  writing   HTML  code  or  any  other  programming  language;  instead,  bloggers  can  just  concentrate  on  the   content.   Winer   argues   that   blogging   should   have   a   raw,   unpolished   authenticity   to   it   (The   Economist,   2006).   “Blogging   is   all   about   style”   and   the   essence   of   blogginess   is   “the   unedited   voice   of   a   single   person,”   preferably   an   amateur   (The   Economist,   2006).   For   Winer,   editors   do   not   belong   in   the   Blogosphere,  even  though,  today,  they  very  much  do  (The  Economist,  2006).     Blogs  are  incredibly  popular  because  they  are  cheap,  easy  to  set  up  and  they  provide  maximum   exposure   with   limited   effort.   As   Jeff   Jarvis,   Director   of   the   Interactive   Journalism   at   City   University   of   New   York's   Graduate   School   of   Journalism   points   out,   they   are   the   “easiest,   cheapest,   fastest   publishing   tool   ever   invented”   (Wortham,   2007).   Blogs   are   everywhere,   affecting   every   sector   of   society   and,   because  of  their  ease  of  use  and  low  barrier  to  entry,  they  will  continue  to  be  a  big  part  of  the  national   and  worldwide  discourse  (Wortham,  2007).     Technorati   lists   over   1,274,415   blogs,   broken   down   into   categories   such   as   “Entertainment”,   “Business”,  “Sports”,  “Politics”,  “Autos”,  “Technology”,  “Living”,  “Green”  and  “Science”,  and  yet  this  list   only   barely   scratches   the   surface   of   the   blogosphere.   Blogs   can   take   many   forms,   including   a   diary,   a   news  service,  a  collection  of  links  to  Internet  resources,  a  series  of  book  reviews,  reports  of  activity  on  a   project,   the   journal   of   an   expedition,   a   photographic   record   of   a   building   project,   or   any   one   of   a   number  of  other  forms.     One  amusing  story  from  Germany  might  explain  the  popularity  of  blogs:  when  Jung  von  Matt,  a   German   advertising   firm,   came   up   with   their   “Du   bist   Deutschland”   (“You   are   Germany”)   advertising   campaign   to,   as   Jean-­‐Remy   von   Matt,   the   firm's   Belgian   boss,   put   it,   “fight   grumpiness”   about   the   country's   sluggish   economy,   he,   unwittingly,   stepped   into   Germany's   first   blogging   controversy   (The   Economist,   2006).   Not   only   did   German   bloggers   find   the   idea   kitschy,   but   one   industrious   researcher   Page  10  of  51  
  11. 11. dug   up   an   obscure   photograph   from   a   Nazi   convention   in   1935   that   showed   Hitler's   face   on   a   poster   above   a   sign   containing   the   awkwardly   similar   slogan   “Denn   Du   bist   Deutschland”   (“Because   you   are   Germany”)  (The  Economist,  2006).   The  German  blogosphere  erupted  and  the  advertising  campaign,  to  put  it  mildly,  went  down  in   flames   (The   Economist,   2006).   An   outraged   Jean-­‐Remy   von   Matt   fired   off   a   terse   email   to   his   colleagues   claiming  blogs  were  “the  toilet  walls  of  the  Internet”  and  he  demanded  to  know:  “What  on  earth  gives   every  computer-­‐owner  the  right  to  express  his  opinion,  unasked  for?”  (The  Economist,  2006).     Once  von  Matt's  email  found  its  way  into  the  hands  of  those  very  same  bloggers,  the  reply  was   fast,  furious  and  so  ferocious  that  Mr.  von  Matt  quickly  turned  tail  in  retreat,  very  publicly  apologizing   for  his  misdirected  rant  (The  Economist,  2006).  As  The  Economist's  (2006)  article  so  succinctly  points  out,   “Inadvertently,  Mr.  von  Matt  had  put  his  finger  on  something  big:  that,  at  least  in  democratic  societies,   everybody  does  have  the  right  to  hold  opinions,  and  that  the  urge  to  connect  and  converse  with  others   is  so  basic  that  it  might  as  well  be  added  to  life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness.”   