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  • 1.   Social  Media:  The  Revolution  Will  Be  Socialized   by   Andrew  Pearson         Overview   Although   it   is   one   of   today’s   buzzwords,   “Social   Media”   is   a   generic   term   that   refers   to   websites   that   allow   one   or   more   of   the   following   services:   social   networking,   content   management,   social   bookmarking,   blogging   and   micro-­‐blogging,   live   video-­‐casting   and   access   into   virtual   worlds.   Social   Media—the   technology   as   we   know   it   today—has   its   roots   in   Usenet,   a   worldwide   discussion   system   that  allowed  users  to  post  public  messages  to  it  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  60,  2010).     Usenet   was   created   by   Tom   Truscott   and   Jim   Ellis   at   Duke   University   in   1979   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   60,   2010)   and   it   is   still   in   use   today.   According   to   its   website,   Usenet   is   “a   world-­‐wide   distributed   discussion   system.   It   consists   of   a   set   of   ‘newsgroups’   with   names   that   are   classified   hierarchically   by   subject.   ‘Articles’   or   ‘messages’   are   ‘posted’   to   these   newsgroups   by   people   on   computers   with   the   appropriate   software—these   articles   are   then   broadcast   to   other   interconnected   computer  systems  via  a  wide  variety  of  networks.”[1]  Obviously,  1979  was  a  long  time  ago,  it  was  long   before   what   most   people   would   consider   the   true   era   of   social   media,  which   began   with   the   creation   of   “Open   Diary”,   an   early   social   networking   site   that   brought   online   diary   writers   together   into   one   community”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  60,  2010).     In   their   influential   article   Users   of   the   world,   unite!   The   challenges   and   opportunities   of   Social   Media,  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  60,  2010)  explain  that  a  formal  definition  of  social  media  first  requires   an   understanding   of   two   related   concepts   that   are   often   referred   to   when   describing   it:   Web   2.0   and   User  Generated  Content.  As  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  60,  2010)  see  it:   Web   2.0   is   a   term   that   was   first   used   in   2004   to   describe   a   new   way   in   which   software   developers  and  end-­‐users  started  to  utilize  the  World  Wide  Web;  that  is,  as  a  platform  whereby   content   and   applications   are   no   longer   created   and   published   by   individuals,   but   instead   are   continuously  modified  by  all  users  in  a  participatory  and  collaborative  fashion.  While  applications   such  as  personal  web  pages,  Encyclopedia  Britannica  Online,  and  the  idea  of  content  publishing   belong  to  the  era  of  Web  1.0,  they  are  replaced  by  blogs,  wikis,  and  collaborative  projects  in  Web   2.0.  Although  Web  2.0  does  not  refer  to  any  specific  technical  update  of  the  World  Wide  Web,   there  is  a  set  of  basic  functionalities  that  are  necessary  for  its  functioning.     The  “basic  functionalities”  that  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  61,  2010)  refer  to  are;  Adobe  Flash,  the   popular   animation   tool,   interactivity,   and   web   streaming   audio/video   program,   Really   Simple   Syndication  (RSS),  a  family  of  web  feed  formats  used  to  publish  frequently  updated  works—such  as  blog   entries  or  news  headlines,  as  well  as  audio  and  video—in  a  standardized  format;  and  Asynchronous  Java   Scrip   (AJAX),   a   group   of   web   development   methods   that   can   retrieve   data   from   web   servers   Page  1  of  51  
  • 2. asynchronously,  allowing  the  update  of  one  source  of  web  content  without  interfering  with  the  display   and  behavior  an  entire  page.     For   Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   61,   2010),   Web   2.0   represents   the   ideological   and   technological   foundation,   while   “User   Generated   Content   (UGC)   can   be   seen   as   the   sum   of   all   the   ways   in   which   people  make  use  of  social  media.  The  term,  which  achieved  broad  popularity  in  2005,  is  usually  applied   to  describe  the  various  forms  of  media  content  that  are  publicly  available  and  created  by  end-­‐users.”       The  Four  Steps  of  Social  Media   When  a  company  is  first  delving  into  social  media,  Eley  &  Tiley's  (pg.  85,  2009)  state  that  there  are  four   steps  of  social  media  that  should  be  followed—listen,  join,  participate  and  create—and  these  steps  must   be  strictly  followed  in  that  order.   Listening  is  the  most  important  step.  People  online  are  frequently  mentioning  and  commenting   on  a  company  and  its  products,  so  all  you  have  to  do  is  listen.  Even  if  you  do  not  choose  to  participate  in   the   discussion   yourself,   you   will   discover   valuable   information   about   your   company   or   even   about   yourself  if  you  are  an  artist  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009).  Instead  of  doing  expensive  surveys,  focus  groups   or   other   experiments,   the   best   information   is   often   found   right   there   in   front   of   you   for   free   (Eley   &   Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009).  You  will  find  out  what  your  customers  think  of  you  and  what  they  are  looking  for  as   well   as   the   problems   and   frustrations   they   have   about   dealing   with   you   and/or   your   business.   Most   importantly,  you  will  get  the  inside  scoop  of  what  is  actually  important  to  your  target  audience  (Eley  &   Tilley,  pg.  86,  2009),  whether  that  audience  is  a  retailer’s  customer  base,  a  band’s  rabid  fans,  an  airline’s   frequent  flyer  members  or  one  of  a  million  other  business  users.   Listening  can  be  useful  in  the  following  ways:   • • • • • Monitor  for  buying  indication  terms  and  reply  with  helpful  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Listen  for  recommendation  requests  and  share  helpful  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Listen  for  discussions  of  your  product  or  category  and  provide  web  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Share  relevant  web  content  with  prospects  (Nelson,  2013).   Discover  relevant  blogs  and  ask  for  backlinks  (Nelson,  2013).   Once  you  understand  the  community  and  what  it  is  all  about,  it  is  time  to  join  a  social  network.   Many  networks  require  that  you  have  an  account  on  their  site  to  participate  in  the  discussions  and  you   should  sign  up  as  it  is  always  better  to  have  an  account  even  if  you  are  not  required  to  have  one  because   you  always  want  to  claim  your  brand  and/or  company  name  to  gain  credibility.     You  should  always  join  communities  where  you  are  most  likely  to  find  your  customers  (Eley  &   Tilley,   pg.   86,   2009).   If   you   start   out   by   listening,   you   will   know   where   your   customers   tend   to   congregate   online.   Facebook,   MySpace,   LinkedIn,   YouTube,   Flickr,   Delicious,   Digg   and   Twitter   are   big   networks  which  should  be  on  your  radar  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  87,  2009).  I  mention  many,  many  other  Social   Media   sites   throughout   this   chapter   and   the   companion   website   to   this   article–­‐media-­‐—also   includes   a   searchable   database   of   over   600   social   media   websites   that   I   constantly  update.  Many  of  these  sites  can  be  used  to  listen  to  your  audience  or  to  start  a  discussion.   Many  are  niche  websites  where  business  can  discover  very  selective  audiences.     Page  2  of  51  