By   2004,   blogs   had   gone   mainstream;   Robert   Scoble   blogged   for   Microsoft,   giving   the   oftentimes  hegemonic  company  a  human  face  as  he  conversed  with  customers;  Matt  Drudge  went  from   convenience  store  clerk  to  one  to  Time  Magazine's  2006  100  most  influential  people  in  the  world  when   he   blogged   about   the   Clinton-­‐Lewinsky   scandal   (Time   Magazine,   2006).   In   its   piece   about   the   fedora   wearing  blogger,  Time  Magazine  (2006)  claimed:  “With  10  million  readers  daily,  Drudge,  39,  has  paved  a   generous   path   for   the   blogs;   without   his   example,   semipro   scribes   might   not   have   unearthed   ‘Rathergate’.   Of   course,   the   price   for   such   cyberscoops   has   been   the   coarsening   of   the   evening   news;   Drudge  has  goaded  traditional  media  into  playing  catch-­‐up  on  sordid  stories  they  once  safely  ignored”   (Time  Magazine,  2006).  To  be  successful,  a  blog  should  include  the  following  key  elements:   • • • • • Great  content:  as  the  old  adage  goes,  “Content  is  king”  and  that  old  axiom  should  be  kept  very   much   in   mind   when   it   comes   to   blogging.   Competition   is   fierce   so   one’s   content   better   be   relevant,  valuable  and  captivating.       Posts  frequently:  along  with  having  great  content,  bloggers  should  constantly  post  new  material.   A   constant   stream   of   new   material   will   garner   more   views,   which   should   result   in   many   more   followers.     User   friendly   navigation:   readers   prefer   navigation   that   is   simple   and   straightforward   so   have   links  that  make  logical  sense.     Eye   pleasing   content:   as   with   any   other   type   of   marketing,   the   prettier   something   looks,   the   more  likely  it  is  to  be  viewed,  so  keep  the  design  element  in  mind  when  creating  a  blog.       Connect  to  other  content:  linking  and  back-­‐linking  is  exceptionally  important  so  feel  free  to  add   links  to  other  content  that  expands  upon  or  references  your  content.     Legal  Issues   Anyone  who  chooses  to  blog  should  be  aware  that  anything  posted  in  a  chat  room,  at  an  online  forum  or   on   a   blog   can   make   the   blogger   liable   to   a   lawsuit.   According   to   the   US   Copyright   Office,   Copyright   “protects   original   works   of   authorship   including   literary,   dramatic,   musical,   and   artistic   works,   such   as   poetry,   novels,   movies,   songs,   computer   software,   and   architecture.   Copyright   does   not   protect   facts,   ideas,  systems,  or  methods  of  operation,  although  it  may  protect  the  way  these  things  are  expressed.”   Page  11  of  51  
  12. 12. Bloggers   should   be   careful   not   to   infringe   upon   the   rights   of   others   or   unjustly   demean   corporations  or  people.  New  software  analytic  tools—some  of  which  I  detail  later—allow  companies  to   troll  the  Internet  for  copyrighted  material  and  negative  remarks  about  their  companies.     In   the   Wall   Street   Journal   article   “Bloggers,   Beware:   What   You   Write   Can   Get   You   Sued”   (McQueen,  2009),  journalist  M.P.  McQueen  warns  that,  “Web  sites  that  purport  to  rate  everything  from   college   professors   to   doctors   and   contractors   are   being   sued   by   recipients   of   disparaging   reviews”   (McQueen,  2009).  Bloggers  are  increasingly  getting  sued  for  everything  from  defamation  to  invasion  of   privacy  to  copyright  infringement,  so  caution  must  be  taken  (McQueen,  2009).     The  Media  Law  Resource  center  keeps  track  of  legal  actions  against  bloggers  and,  as  of  March   24,   2009,   such   high   profile   cases   as   Banks   v.   Milum,   Cornwell   v.   Sachs   (II),   Kaplan   v.   Salahi,   Kono   v.   Meeker;  Laughman  v.  Selmeier;  Omega  World  Travel  v.  Mummagraphics,  Inc.,  Scheff  v.  Bock,  Staten  v   Steele   and   Wagner   v.   Miskin   have   each   resulted   in   verdicts   against   the   bloggers   and   a   total   of   $16,128,280  has  been  awarded  to  the  plaintiffs.