  • 3. Businesses  should  set  up  accounts  at  all  the  major  social  networking  sites  and  link  back  to  their   website(s)  (Nelson,  2013)  as  well  as  link  content  and  similar  keywords  throughout  their  social  channels   (Nelson,  2013).   Once   the   discussion   has   been   initiated,   then   it   is   time   to   participate   in   the   community.   Participating  includes  replying  and  posting  to  online  forums  and  blogs,  reviewing  products  and  services   and   bookmarking   sites   that   you   like   or   find   interesting   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).   By   participating,   you   will   build   your   online   brand   and   people   will   start   to   respect   you   as   a   valuable   contributor   to   the   community   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).   When   respected,   others   will   help   to   promote   you   and,   possibly,   your  company  without  even  being  asked  to  do  so,  which,  as  most  marketers  will  tell  you,  is  one  of  the   best   forms   of   marketing   around.   Not   only   is   word-­‐of-­‐mouth   marketing   one   of   the   most   trusted   forms   of   marketing   around,   but   it   can   help   spread   the   word   about   a   brand   virally.   Two   words   of   warning,   however;   your   role   models   should   always   be   very   experienced   and   remain   very   active   users   in   the   community;   and,   most   of   all,   remember   that   it   is   never   okay   to   spam   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   88,   2009).     Participation  can  be  fostered  in  the  following  ways:   • • • • • • • • • Ask  readers  to  sign  up  for  an  RSS  feed  (Nelson,  2013).   Answer  all  questions  and  share  peer  referrals  (Nelson,  2013).   Feature  community  members  on  your  site  (Nelson,  2013).     Share  customer  stories  (Nelson,  2013).     Ask  influencers  to  share  your  web  links  (Nelson,  2013).   Interview  an  influencer  for  web  content  (Nelson,  2013).   Have  an  influencer  guest  blog  (Nelson,  2013).   Help  an  influencer  write  content  about  your  brand  (Nelson,  2013).   Share  products  with  influencers  for  feedback  and  web  content  (Nelson,  2013).   Finally,  it  is  time  to  create.  Once  you  have  built  yourself  an  online  brand  by  listening,  joining  and   participating,   it   is   time   to   create   your   own   content   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   89,   2009).   You   will   now   have   an   audience  to  share  your  content  with  and  this  audience  will  help  you  spread  your  content  far  and  wide.  It   should  be  noted  that  you  have  to  create  value;  ads  are  not  generally  seen  as  valuable  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.   89,  2009).  Posting  “buy  my  stuff”  on  twitter  will  fail  to  achieve  the  results  you  want,  and  this  practice   may   even   get   you   banned   (Eley   &   Tilley,   pg.   89,   2009).   By   making   beneficial   contributions   to   the   community,  people  will  notice  you  and  want  to  know  more  about  your  company  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  89,   2009).  If  you  have  listened  properly,  you  should  have  a  solid  idea  of  the  type  of  content  people  would   like  to  see  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  89,  2009).  Then,  simply,  give  it  to  them.  You  can  be  creative  in  the  following   ways:   • • • • • Divide  a  piece  of  content  into  multiple  Slideshare  presentations  that  link  to  your  site  (Nelson,   2013).   Start  a  LinkedIn  group  (Nelson,  2013).   Tie  content  together  so  an  ebook  links  to  a  relevant  blog  post,  which,  in  turn,  links  to  a  topical   webinar  (Nelson,  2013).   Build  a  forum  or  community  section  on  your  website  (Nelson,  2013).   Create  referral  programs  (Nelson,  2013).     Page  3  of  51  
  • 4. Six  Types  of  Social  Media   According   to   their   influential   article   Users   of   the   world,   unite!   The   challenges   and   opportunities   of   Social   Media,  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (2010)  break  Social  Media  down  into  the  following  six  different  types:     • • • • • • Collaborative  projects   Blogs  and  micro-­‐blogs   Content  communities     Social  networking  sites   Virtual  game  worlds   Virtual  social  worlds   Throughout   the   rest   of   this   chapter,   I   will   break   down   each   of   these   types   of   social   media   individually   as   well   as   explain   how   a   business   and/or   an   individual   can   use   them   on   their   own   or,   preferably,  combined  together.           Collaborative  Projects   Probably   the   most   democratic   form   of   all   UGC,   collaborative   projects   enable   the   joint   and   simultaneous   creation  of  content  by  many  end-­‐users  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  62,  2010).  Kaplan  and  Haenlein  (pg.  62,   2010)  believe  collaborative  projects  can  be  split  into  two  different  categories:   • • Wikis–these  are  websites  that  allow  users  to  add,  remove,  and  change  text-­‐based  content;  and     Social  bookmarking  applications—these  enable  the  group-­‐based  collection  and  rating  of  Internet   links  or  media  content.     The   main   idea   behind   collaborative   projects   is   that   joint   efforts   can   lead   to   a   better   outcome   than   individual   action   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   62,   2010).   Examples   of   collaborative   projects   include   the   web-­‐based   encyclopedia   Wikipedia   and   social   bookmarking   sites   such   as   Delicious   and   Stumbleupon.     Social   bookmarking   is   both   the   method   of   storing   and   managing   Web   page   bookmarks   with   individually   chosen   keywords   as   well   as   the   sharing   of   this   information   with   others.   At   social   bookmarking   sites,   users   can   tag,   save,   manage   and   share   Websites   with   their   friends   and   their   connections.  Users  can  add  descriptions  in  the  form  of  metadata  and  these  descriptions  can  be  anything   from  free  text  comments,  favorable  or  unfavorable  votes,  or  tags  that  collectively  form  a  social  thread  of   information.  This  kind  of  thread  is  also  known  as  a  folksonomy—“the  process  by  which  many  users  add   metadata  in  the  form  of  keywords  to  shared  content”  (Golder  and  Huberman,  2006).     In   his   article   How   to   Use   Social   Bookmarking   for   Business,   Lou   Dubois   (2010)   explains   that   “Social   bookmarking,   at   its   most   basic   form,   is   a   simple   way   to   organize   all   of   the   best   content   from   around  the  web  based  off  your  interests,  all  in  one  place.”  It  is  a  handy  way  to  “sort  the  relevant  from   the  irrelevant,  according  to  their  interests  and  the  value  of  the  information  provided.  And  perhaps  most   importantly,  the  bookmarks  are  transferable  between  computers  and  locations”  (Dubois,  2010).   Founded  in  2003,  Delicious  (then  known  as  coined  the  term  social  bookmarking  and   pioneered  the  concept  of  tagging  (Mathes,  2004).  The  following  year,  similar  sites  such  as  Furl,  Simpy,   Page  4  of  51  
  • 5. Citeulike   and   Connotea   came   online.   Stumbleupon   also   appeared   around   the   same   time.   There   are   now   countless  other  sites  and  I  have  included  a  list  of  over  40  of  the  most  popular  ones  later  in  this  chapter.     Why  are  these  sites  so  important  and  powerful?  Well,  in  his  book  The  Wisdom  of  Crowds  (2004),   James  Surowiecki  argues  that  the  collective  opinion  of  a  large,  diverse  and  independent  group  of  people   produces   more   accurate   information   than   the   judgment   of   a   single   expert.   According   to   Surowiecki   (2004),   groups   can   excel   even   when   individuals   fail.   “Under   the   right   circumstances,   groups   are   remarkably  intelligent,  and  are  often  smarter  than  the  smartest  people  in  them.”       Using  the  highly  successful  search  engine  Google  as  an  example,  Surowiecki  (2004)  shows  that   Google's   underlying   technology   is   based   on   the   wisdom   of   the   crowd   and   that   the   system   works   so   well   because   it   uses   the   collective   voice—or   votes—of   millions   of   people   to   deliver   its   search   results   (Surowiecki,  2004).  Few  would  argue  that  they  are  incredibly  accurate  and  have  made  Google  the  go-­‐to   search  Internet  destination.     To   augment   his   somewhat   counter-­‐intuitive   argument,   Surowiecki   states   that   for   a   crowd   opinion  to  be  considered  wiser  than  the  judgment  of  an  expert,  three  requirements  must  be  in  place;   the   crowd   must   be   diverse;   the   crowd   members   must   be   independent;   and   the   crowd   must   be   decentralized   (Surowiecki,   2004).   Because   of   the   vast,   decentralized   and   independent   nature   of   the   Internet,   Kaplan   and   Haenlein's   (2010)   “collaborative   projects”   easily   fulfill   all   three   of   Surowiecki's   requirements  (Surowiecki,  2004).     Compared   to   search   engines   and   traditional   automated   resource   location   and   classification   software,  social  bookmarking  systems  are  advantageous  because  the  tag-­‐based  classification  is  done  by   a   human   being,   who   usually   understands   the   content   and   context   of   a   resource   better   than   any   algorithm-­‐based   computer   program.   Human   beings   are   also   adept   at   finding   and   bookmarking   Web   pages  that  often  go  unnoticed  by  web  spiders  (Heymann,  Koutrika,  Garcia-­‐Molina,  2008).  In  addition,  a   user   will   probably   find   a   system   that   ranks   a   resource   based   on   how   many   times   it   has   been   bookmarked   by   other   users   more   valuable   than   a   system   that   simply   ranks   resources   based   on   the   number  of  external  links  pointing  to  it.   For   the   promotion   of   a   business,   social   bookmarking   is   important   because   it   helps   a   compnay   Website  get  quality  backlinks.  When  a  Website  is  submitted  for  ranking  by  a  search  engine,  the  search   engine  considers  the  quality  of  the  backlinks,  i.e.,  the  quality  of  the  sites  linking  back  to  it.  This  means   that  if  you  bookmark  popular  sites,  the  search  engine  spiders  will  automatically  follow  the  links  back  to   your  site.     Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   62,   2010)   argue   that,   “From   a   corporate   perspective,   firms   must   be   aware   that   collaborative   projects   are   trending   toward   becoming   the   main   source   of   information   for   many   consumers.   As   such,   although   not   everything   written   on   Wikipedia   may   actually   be   true,   it   is   believed   to   be   true   by   more   and   more   Internet   users.”   This   can   have   particularly   damaging   repercussions  during  a  corporate  crisis  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  62,  2010).       Collaborative  projects  can  also  be  used  to  increase  productivity,  for  example,  the  Finnish  mobile   manufacturer   Nokia   “uses   internal   wikis   to   update   employees   on   project   status   and   to   trade   ideas,   which  are  used  by  about  20%  of  its  68,000  staff  members”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).  Also,  the   Page  5  of  51  
  • 6. U.S.   application   software   company   Adobe   Systems   “maintains   a   list   of   bookmarks   to   company-­‐related   websites  and  conversations  on  Delicious”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).     Dubois  (2010)  explains  that  “From  an  individual  consumption  perspective  for  Internet  readers,   social  bookmarking  can  make  great  sense  to  filter  your  news  and  information  all  into  one  place.”  But  it   also  makes  great  sense  for  businesses  to  utilize  these  tools  as  they  can  increase  Website  traffic  and  grow   brand  recognition  by  curating  information  and  disseminating  client  testimonials  (Dubois,  2010).   Throughout   the   business   world,   content   curators   are   “considered   the   gatekeepers   to   information   for   businesses   and   individuals.   As   a   company,   curating,   or   aggregating   the   best   content   from   around   the   web,   can   make   you   an   industry   leader”   (Dubois,   2010).   For   companies   you   already   work  with,  showing  that  you  are  on  top  of  industry  news  gives  you  a  vaunted  level  of  credibility  (Dubois,   2010).  “Similarly,  if  you  think  of  it  from  the  perspective  of  businesses  who  you  don't  already  do  business   with,  you're  going  to  be  seen  as  a  resource  for  information”  (Dubois,  2010),  which  should  give  you  an   immediate  leg  up  on  your  competition.   Another   way   to   utilize   these   tools   is   by   pulling   together   all   of   your   company’s   best   customer   testimonials   in   a   social   bookmark.   Just   about   every   business   gets   questions   about   its   client   list   and   testimonials   from   its   potential   business   partners.   When   asked   the   question:   "What   have   others   said   about  your  work?",  wouldn’t  it  be  better  to  direct  potential  clients  to  a  site  that  has  all  of  the  company’s   testimonials   in   one   place,   in   a   simple   format   rather   than   sending   them   to   a   Yelp   page,   argues   Dubois   (2010).   Dubois  (2010)  explains  that,  "For  individual  projects  and  campaigns,  the  creation  of  folders  and   tags  within  social  bookmarking  sites  can  make  it  very  easy  to  track  success.  If  you've  recently  launched  a   campaign   and   want   to   see   what   stories,   blog   posts,   Twitter   notes   and   more   have   been   written   about   it,   you  can  very  easily  refer  to  your  social  bookmarks,  where  again  all  of  the  information  is  gathered  in  one   place".  Dubois  (2010)  recommends  the  following  steps:   • • • • • Create  accounts  on  the  sites  you  want  to  be  on.  Fill  out  a  complete  profile  about  you  and  your   company  and  add  a  link  back  to  your  webpage.   Add  the  social  bookmarking  tools  and  buttons  to  your  website  and/or  blog  so  users  can  utilize   them  within  your  community.   Create  lists  and  categories  to  arrange  specific  information  in  neat,  searchable  silos.   Submit  URL  links  to  the  bookmarking  site  and  write  reviews,  rate  other  stories,  etc.,  etc.   Network  with  other  community  members  who  share  similar  interests.   Social   bookmarking   isn’t   as   intuitive   a   process   as   blogging   or   social   networking   on   sites   like   Facebook  or  Twitter,  but  it  is  a  very  valuable  tool  in  its  own  right  and  it  should  be  one  part  of  a  social   media  marketing  plan.     List  of  Collaborative  Projects  Websites   As  the  Collaborative  Projects  landscape  changes  on  a  daily  basis,  it  is  impossible  to  list  all  of  the  available   Websites,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   A1  Webmarks   ABOUT   A1-­‐Webmarks  is  a  free  service  that  combines  the  convenience   of   a   personal   webmark   server   with   the   power   of   social   Page  6  of  51   WEBSITE      a1-­‐  