[2]   First   Amendment   protection   only   goes   so   far,   so   anyone   considering   blogging   what   could   be   construed   as   a   negative   comment   about   a   particular   person   or   a   company   should   take   out   insurance   policies   that   include   liability   insurance   for   defamation,   libel   and   slander.   Policy   language   differs   by   state   and   country   so   bloggers   should   check   with   their   insurers.   According   to   the   Insurance   Information   Institute,   a   $1   million   umbrella   policy   costs   an   average   of   $200   to   $350   per   year   on   top   of   regular   homeowner   and   auto   premiums   (McQueen,   2009).   In   this   writer's   estimation,   it   is   money   very   well   spent.     Also,   when   commenting   negatively   about   something,   discuss   your   own   personal   subjective   opinion   and   "if   you’re   going   to   assert   negative   facts,   provide   hyperlinks   to   your   sources   as   a   form   of   citation"   (Goldman,   2013).   In   a   2013   defamation   lawsuit   involving   Sheldon   Adelson   and   a   former   Las   Vegas  Sands  employee,  the  court  agreed  that  the  plaintiff  wasn't  guilty  of  slander  because  he  had  used   hyperlinks   to   quote   sources   (Goldman,   2013).   "The   hyperlink   is   the   twenty-­‐first   century   equivalent   of   the   footnote   for   purposes   of   attribution   in   defamation   law,   because   it   has   become   a   well-­‐recognized   means  for  an  author  or  the  Internet  to  attribute  a  source….[Hyperlinking  to  sources]  fosters  the  facile   dissemination  of  knowledge  on  the  Internet"  (Goldman,  2013),  the  court  ruled.   The  court  concluded  that  hyperlinks  were  superior  to  footnotes  because  readers  didn’t  have  to   make   a   “sojourn   to   the   library”   to   check   the   citation   (Goldman,   2013).   In   a   footnote,   the   court   acknowledged   the   risk   of   link   rot,   but   saw   "it   as   a   minor   concern   because   defamation   claims   must   be   brought  quickly,  which  reduces  the  odds  link  rot  will  occur  during  the  relevant  legal  period."  (Goldman,   2013).  The  court  even  concluded  that  the  defendants  qualified  for  anti-­‐SLAPP  protection,  meaning  the   case  was  over  and  Adelson  was  responsible  for  the  defendants  legal  fees  (Goldman,  2013).   List  of  Blogging  Websites   As   the   Blogging   landscape   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available   blogging   Websites  out  there,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:       NAME   AlterNet   ABOUT   AlterNet  is  an  award-­‐winning  news  magazine  and  online  community   that  creates  original  journalism  and  amplifies  the  best  of  hundreds  of   other  independent  media  sources.  AlterNet’s  aim  is  to  inspire  action   Page  12  of  51   WEBSITE  
  13. 13. Blog  Catalog   Blog  Drive   Blogger   Blogigo   Blurty   Carbonmade   Disqus   Gabbr   Instablogs   IntenseDebate   Issuu   Jigsy   LiveJournal   Momentile   Plinky   Tumblr   and   advocacy   on   the   environment,   human   rights   and   civil   liberties,   social  justice,  media,  health  care  issues,  and  more.   Blog   Catalog   is   the   premiere   social   blog   directory   on   the   internet.   Search,  Browse,  Rate  and  Review  thousands  of  blog  sites.   A   weblog   publishing   service   that   is   easy   enough   for   a   beginner   and   advanced   enough   for   an   expert.   Free   Blog   sites   that   have   never   been   better.   Blogger   is   a   free   blog   publishing   tool   from   Google   for   easily   sharing   your  thoughts  with  the  world.     A  free  blog,  quick  and  easy.   Community   site   desgined   for   adults,   based   on   livejournal   source   code.   With   Carbonmade,   you   can   manage   your   online   portfolio   with   a   variety  of  tools  that  allow  you  to  change  how  you  display  your  work.   The   core   idea   behind   the   design   of   Carbonmade   is   to   keep   your   images  or  videos  at  the  forefront.   Disqus   (dis·∙cuss   •   dĭ-­‐skŭs')   is   all   about   changing   the   way   people   think   about   discussion   on   the   web.   