  • 7. Blinklist   Blurpalicious   Bookmarky   Delicious   Digg   Diigo   Folkd   Google  Bookmarks   Gravee    ikeepbookmarks   Jeteye   Jumptags   webmarking.   BlinkList   is   a   powerful   productivity   tool   that   makes   is   much   easier   for   anyone   to   share   and   save   their   links   for   later.   With   BlinkList   you   can   save   a   local   copy   of   any   web   page   on   your   computer.  We  give  you  a  website  so  that  you  can  easily  access   all  of  the  links  that  you  saved  from  any  computer.   Social  bookmarking  made  simple.   The  hottest  tags  and  bookmarks  in  one  easy  serving.   Keep,  share,  and  discover  the  best  of  the  Web  using  Delicious,   the  world's  leading  social  bookmarking  service.   Digg  delivers  the  most  interesting  and  talked  about  stories  on   the  Internet  right  now.  The  Internet  is  full  of  great  stories,  and   Digg   helps   you   find,   read,   and   share   the   very   best   ones.   It’s   simple   and   it’s   everywhere:   visit   Digg   on   the   web,   find   it   on   your   iPhone,   or   get   the   best   of   Digg   delivered   to   your   inbox   with  The  Daily  Digg.     If  you  browse  or  read  a  lot  on  the  web,  we  believe  you  will  find   Diigo   indispensable.   Diigo   is   two   services   in   one   -­‐-­‐   it   is   a   research  and  collaborative  research  tool  on  the  one  hand,  and   a  knowledge-­‐sharing  community  and  social  content  site  on  the   other.   Using   social   bookmarks   with   will   enrich   your   web-­‐   surfing   experience.   We   provide   a   simple   website   and   easy   to   use   browser   buttons   which   allow   you   to:   Save   your   favourite   links   and   bookmarks   online   and   access   them   from   anywhere   at   any  time.   Save   time   with   quick   links   to   your   favorite   websites.   Use   Google’s  Web  History  to  find  the  sites  you  visit  frequently  and   bookmark   your   favorites.   Use   the   Google   Toolbar   for   quick   access  to  your  bookmarks  and  to  easily  create  more.  Get  your   bookmarks   on   any   computer.   No   matter   where   you   may   be   surfing   the   web,   your   bookmarks   can   stay   with   you   just   by   signing   in.   Keep   your   bookmarks   organized.   Add   searchable   labels   and   notes   to   your   bookmarks   to   find   them   easily   and   keep  them  organized.   Gravee   takes   three   of   the   most   useful   applications   on   the   Web   and   combines   them   together   in   one   experience   –   search,   recommendations,   and   social   networking   &   sharing.   This   creates   a   rich   social   search   and   recommendation   engine   that   personalizes  results  based  on  your  interests,  as  well  as  those  of   your  friends  (and  other  people  like  you  whom  you  don't  even   know).   allows   you   to   upload,   and   keep,   your   bookmarks   on   the   web   for   free.   You   can   access   them   at   any   time,  from  any  computer...  anywhere!   Jeteye  was  created  to  address  the  difficulty  of  keeping  track  of   good   information   and   resources   that   you   find   online.   The   Jeteye   community   is   a   public   library   where   people   can   freely   use  Jeteye  tools  to  create  and  share  Jetpaks™.   is   a   revolutionary   Web   2.0   social   bookmarking   web  service  for  collecting,  storing,  sharing  and  distributing  web   bookmarks,   notes,   rss   feeds,   contacts,   and   much   more.   Based   Page  7  of  51  
  • 8. Linkroll   Linksgutter   Mister  Wong   Mylinkvault   Netvouz   Oyax   Plime   Reddit   Squidoo   Startaid   Stumbleupon   Trendhunter   on   AJAX   and   other   next   generation   web   development   techniques,   offers   the   easiest,   fastest,   most   intuitive   and   productive   way   of   maintaining   and   collaborating   bookmarks  and  other  internet  resources  online.   Linkroll   is   a   free   link   blogging   service.   At   a   personal   level   you   can   bookmark,   categorize   and   comment   on   all   the   great   web   pages/links  you  find.     A  complete  free  social  bookmarking  site.   Mister  Wong  is  a  leading  social  bookmarking  service  with  over   1  million  users  globally.   online  links  made  easy  -­‐  store  your  links  online.   Netvouz  is  a  social  bookmarking  service  that  allows  you  to  save   your  favorite  links  online  and  access  them  from  any  computer,   wherever  you  are.  Organize  your  bookmarks  in  folders  and  tag   each  bookmark  with  keywords.   Oyax   is   a   social   bookmark   manager.   It   allows   you   to   add   web   sites  to  your  personal  collection  of  links,  categorize  those  sites   with   tags   and   share   your   collection   not   only   with   your   own   browsers  and  machine,  but  also  with  other  people.   Plime  is  an  editable  wiki  community  where  users  can  add  and   edit  weird  and  interesting  links.   Reddit   is   a   social   news   and   entertainment   website   where   registered  users  submit  content  in  the  form  of  either  a  link  or  a   text.   Other   users   then   vote   the   submission   “up”   or   “down”,   which   is   used   to   rank   the   post   and   determine   its   position   on   the  site’s  pages  and  front  page.  Content  entries  are  organized   by  areas  of  interest  called  “subreddits”.   Squidoo  is  the  popular  publishing  platform  and  community  that   makes   it   easy   for   you   to   create   "lenses"   online.   Lenses   are   pages,  kind  of  like  flyers  or  signposts  or  overview  articles  that   gather   everything   you   know   about   your   topic   of   interest-­‐-­‐and   snap   it   all   into   focus.   Like   the   lens   of   a   camera,   your   perspective  on  something.  (You're  looking  at  a  lens  right  now).   StartAid   is   a   Social   Bookmarking   site.   Startaid   give   you   the   ability   to   make   a   custom   homepage   where   you   can   have   all   your   Bookmarks   at   your   fingertips.   With   Startaid   you   can   you   Category  and/or  Tag  filing  systems.   StumbleUpon  helps  you  discover  and  share  great  websites.  As   you   click   Stumble!,   we   deliver   high-­‐quality   pages   matched   to   your   personal   preferences.   These   pages   have   been   explicitly   recommended  by  your  friends  or  one  of  over  15  million  other   websurfers  with  interests  similar  to  you.  Rating  these  sites  you   like   automatically   shares   them   with   like-­‐minded   people   –   and   helps  you  discover  great  sites  your  friends  recommend.   With   35,000,000   monthly   views,   is   the   world's  largest,  most  popular  trend  community.  Trend  Hunter,   Trend  Hunter  TV  and  Trend  Hunter  PRO  feature  112,000  micro-­‐ trends  and  cutting  edge  ideas.  Routinely  sourced  by  the  media,   Trend   Hunter   is   a   source   of   inspiration   for   industry   professionals,   aspiring   entrepreneurs   and   the   insatiably   curious.     VisualizeUs  is  a  social  bookmarking  website  for  visual  contents   Page  8  of  51   mister-­‐  
  • 9. Xmarks   Zootool   —  VisualizeUs  (read  visualize  us)  allows  you  to  remember  your   favorite   images   from   all   over   the   web,   and   share   them   with   everyone.   Xmarks   was   founded   in   2006   under   our   original   name   Foxmarks.   Our   bookmark   sync   browser   add-­‐on   is   one   of   the   most  popular  in  the  world  with  over  twenty  million  downloads   and   counting.   Our   products   are   actively   used   in   over   four   million  browsers  and  we  manage  over  a  billion  bookmarks  for   our  users.   Zootool   is   about   collecting,   organizing   and   sharing   your   favorite  images,  videos,  documents  and  links  from  all  over  the   internet.   Driven   by   a   passion   for   design,   web,   code   and   all   kind   of   nerdery,   we   are   working   hard   to   build   the   most   awesome   bookmark  tool  for  geeks  like  us  and  people  who  love  the  web.       Chinese  collaborative  projects  include  Baidu  bookmarks,  QQ  Bookmarks,  Sina  viv,  Hudong,  Soso   baike,  Baidu  baiki  and  MBAlib.       Blogs   In  2005,  Merriam-­‐Webster  added  the  word  “blog”  to  its  dictionary,  calling  it,  “a  web  site  that  contains   an  online  personal  journal  with  reflections,  comments,  and  often  hyperlinks  provided  by  the  writer.”  The   Website  Webopedia  defines  a  blog  as,  “a  web  page  that  serves  as  a  publicly  accessible  personal  journal   for   an   individual.”   The   term   originated   from   the   word   “weblog”,   which   was   coined   by   Jorn   Barger   on   17   December   1997   when   he   used   it   to   describe   the   list   of   links   on   his   Robot   Wisdom   website   that   “logged”   his  internet  wanderings  (Wortham,  2007).     In  April  or  May  of  1999,  Peter  Merholz  broke  the  word  weblog  into  the  two  words  “we  blog”  in   the   sidebar   of   his   blog   (The   Economist,   2006).   The   term   “blog”   was   picked   up   by   Evan   Williams   at   Pyra   Labs   who   used   “blog”   as   a   noun   and   a   verb   to   mean   “to   edit   one's   weblog   or   to   post   to   one's  weblog”  and  created  the  term  “blogger”  for  Pyra  Labs'  Blogger  product,  which  led  to  the  term's   worldwide  popularity  (Baker,  2008).     Representing   the   earliest   form   of   Social   Media,   blogs   are   the   “Equivalent   of   personal   web   pages   and   can   come   in   a   multitude   of   different   variations,   from   personal   diaries   describing   the   author’s   life   to   summaries  of  all  relevant  information  in  one  specific  content  area”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).     In  its  article  “It's  the  links,  Stupid”,  The  Economist  (2006)  claims  that  a  blog  is:    A   web   page   to   which   its   owner   regularly   adds   new   entries,   or   “posts”,   which   tend   to   be   (but   need   not   be)   short   and   often   contain   hyperlinks   to   other   blogs   or   websites.   Besides   text   and   hypertext,   posts   can   also   contain   pictures   (“photoblogs”)   and   video   (“vlogs”).   Each   post   is   stored   on  its  own  distinct  archive  page,  the  so-­‐called  “permalink”,  where  it  can  always  be  found.   The   Economist   (2006)   explains   that   blogging   is   a   quintessentially   social   activity,   highlighted   by   two  features:   Page  9  of  51  
  • 10. A  “blogroll”,  along  the  side  of  the  blog  page,  which  is  a  list  of  links  to  other  blogs  that  the  author   recommends  (not  to  be  confused  with  the  hyperlinks  inside  the  posts).  In  practice,  the  blogroll  is   an  attempt  by  the  author  to  place  his  blog  in  a  specific  genre  or  group,  and  a  reciprocal  effort  by   a   posse   of   bloggers   to   raise   each   other's   visibility   on   the   internet   (because   the   number   of   incoming  links  pushes  a  blog  higher  in  search-­‐engine  results).  The  other  feature  is  “trackback”,   which   notifies   (“pings”)   a   blog   about   each   new   incoming   link   from   the   outside—a   sort   of   gossip-­‐ meter,  in  short.   According   to   Dave   Winer,   the   influential   software   engineer   who   pioneered   several   blogging   techniques   and   has,   by   his   own   estimate,   the   longest   running   blog   of   all   time   (The   Economist,   2006),   weblogs  should  be:     • • • • Personalized:  Weblogs  are  designed  for  individual  use  (a  multi-­‐person  weblog  is  also  possible   through  collaboration,  such  as  the  ‘‘team  blog’’  offered  by  A  Weblog  style  is   personal  and  informal.     Web-­‐based:  Weblogs  can  be  updated  frequently.  They  are  easy  to  maintain  and  accessible  via  a   Web  browser.     Community-­‐supported:  Weblogs  can  link  to  other  weblogs  and  Websites,  enabling  the  linkage  of   ideas,  and  hence  stimulating  knowledge  generation  and  sharing  between  bloggers.   Automated:  Blogging  tools  help  bloggers  to  present  their  words  without  the  hassle  of  writing   HTML  code  or  any  other  programming  language;  instead,  bloggers  can  just  concentrate  on  the   content.   Winer   argues   that   blogging   should   have   a   raw,   unpolished   authenticity   to   it   (The   Economist,   2006).   “Blogging   is   all   about   style”   and   the   essence   of   blogginess   is   “the   unedited   voice   of   a   single   person,”   preferably   an   amateur   (The   Economist,   2006).   For   Winer,   editors   do   not   belong   in   the   Blogosphere,  even  though,  today,  they  very  much  do  (The  Economist,  2006).     Blogs  are  incredibly  popular  because  they  are  cheap,  easy  to  set  up  and  they  provide  maximum   exposure   with   limited   effort.   As   Jeff   Jarvis,   Director   of   the   Interactive   Journalism   at   City   University   of   New   York's   Graduate   School   of   Journalism   points   out,   they   are   the   “easiest,   cheapest,   fastest   publishing   tool   ever   invented”   (Wortham,   2007).   Blogs   are   everywhere,   affecting   every   sector   of   society   and,   because  of  their  ease  of  use  and  low  barrier  to  entry,  they  will  continue  to  be  a  big  part  of  the  national   and  worldwide  discourse  (Wortham,  2007).     Technorati   lists   over   1,274,415   blogs,   broken   down   into   categories   such   as   “Entertainment”,   “Business”,  “Sports”,  “Politics”,  “Autos”,  “Technology”,  “Living”,  “Green”  and  “Science”,  and  yet  this  list   only   barely   scratches   the   surface   of   the   blogosphere.   Blogs   can   take   many   forms,   including   a   diary,   a   news  service,  a  collection  of  links  to  Internet  resources,  a  series  of  book  reviews,  reports  of  activity  on  a   project,   the   journal   of   an   expedition,   a   photographic   record   of   a   building   project,   or   any   one   of   a   number  of  other  forms.     One  amusing  story  from  Germany  might  explain  the  popularity  of  blogs:  when  Jung  von  Matt,  a   German   advertising   firm,   came   up   with   their   “Du   bist   Deutschland”   (“You   are   Germany”)   advertising   campaign   to,   as   Jean-­‐Remy   von   Matt,   the   firm's   Belgian   boss,   put   it,   “fight   grumpiness”   about   the   country's   sluggish   economy,   he,   unwittingly,   stepped   into   Germany's   first   blogging   controversy   (The   Economist,   2006).   Not   only   did   German   bloggers   find   the   idea   kitschy,   but   one   industrious   researcher   Page  10  of  51  
  • 11. dug   up   an   obscure   photograph   from   a   Nazi   convention   in   1935   that   showed   Hitler's   face   on   a   poster   above   a   sign   containing   the   awkwardly   similar   slogan   “Denn   Du   bist   Deutschland”   (“Because   you   are   Germany”)  (The  Economist,  2006).   The  German  blogosphere  erupted  and  the  advertising  campaign,  to  put  it  mildly,  went  down  in   flames   (The   Economist,   2006).   An   outraged   Jean-­‐Remy   von   Matt   fired   off   a   terse   email   to   his   colleagues   claiming  blogs  were  “the  toilet  walls  of  the  Internet”  and  he  demanded  to  know:  “What  on  earth  gives   every  computer-­‐owner  the  right  to  express  his  opinion,  unasked  for?”  (The  Economist,  2006).     Once  von  Matt's  email  found  its  way  into  the  hands  of  those  very  same  bloggers,  the  reply  was   fast,  furious  and  so  ferocious  that  Mr.  von  Matt  quickly  turned  tail  in  retreat,  very  publicly  apologizing   for  his  misdirected  rant  (The  Economist,  2006).  As  The  Economist's  (2006)  article  so  succinctly  points  out,   “Inadvertently,  Mr.  von  Matt  had  put  his  finger  on  something  big:  that,  at  least  in  democratic  societies,   everybody  does  have  the  right  to  hold  opinions,  and  that  the  urge  to  connect  and  converse  with  others   is  so  basic  that  it  might  as  well  be  added  to  life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness.”   By   2004,   blogs   had   gone   mainstream;   Robert   Scoble   blogged   for   Microsoft,   giving   the   oftentimes  hegemonic  company  a  human  face  as  he  conversed  with  customers;  Matt  Drudge  went  from   convenience  store  clerk  to  one  to  Time  Magazine's  2006  100  most  influential  people  in  the  world  when   he   blogged   about   the   Clinton-­‐Lewinsky   scandal   (Time   Magazine,   2006).   