We're   big   believers   in   the   conversations  and  communities  that  form  on  blogs  and  other  sites.   Gabbr   allows   you   to   view   and   comment   on   the   news   in   a   large   social   news   community   as   well   as   promote   content   for   web   publshers,   authors  and  bloggers.   Instablogs   is   a   news   ecosystem   bringing   bloggers,   citizen   journalists   and   traditional   media   together.   It's   a   place   to   discover,   share,   contribute   and   connect   with   the   world   and   the   people   who   are   changing  it.   IntenseDebate's   comment   system   enhances   and   encourages   conversation  on  your  blog  or  website.   Issuu  is  the  leading  digital  publishing  platform  delivering  exceptional   reading   experiences   of   magazines,   catalogs,   and   newspapers.   Millions   of   people   have   uploaded   their   best   publications   to   create   beautiful  digital  editions.     Jigsy   serves   personal   blogs,   small   business   websites,   news   portals,   bands,   churches,   pet   groomers,   artists,   musicians,   and...   well,   you   name   it.   People   are   flocking   to   Jigsy   by   the   thousands   and   we're   pleased  to  keep  on  doing  what  we  do  -­‐  enabling  people  to  create  and   maintain  great  looking  dynamic  websites.   Rooted   in   a   tradition   of   global   participation,   LiveJournal   is   on   the   forefront   of   personal   publishing,   community   involvement,   and   individual  expression.     Momentile  is  a  “picture  a  day”  photo  diary  that  makes  it  dead  simple   to   chronicle   your   days   and   observe   the   interesting   moments   of   others.  Trust  us,  it’s  for  the  greater  good.  is  the  fastest  way  to  publish  online.   Every   day   we   provide   a   new   prompt   (like   a   question,   or   a   challenge),   and   everyone   gets   a   chance   to   answer.   It's   simple   to   add   photos,   maps,   playlists   and   more.   You   can   easily   share   your   Plinky   answers   on   Facebook,   Twitter,   WordPress,   Tumblr,   and   most   major   blogging   services.   Soup   is   a   tumblelog;   a   super-­‐easy   blog   that   can   do   more   than   just   text:  post  links;  quotes;  videos;  audio;  files;  reviews  and  events   Tumblr  lets  you  effortlessly  share  anything.  Post  text,  photos,  quotes,   Page  13  of  51  
  14. 14. TypePad   Wordpress   WPScoop   Zimbio   links,  music,  and  videos,  from  your  browser,  phone,  desktop,  email,   or  wherever  you  happen  to  be.  You  can  customize  everything,  from   colors,  to  your  theme's  HTML.     TypePad   blogs   make   it   simple   for   you   to   share   your   interests   and   get   noticed.   Easily   design   and   customize   your   own   blog,   and   use   our   SEO   (Search   Engine   Optimization)   and   SMO   (Social   Media   Optimization)   tools  to  promote  your  blog  and  attract  an  audience  and  following.   A  semantic  personal  publishing  platform  with  a  focus  on  aesthetics,   web  standards,  and  usability.   WP-­‐Scoop   (WordPress   Scoop)   is   website   dedicated   to   bringing   you   WordPress   related   News,   Reviews   and   Stories.   All   the   latest   and   greatest   information   on   the   WordPress   blogging   platform   can   be   found   on   the   pages   of   WPscoop.   We   are   a   Social   Bookmarking   Site   for   you   to   use   and   a   place   for   you   to   discover   what   is   hot   in   the   Wordpress  world.     Zimbio   is   an   interactive   magazine   publisher   focused   on   entertainment,   style,   current   events,   and   other   pop   culture   topics.,  one  of  the  fastest  growing  web  publications  and  one  of   the  10  most  popular  magazines  on  the  web,  is  now  read  by  over  20   million  people  each  month.   Chinese  blogging  sites  include  Weibo,  Hexum,  Sina  blog,  Blogus  and  Bolaa.     Microblogs   Although  similar  to  a  blogging  website,  a  microblog  site  differs  from  a  traditional  blog  in  that  its  content   is  typically  smaller  in  both  actual  and  aggregate  size.  “Social  networking  and  microblogging  services  such   as   Twitter,   Facebook,   or   Google+   allow   people   to   broadcast   short   messages,   so-­‐called   microposts,   in   continuous  streams.  These  posts  usually  consist  of  a  text  message  enriched  with  contextual  metadata,   such   as   the   author,   date   and   time,   and   sometimes   also   the   location   of   origin”   (Lohmann,   Burch,   Schauder,   Weiskopf,   2012).   While   individual   posts   can   be   no   longer   than   140   characters,   “aggregated   posts  of  multiple  users  can  provide  a  rich  source  of  time-­‐critical  information  that  can  point  to  events  and   trends  needing  attention”  (Lohmann,  Burch,  Schauder,  Weiskopf,  2012).  The  140  character  limitation  is   much  less  restrictive  in  character-­‐based  languages  such  as  Chinese  and  Japanese.   Twitter   Twitter  is  a  real-­‐time  short  messaging  service  that  works  over  multiple  networks  and  devices.[3]  A  free   social   networking   and   micro-­‐blogging   service,   Twitter   allows   users   to   send   and   receive   Tweets— messages  that  can  be  up  to  140  characters  in  length.  “Connected  to  each  Tweet  is  a  rich  details  pane   that   provides   additional   information,   deeper   context   and   embedded   media”   (   2011).   Because  it  is  happening  in  near  real-­‐time,  “Twitter  is  a  ‘what’s-­‐happening-­‐right-­‐now’  tool  that  enables   interested   parties   to   follow   individual   users’   thoughts   and   commentary   on   events   in   their   lives”   (Bifet   and  Frank,  2010).  Some  interesting  facts  about  Twitter  from  (2011)  include:   • • • • • • Twitter  gets  more  than  300,000  new  users  every  day.   There  are  currently  110  million  users  of  Twitter’s  services.   Twitter  receives  180  million  unique  visits  each  month.   There  are  more  than  600  million  searches  on  Twitter  every  day.   Twitter  started  as  a  simple  SMS-­‐text  service.   Over  60%  of  Twitter  use  is  outside  the  U.S.   Page  14  of  51  
  15. 15. • • • There  are  more  than  50,000  third-­‐party  apps  for  Twitter.   Twitter’s  web  platform  only  accounts  for  a  quarter  of  its  users—75%  use  third-­‐party  apps.   Twitter   has   donated   access   to   all   of   its   tweets   to   the   Library   of   Congress   for   research   and   preservation.   In   his   article   “100   fascinating   social   media   statistics   and   figures   from   2012”,   Brian   Honigman   (2012)  includes  some  additional  interesting  facts  about  Twitter:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • There  were  175  million  tweets  sent  from  Twitter  every  day  in  2012.   The  average  Twitter  user  has  tweeted  307  times.   Since  the  dawn  of  Twitter,  there  have  been  a  total  of  163  billion  tweets.     56  percent  of  customer  tweets  to  companies  are  being  ignore.   Barack  Obama's  victory  tweet  was  the  most  retweeted  tweet  ever,  with  over  800K  retweets.   Top  three  countries  on  Twitter  are  the  US  at  107  million,  Brazil  33  million  and  Japan  at  nearly  30   million.   The  average  user  follows  (or  is  followed  by)  51  people.   The  2012  election  broke  records  with  31.7  million  political  tweets.   32  percent  of  all  Internet  users  are  using  Twitter.   Twitter  is  projected  to  make  a  total  of  $540  million  in  advertising  revenue  by  2014.   69  percent  of  follows  on  Twitter  are  suggested  by  friends.   In  2012,  one  million  accounts  were  added  to  Twitter  every  day.   The  most  followed  brand  on  Twitter  is  YouTube  with  19  million  followers.   The  USA's  141.8  million  accounts  represent  27.4  percent  of  all  Twitter  users.   50  percent  of  Twitter  users  are  using  the  social  network  via  a  mobile  device.   34  percent  of  marketers  have  generated  leads  using  Twitter.   On   its   Website,   Twitter   recommends   building   a   following,   increasing   a   businesses'   reputation,   and  raising  a  customer's  trust  by  following  these  best  practices  (,  2011):   • • • • • • • • Share:  disseminate  photos  and  behind  the  scenes  info  about  your  business.  