In   its   piece   about   the   fedora   wearing  blogger,  Time  Magazine  (2006)  claimed:  “With  10  million  readers  daily,  Drudge,  39,  has  paved  a   generous   path   for   the   blogs;   without   his   example,   semipro   scribes   might   not   have   unearthed   ‘Rathergate’.   Of   course,   the   price   for   such   cyberscoops   has   been   the   coarsening   of   the   evening   news;   Drudge  has  goaded  traditional  media  into  playing  catch-­‐up  on  sordid  stories  they  once  safely  ignored”   (Time  Magazine,  2006).  To  be  successful,  a  blog  should  include  the  following  key  elements:   • • • • • Great  content:  as  the  old  adage  goes,  “Content  is  king”  and  that  old  axiom  should  be  kept  very   much   in   mind   when   it   comes   to   blogging.   Competition   is   fierce   so   one’s   content   better   be   relevant,  valuable  and  captivating.       Posts  frequently:  along  with  having  great  content,  bloggers  should  constantly  post  new  material.   A   constant   stream   of   new   material   will   garner   more   views,   which   should   result   in   many   more   followers.     User   friendly   navigation:   readers   prefer   navigation   that   is   simple   and   straightforward   so   have   links  that  make  logical  sense.     Eye   pleasing   content:   as   with   any   other   type   of   marketing,   the   prettier   something   looks,   the   more  likely  it  is  to  be  viewed,  so  keep  the  design  element  in  mind  when  creating  a  blog.       Connect  to  other  content:  linking  and  back-­‐linking  is  exceptionally  important  so  feel  free  to  add   links  to  other  content  that  expands  upon  or  references  your  content.     Legal  Issues   Anyone  who  chooses  to  blog  should  be  aware  that  anything  posted  in  a  chat  room,  at  an  online  forum  or   on   a   blog   can   make   the   blogger   liable   to   a   lawsuit.   According   to   the   US   Copyright   Office,   Copyright   “protects   original   works   of   authorship   including   literary,   dramatic,   musical,   and   artistic   works,   such   as   poetry,   novels,   movies,   songs,   computer   software,   and   architecture.   Copyright   does   not   protect   facts,   ideas,  systems,  or  methods  of  operation,  although  it  may  protect  the  way  these  things  are  expressed.”   Page  11  of  51  
  • 12. Bloggers   should   be   careful   not   to   infringe   upon   the   rights   of   others   or   unjustly   demean   corporations  or  people.  New  software  analytic  tools—some  of  which  I  detail  later—allow  companies  to   troll  the  Internet  for  copyrighted  material  and  negative  remarks  about  their  companies.     In   the   Wall   Street   Journal   article   “Bloggers,   Beware:   What   You   Write   Can   Get   You   Sued”   (McQueen,  2009),  journalist  M.P.  McQueen  warns  that,  “Web  sites  that  purport  to  rate  everything  from   college   professors   to   doctors   and   contractors   are   being   sued   by   recipients   of   disparaging   reviews”   (McQueen,  2009).  Bloggers  are  increasingly  getting  sued  for  everything  from  defamation  to  invasion  of   privacy  to  copyright  infringement,  so  caution  must  be  taken  (McQueen,  2009).     The  Media  Law  Resource  center  keeps  track  of  legal  actions  against  bloggers  and,  as  of  March   24,   2009,   such   high   profile   cases   as   Banks   v.   Milum,   Cornwell   v.   Sachs   (II),   Kaplan   v.   Salahi,   Kono   v.   Meeker;  Laughman  v.  Selmeier;  Omega  World  Travel  v.  Mummagraphics,  Inc.,  Scheff  v.  Bock,  Staten  v   Steele   and   Wagner   v.   Miskin   have   each   resulted   in   verdicts   against   the   bloggers   and   a   total   of   $16,128,280  has  been  awarded  to  the  plaintiffs.[2]   First   Amendment   protection   only   goes   so   far,   so   anyone   considering   blogging   what   could   be   construed   as   a   negative   comment   about   a   particular   person   or   a   company   should   take   out   insurance   policies   that   include   liability   insurance   for   defamation,   libel   and   slander.   Policy   language   differs   by   state   and   country   so   bloggers   should   check   with   their   insurers.   According   to   the   Insurance   Information   Institute,   a   $1   million   umbrella   policy   costs   an   average   of   $200   to   $350   per   year   on   top   of   regular   homeowner   and   auto   premiums   (McQueen,   2009).   In   this   writer's   estimation,   it   is   money   very   well   spent.     Also,   when   commenting   negatively   about   something,   discuss   your   own   personal   subjective   opinion   and   "if   you’re   going   to   assert   negative   facts,   provide   hyperlinks   to   your   sources   as   a   form   of   citation"   (Goldman,   2013).   In   a   2013   defamation   lawsuit   involving   Sheldon   Adelson   and   a   former   Las   Vegas  Sands  employee,  the  court  agreed  that  the  plaintiff  wasn't  guilty  of  slander  because  he  had  used   hyperlinks   to   quote   sources   (Goldman,   2013).   "The   hyperlink   is   the   twenty-­‐first   century   equivalent   of   the   footnote   for   purposes   of   attribution   in   defamation   law,   because   it   has   become   a   well-­‐recognized   means  for  an  author  or  the  Internet  to  attribute  a  source….[Hyperlinking  to  sources]  fosters  the  facile   dissemination  of  knowledge  on  the  Internet"  (Goldman,  2013),  the  court  ruled.   The  court  concluded  that  hyperlinks  were  superior  to  footnotes  because  readers  didn’t  have  to   make   a   “sojourn   to   the   library”   to   check   the   citation   (Goldman,   2013).   In   a   footnote,   the   court   acknowledged   the   risk   of   link   rot,   but   saw   "it   as   a   minor   concern   because   defamation   claims   must   be   brought  quickly,  which  reduces  the  odds  link  rot  will  occur  during  the  relevant  legal  period."  (Goldman,   2013).  The  court  even  concluded  that  the  defendants  qualified  for  anti-­‐SLAPP  protection,  meaning  the   case  was  over  and  Adelson  was  responsible  for  the  defendants  legal  fees  (Goldman,  2013).   List  of  Blogging  Websites   As   the   Blogging   landscape   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available   blogging   Websites  out  there,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:       NAME   AlterNet   ABOUT   AlterNet  is  an  award-­‐winning  news  magazine  and  online  community   that  creates  original  journalism  and  amplifies  the  best  of  hundreds  of   other  independent  media  sources.  AlterNet’s  aim  is  to  inspire  action   Page  12  of  51   WEBSITE  
  • 13. Blog  Catalog   Blog  Drive   Blogger   Blogigo   Blurty   Carbonmade   Disqus   Gabbr   Instablogs   IntenseDebate   Issuu   Jigsy   LiveJournal   Momentile   Plinky   Tumblr   and   advocacy   on   the   environment,   human   rights   and   civil   liberties,   social  justice,  media,  health  care  issues,  and  more.   Blog   Catalog   is   the   premiere   social   blog   directory   on   the   internet.   Search,  Browse,  Rate  and  Review  thousands  of  blog  sites.   A   weblog   publishing   service   that   is   easy   enough   for   a   beginner   and   advanced   enough   for   an   expert.   Free   Blog   sites   that   have   never   been   better.   Blogger   is   a   free   blog   publishing   tool   from   Google   for   easily   sharing   your  thoughts  with  the  world.     A  free  blog,  quick  and  easy.   Community   site   desgined   for   adults,   based   on   livejournal   source   code.   With   Carbonmade,   you   can   manage   your   online   portfolio   with   a   variety  of  tools  that  allow  you  to  change  how  you  display  your  work.   The   core   idea   behind   the   design   of   Carbonmade   is   to   keep   your   images  or  videos  at  the  forefront.   Disqus   (dis·∙cuss   •   dĭ-­‐skŭs')   is   all   about   changing   the   way   people   think   about   discussion   on   the   web.   We're   big   believers   in   the   conversations  and  communities  that  form  on  blogs  and  other  sites.   Gabbr   allows   you   to   view   and   comment   on   the   news   in   a   large   social   news   community   as   well   as   promote   content   for   web   publshers,   authors  and  bloggers.   Instablogs   is   a   news   ecosystem   bringing   bloggers,   citizen   journalists   and   traditional   media   together.   It's   a   place   to   discover,   share,   contribute   and   connect   with   the   world   and   the   people   who   are   changing  it.   IntenseDebate's   comment   system   enhances   and   encourages   conversation  on  your  blog  or  website.   Issuu  is  the  leading  digital  publishing  platform  delivering  exceptional   reading   experiences   of   magazines,   catalogs,   and   newspapers.   Millions   of   people   have   uploaded   their   best   publications   to   create   beautiful  digital  editions.     Jigsy   serves   personal   blogs,   small   business   websites,   news   portals,   bands,   churches,   pet   groomers,   artists,   musicians,   and...   well,   you   name   it.   People   are   flocking   to   Jigsy   by   the   thousands   and   we're   pleased  to  keep  on  doing  what  we  do  -­‐  enabling  people  to  create  and   maintain  great  looking  dynamic  websites.   Rooted   in   a   tradition   of   global   participation,   LiveJournal   is   on   the   forefront   of   personal   publishing,   community   involvement,   and   individual  expression.     Momentile  is  a  “picture  a  day”  photo  diary  that  makes  it  dead  simple   to   chronicle   your   days   and   observe   the   interesting   moments   of   others.  Trust  us,  it’s  for  the  greater  good.  is  the  fastest  way  to  publish  online.   Every   day   we   provide   a   new   prompt   (like   a   question,   or   a   challenge),   and   everyone   gets   a   chance   to   answer.   It's   simple   to   add   photos,   maps,   playlists   and   more.   You   can   easily   share   your   Plinky   answers   on   Facebook,   Twitter,   WordPress,   Tumblr,   and   most   major   blogging   services.   Soup   is   a   tumblelog;   a   super-­‐easy   blog   that   can   do   more   than   just   text:  post  links;  quotes;  videos;  audio;  files;  reviews  and  events   Tumblr  lets  you  effortlessly  share  anything.  Post  text,  photos,  quotes,   Page  13  of  51  
  • 14. TypePad   Wordpress   WPScoop   Zimbio   links,  music,  and  videos,  from  your  browser,  phone,  desktop,  email,   or  wherever  you  happen  to  be.  You  can  customize  everything,  from   colors,  to  your  theme's  HTML.     TypePad   blogs   make   it   simple   for   you   to   share   your   interests   and   get   noticed.   Easily   design   and   customize   your   own   blog,   and   use   our   SEO   (Search   Engine   Optimization)   and   SMO   (Social   Media   Optimization)   tools  to  promote  your  blog  and  attract  an  audience  and  following.   A  semantic  personal  publishing  platform  with  a  focus  on  aesthetics,   web  standards,  and  usability.   WP-­‐Scoop   (WordPress   Scoop)   is   website   dedicated   to   bringing   you   WordPress   related   News,   Reviews   and   Stories.   All   the   latest   and   greatest   information   on   the   WordPress   blogging   platform   can   be   found   on   the   pages   of   WPscoop.   We   are   a   Social   Bookmarking   Site   for   you   to   use   and   a   place   for   you   to   discover   what   is   hot   in   the   Wordpress  world.     Zimbio   is   an   interactive   magazine   publisher   focused   on   entertainment,   style,   current   events,   and   other   pop   culture   topics.,  one  of  the  fastest  growing  web  publications  and  one  of   the  10  most  popular  magazines  on  the  web,  is  now  read  by  over  20   million  people  each  month.   Chinese  blogging  sites  include  Weibo,  Hexum,  Sina  blog,  Blogus  and  Bolaa.     Microblogs   Although  similar  to  a  blogging  website,  a  microblog  site  differs  from  a  traditional  blog  in  that  its  content   is  typically  smaller  in  both  actual  and  aggregate  size.  “Social  networking  and  microblogging  services  such   as   Twitter,   Facebook,   or   Google+   allow   people   to   broadcast   short   messages,   so-­‐called   microposts,   in   continuous  streams.  These  posts  usually  consist  of  a  text  message  enriched  with  contextual  metadata,   such   as   the   author,   date   and   time,   and   sometimes   also   the   location   of   origin”   (Lohmann,   Burch,   Schauder,   Weiskopf,   2012).   While   individual   posts   can   be   no   longer   than   140   characters,   “aggregated   posts  of  multiple  users  can  provide  a  rich  source  of  time-­‐critical  information  that  can  point  to  events  and   trends  needing  attention”  (Lohmann,  Burch,  Schauder,  Weiskopf,  2012).  The  140  character  limitation  is   much  less  restrictive  in  character-­‐based  languages  such  as  Chinese  and  Japanese.   Twitter   Twitter  is  a  real-­‐time  short  messaging  service  that  works  over  multiple  networks  and  devices.[3]  A  free   social   networking   and   micro-­‐blogging   service,   Twitter   allows   users   to   send   and   receive   Tweets— messages  that  can  be  up  to  140  characters  in  length.  “Connected  to  each  Tweet  is  a  rich  details  pane   that   provides   additional   information,   deeper   context   and   embedded   media”   (   2011).   Because  it  is  happening  in  near  real-­‐time,  “Twitter  is  a  ‘what’s-­‐happening-­‐right-­‐now’  tool  that  enables   interested   parties   to   follow   individual   users’   thoughts   and   commentary   on   events   in   their   lives”   (Bifet   and  Frank,  2010).  Some  interesting  facts  about  Twitter  from  (2011)  include:   • • • • • • Twitter  gets  more  than  300,000  new  users  every  day.   There  are  currently  110  million  users  of  Twitter’s  services.   Twitter  receives  180  million  unique  visits  each  month.   There  are  more  than  600  million  searches  on  Twitter  every  day.   Twitter  started  as  a  simple  SMS-­‐text  service.   Over  60%  of  Twitter  use  is  outside  the  U.S.   Page  14  of  51  
  • 15. • • • There  are  more  than  50,000  third-­‐party  apps  for  Twitter.   Twitter’s  web  platform  only  accounts  for  a  quarter  of  its  users—75%  use  third-­‐party  apps.   Twitter   has   donated   access   to   all   of   its   tweets   to   the   Library   of   Congress   for   research   and   preservation.   In   his   article   “100   fascinating   social   media   statistics   and   figures   from   2012”,   Brian   Honigman   (2012)  includes  some  additional  interesting  facts  about  Twitter:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • There  were  175  million  tweets  sent  from  Twitter  every  day  in  2012.   The  average  Twitter  user  has  tweeted  307  times.   Since  the  dawn  of  Twitter,  there  have  been  a  total  of  163  billion  tweets.     56  percent  of  customer  tweets  to  companies  are  being  ignore.   Barack  Obama's  victory  tweet  was  the  most  retweeted  tweet  ever,  with  over  800K  retweets.   Top  three  countries  on  Twitter  are  the  US  at  107  million,  Brazil  33  million  and  Japan  at  nearly  30   million.   The  average  user  follows  (or  is  followed  by)  51  people.   The  2012  election  broke  records  with  31.7  million  political  tweets.   32  percent  of  all  Internet  users  are  using  Twitter.   Twitter  is  projected  to  make  a  total  of  $540  million  in  advertising  revenue  by  2014.   69  percent  of  follows  on  Twitter  are  suggested  by  friends.   In  2012,  one  million  accounts  were  added  to  Twitter  every  day.   The  most  followed  brand  on  Twitter  is  YouTube  with  19  million  followers.   The  USA's  141.8  million  accounts  represent  27.4  percent  of  all  Twitter  users.   