Even  better,  give  a   glimpse  of  developing  projects  and  events.  Users  come  to  Twitter  to  get  and  share  the  latest,  so   give  it  to  them!     Listen:  regularly  monitor  the  comments  about  your  company,  brand,  and  products.   Ask:  question  your  followers  to  glean  valuable  insights  and  show  them  that  you  are  listening.   Respond:  reply  to  compliments  and  feedback  in  real  time.   Reward:  Tweet  updates  about  special  offers,  discounts  and  time-­‐sensitive  deals.     Demonstrate   wider   leadership   and   know-­‐how:   Reference   articles   and   links   about   the   bigger   picture  as  it  relates  to  your  business.     Champion   your   stakeholders:   Retweet   and   publicly   reply   to   great   tweets   posted   by   your   followers  and  customers.     Establish   the   right   voice:   Twitter   users   tend   to   prefer   a   direct,   genuine,   and,   of   course,   likable   tone   from   your   business,   but   think   about   your   voice   as   you   Tweet.   How   do   you   want   your   business  to  appear  to  the  Twitter  community?     Page  15  of  51  
  16. 16. Twitter   also   offers   three   ways   to   advertise   on   its   service;   promoted   tweets;   promoted   trends;   and  promoted  accounts.  Promoted  tweets  are  regular  Tweets  that  are  amplified  to  a  broader  audience   and   they   are   offered   on   a   Cost-­‐per-­‐Engagement   (CPE)   basis.   A   business   is   charged   when   a   user   Retweets,   replies   to,   clicks   on   or   favorites   the   Promoted   Tweet   (,   2011).   Retweeted   impressions  by  engaged  users  are  free,  and  can  exponentially  amplify  the  reach  and  cost-­‐effectiveness   of  a  marketing  campaign  (,  2011).   Twitter   is   a   very   useful   tool   that   connects   businesses   to   customers   in   real-­‐time.   It   can   help   a   business  quickly  share  information  with  people  who  are  interested  in  their  products  and/or  services,  as   well  as  gather  real-­‐time  market  intelligence  and  customer  feedback  (,  2011).  Using  Twitter,   a  business  can  build  strong  relationships  with  its  customers  and  partners  as  well  as  raise  the  profile  of  its   brands,  direct  sales  and  engage  a  primed  audience  (,  2011).  Twitter  can  also  help  a  business   build  a  following,  increase  its  reputation  as  well  as  raise  a  customer’s  trust  by  sharing,  listening,  asking   questions,  responding  to  replies,  rewarding  customers  with  special  offers  and  discounts,  demonstrating   wider  leadership  and  championing  the  right  stakeholders.     “Promoted   Trends”   give   a   business   the   exclusive   opportunity   to   feature   a   Trend   related   to   its   business  at  the  top  of  the  “Twitter  Trends”  list  (Twitter,  2011).  When  a  user  clicks  on  the  “Trend”,  he  is   taken  to  the  conversation  for  that  trend  and  a  “Promoted  Tweets”  tag  is  attached  to  the  tweet  at  the   top   of   the   timeline.   Because   of   its   placement,   the   ad   receives   substantial   exposure,   thereby   initiating   or   amplifying  a  conversation  on  Twitter  and  beyond  (Twitter,  2011).   “Promoted   Accounts”   can   help   companies   quickly   increase   their   Twitter   followers   (Twitter,   2011).  Part  of  “Who  to  follow”  (Twitter's  account  recommendation  engine),  “Promoted  Accounts”  will   highlight  a  business  account  to  users  who  will  most  likely  find  it  interesting  (Twitter,  2011).  According  to   Twitter's   Website,   “Users   find   Promoted   Accounts   a   useful   part   of   discovering   new   businesses,   content,   and  people  on  Twitter.”   List  of  Microblogging  Websites   As   the   Microblogging   landscape   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available   Websites  online,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   Cuzo   Friendfeed       Mobango       "ABOUT  US"  DESCRIPTION   We’re   a   small   team   based   in   London   UK   who   launched   Audioboo   in   March  2009  as  a  simple  way  of  recording  audio  while  on  the  move  and   adding  as  much  useful  data  to  it  as  possible,  such  as  photos,  tags  and   location.   We’ve   seen   audioboo   grow   from   a   small   side   project   in   2009   to  a  fully-­‐fledged  business  in  2010  and  we’re  committed  to  making  it   the  platform  of  choice  for  anyone  who  wants  to  record,  listen  or  share   audio.   At   Cuzo   you   create   your   own   micro   blog   where   you   are   in   real   time   to   tell  your  friends,  relatives  or  colleagues  what  you  do  with  the  help  of   max  140  characters!   FriendFeed   is   a   service   that   makes   it   easy   to   share   with   friends   online.   It  offers  a  fun  and  interactive  way  to  discover  and  discuss  information   among  friends.   MOBANGO   is   the   first   Universal   Mobile   Community   that   allows   cell   phone   users   to   publish,   convert,   and   share   with   friends   all   kinds   of   user   generated   content   -­‐via   the   web   and   mobile   devices-­‐   for   Page  16  of  51   WEBSITE  
  17. 17. Plurk   Twitter   Wadja   personalizing   and   empowering   the   new   cell   phone's   generation.   You   can  publish,  convert,  and  share  Personal  Content  of  all  types  for  your   cell  phone  -­‐  Videos,  Photos,  Ringtones,  Applications,  Games.     Noun.   plurk   (plüer-­‐kh)   -­‐   A   really   snazzy   site   that   allows   you   to   showcase   the   events   that   make   up   your   life   in   deliciously   digestible   chunks.  Low  in  fat,  5  calories  per  serving,  yet  chock  full  of  goodness.    Verb.   plurk   (plüer-­‐kh)   -­‐   To   chronicle   the   events   of   your   always   on,   action-­‐packed,  storybook,  semi-­‐charmed  kinda  life.   Twitter   is   a   real-­‐time   information   network   that   connects   you   to   the   latest   information   about   what   you   find   interesting.   Simply   find   the   public   streams   you   find   most   compelling   and   follow   the   conversations..   A   simple   and   social   way   to   publish   web   content,   and   connect   with   people  who  share  your  interests.   Chinese   Microblogging   sites   include   Sina   Weibo,   Tencent   weibo,   Netease   weibo   and   Souhu   weibo.       Content  Communities     Content   communities   exist   for   a   wide   range   of   media   types,   including   text,   photos,   videos,   and   PowerPoint   presentations   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   In   general,   users   are   not   required   to   create   a   personal   profile   page   or,   if   one   is   required,   only   basic   information   need   be   uploaded   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   63,   2010)   state   that,   “The   main   objective   of   content   communities   is   the   sharing   of   media   content   between   users”   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).     Although   businesses   run   the   risk   of   these   platforms   being   used   for   the   purpose   of   sharing   copyright-­‐protected  materials,  the  advantages  of  getting  one’s  content  into  the  social  media  community   seriously  outweighs  the  disadvantages  of  potential  copyright  infringement  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,   2010).   The   popularity   of   these   content   communities   make   them   a   very   attractive   contact   channel   for   many   businesses.   This   fact   isn’t   surprising   when   one   considers   that   a   site   such   as   YouTube   has   over   2   billion   views   per   day   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Personally,   I   have   found   Slideshare   to   be   a   particularly  good  site  to  generate  business  leads  as  well.                       YouTube   According   to   its   website,   YouTube   was   founded   in   February   2005   and   it   “allows   billions   of   people   to   discover,   watch   and   share   originally-­‐created   videos.   YouTube   provides   a   forum   for   people   to   connect,   inform,   and   inspire   others   across   the   globe   and   acts   as   a   distribution   platform   for   original   content   creators  and  advertisers  large  and  small.”[4]   On   23rd   April,   2005,   the   very   first   video-­‐-­‐“Me   at   the   Zoo”-­‐-­‐uploaded   to   YouTube   was   a   video.   Today,   YouTube   receives   more   than   2   billion   views   per   day.   YouTube   allows   users   to   create   accounts,   upload  videos,  “Like”  or  “Dislike”  videos,  leave  comments  on  a  video  and  create  channels,  among  other   things.  Some  other  facts  from  the  press  center  include:[5]   • • • Over  800  million  unique  users  visit  YouTube  each  month.   Over  4  billion  hours  of  video  are  watched  each  month  on  YouTube.   72  hours  of  video  are  uploaded  to  YouTube  every  minute.   Page  17  of  51  
  18. 18. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 70%  of  YouTube  traffic  comes  from  outside  the  US.   YouTube  is  localized  in  43  countries  and  across  60  different  languages.   In  2011,  YouTube  had  more  than  1  trillion  views  or  around  140  views  for  every  person  on  earth.   Created   in   2007,   the   YouTube   Partner   Program   has   more   than   a   million   partners   from   27   countries  around  the  world.   Thousands   of   advertisers   are   using   TrueView   in-­‐stream   and   60%   of   those   in-­‐stream   ads   are   now   skipable.   YouTube  has  more  than  a  million  advertisers  using  Google  ad  platforms,  the  majority  of  which   are  small  businesses.   Three  hours  of  video  are  uploaded  per  minute  to  YouTube  from  mobile  devices.   YouTube’s   Content   ID   scans   over   100   years   of   video   every   day   for   any   sign   of   copyright   infringement.     More  than  3,000  partners  use  Content  ID,  including  every  major  US  network  broadcaster,  movie   studio  and  record  label.   YouTube   has   more   than   eight   million   reference   files   (over   500,000   hours   of   material)   in   its   Content  ID  database;  it's  among  the  most  comprehensive  in  the  world.   Over  a  third  of  YouTube's  total  monetized  views  come  from  Content  ID.   More  than  120  million  videos  have  been  claimed  by  Content  ID.   500  years’  worth  of  YouTube  videos  are  watched  every  day  on  Facebook,  and  over  700  YouTube   videos  are  shared  on  Twitter  each  minute.   100   million   people   take   a   social   action   on   YouTube   (such   as   likes,   shares,   comments,   etc.)   every   week.   More   than   50%   of   videos   on   YouTube   have   been   rated   or   include   comments   from   the   community.   Music  videos  account  for  20%  of  uploads.   The  video  for  K-­‐Pop  star  Psy’s  “Gangnam  Style”  was  the  first  video  to  clock  up  more  than  one   billion   YouTube   views   (Jones,   2012).   YouTube's   owner,   Google,   claims   the   video   was   watched,   on   average,   between   seven-­‐to-­‐10   million   times   a   day   (Jones,   2012)   and   it   has   netted   the   Korean   rapper   over  US  $8  million.  "Psy's  success  is  a  great  testament  to  the  universal  appeal  of  catchy  music  -­‐  and  ‘er,   great   equine   dance   moves,"   wrote   Kevin   Allocca,   YouTube   trends   manager,   on   the   service's   blog   (Jones,   2012).  YouTube  even  got  into  the  act,  adding  a  dancing  Psy  animation  above  the  hit  counter  once  the   video  eclipsed  the  one  billion  views  milestone  (Jones,  2012).     List  of  Content  Community  Sites   As  the  Content  Community  landscape  changes  on  a  daily  basis,  it  is  impossible  to  list  all  of  the  available   Websites,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   23hq   8tracks   ABOUT   Keep  all  your  photos  in  one  safe  place.  With  23  you  can  organise   the  photos,  share  them  with  anyone  you  want,  and  you  can  even   order  real  prints  of  your  digital  photos.     8tracks   is   handcrafted   internet   radio.   It   offers   a   simple   way   for   people  to  share  and  discover  music  through  an  online  mix,  a  short   playlist  containing  at  least  8  tracks.  Listeners  can  search  for  a  mix   by   artist   or   genre,   stream   it   in   a   legal,   radio-­‐style   manner,   and   Page  18  of  51   WEBSITE