50  percent  of  Twitter  users  are  using  the  social  network  via  a  mobile  device.   34  percent  of  marketers  have  generated  leads  using  Twitter.   On   its   Website,   Twitter   recommends   building   a   following,   increasing   a   businesses'   reputation,   and  raising  a  customer's  trust  by  following  these  best  practices  (,  2011):   • • • • • • • • Share:  disseminate  photos  and  behind  the  scenes  info  about  your  business.  Even  better,  give  a   glimpse  of  developing  projects  and  events.  Users  come  to  Twitter  to  get  and  share  the  latest,  so   give  it  to  them!     Listen:  regularly  monitor  the  comments  about  your  company,  brand,  and  products.   Ask:  question  your  followers  to  glean  valuable  insights  and  show  them  that  you  are  listening.   Respond:  reply  to  compliments  and  feedback  in  real  time.   Reward:  Tweet  updates  about  special  offers,  discounts  and  time-­‐sensitive  deals.     Demonstrate   wider   leadership   and   know-­‐how:   Reference   articles   and   links   about   the   bigger   picture  as  it  relates  to  your  business.     Champion   your   stakeholders:   Retweet   and   publicly   reply   to   great   tweets   posted   by   your   followers  and  customers.     Establish   the   right   voice:   Twitter   users   tend   to   prefer   a   direct,   genuine,   and,   of   course,   likable   tone   from   your   business,   but   think   about   your   voice   as   you   Tweet.   How   do   you   want   your   business  to  appear  to  the  Twitter  community?     Page  15  of  51  
  • 16. Twitter   also   offers   three   ways   to   advertise   on   its   service;   promoted   tweets;   promoted   trends;   and  promoted  accounts.  Promoted  tweets  are  regular  Tweets  that  are  amplified  to  a  broader  audience   and   they   are   offered   on   a   Cost-­‐per-­‐Engagement   (CPE)   basis.   A   business   is   charged   when   a   user   Retweets,   replies   to,   clicks   on   or   favorites   the   Promoted   Tweet   (,   2011).   Retweeted   impressions  by  engaged  users  are  free,  and  can  exponentially  amplify  the  reach  and  cost-­‐effectiveness   of  a  marketing  campaign  (,  2011).   Twitter   is   a   very   useful   tool   that   connects   businesses   to   customers   in   real-­‐time.   It   can   help   a   business  quickly  share  information  with  people  who  are  interested  in  their  products  and/or  services,  as   well  as  gather  real-­‐time  market  intelligence  and  customer  feedback  (,  2011).  Using  Twitter,   a  business  can  build  strong  relationships  with  its  customers  and  partners  as  well  as  raise  the  profile  of  its   brands,  direct  sales  and  engage  a  primed  audience  (,  2011).  Twitter  can  also  help  a  business   build  a  following,  increase  its  reputation  as  well  as  raise  a  customer’s  trust  by  sharing,  listening,  asking   questions,  responding  to  replies,  rewarding  customers  with  special  offers  and  discounts,  demonstrating   wider  leadership  and  championing  the  right  stakeholders.     “Promoted   Trends”   give   a   business   the   exclusive   opportunity   to   feature   a   Trend   related   to   its   business  at  the  top  of  the  “Twitter  Trends”  list  (Twitter,  2011).  When  a  user  clicks  on  the  “Trend”,  he  is   taken  to  the  conversation  for  that  trend  and  a  “Promoted  Tweets”  tag  is  attached  to  the  tweet  at  the   top   of   the   timeline.   Because   of   its   placement,   the   ad   receives   substantial   exposure,   thereby   initiating   or   amplifying  a  conversation  on  Twitter  and  beyond  (Twitter,  2011).   “Promoted   Accounts”   can   help   companies   quickly   increase   their   Twitter   followers   (Twitter,   2011).  Part  of  “Who  to  follow”  (Twitter's  account  recommendation  engine),  “Promoted  Accounts”  will   highlight  a  business  account  to  users  who  will  most  likely  find  it  interesting  (Twitter,  2011).  According  to   Twitter's   Website,   “Users   find   Promoted   Accounts   a   useful   part   of   discovering   new   businesses,   content,   and  people  on  Twitter.”   List  of  Microblogging  Websites   As   the   Microblogging   landscape   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available   Websites  online,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   Cuzo   Friendfeed       Mobango       "ABOUT  US"  DESCRIPTION   We’re   a   small   team   based   in   London   UK   who   launched   Audioboo   in   March  2009  as  a  simple  way  of  recording  audio  while  on  the  move  and   adding  as  much  useful  data  to  it  as  possible,  such  as  photos,  tags  and   location.   We’ve   seen   audioboo   grow   from   a   small   side   project   in   2009   to  a  fully-­‐fledged  business  in  2010  and  we’re  committed  to  making  it   the  platform  of  choice  for  anyone  who  wants  to  record,  listen  or  share   audio.   At   Cuzo   you   create   your   own   micro   blog   where   you   are   in   real   time   to   tell  your  friends,  relatives  or  colleagues  what  you  do  with  the  help  of   max  140  characters!   FriendFeed   is   a   service   that   makes   it   easy   to   share   with   friends   online.   It  offers  a  fun  and  interactive  way  to  discover  and  discuss  information   among  friends.   MOBANGO   is   the   first   Universal   Mobile   Community   that   allows   cell   phone   users   to   publish,   convert,   and   share   with   friends   all   kinds   of   user   generated   content   -­‐via   the   web   and   mobile   devices-­‐   for   Page  16  of  51   WEBSITE  
  • 17. Plurk   Twitter   Wadja   personalizing   and   empowering   the   new   cell   phone's   generation.   You   can  publish,  convert,  and  share  Personal  Content  of  all  types  for  your   cell  phone  -­‐  Videos,  Photos,  Ringtones,  Applications,  Games.     Noun.   plurk   (plüer-­‐kh)   -­‐   A   really   snazzy   site   that   allows   you   to   showcase   the   events   that   make   up   your   life   in   deliciously   digestible   chunks.  Low  in  fat,  5  calories  per  serving,  yet  chock  full  of  goodness.    Verb.   plurk   (plüer-­‐kh)   -­‐   To   chronicle   the   events   of   your   always   on,   action-­‐packed,  storybook,  semi-­‐charmed  kinda  life.   Twitter   is   a   real-­‐time   information   network   that   connects   you   to   the   latest   information   about   what   you   find   interesting.   Simply   find   the   public   streams   you   find   most   compelling   and   follow   the   conversations..   A   simple   and   social   way   to   publish   web   content,   and   connect   with   people  who  share  your  interests.   Chinese   Microblogging   sites   include   Sina   Weibo,   Tencent   weibo,   Netease   weibo   and   Souhu   weibo.       Content  Communities     Content   communities   exist   for   a   wide   range   of   media   types,   including   text,   photos,   videos,   and   PowerPoint   presentations   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   In   general,   users   are   not   required   to   create   a   personal   profile   page   or,   if   one   is   required,   only   basic   information   need   be   uploaded   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (pg.   63,   2010)   state   that,   “The   main   objective   of   content   communities   is   the   sharing   of   media   content   between   users”   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).     Although   businesses   run   the   risk   of   these   platforms   being   used   for   the   purpose   of   sharing   copyright-­‐protected  materials,  the  advantages  of  getting  one’s  content  into  the  social  media  community   seriously  outweighs  the  disadvantages  of  potential  copyright  infringement  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,   2010).   The   popularity   of   these   content   communities   make   them   a   very   attractive   contact   channel   for   many   businesses.   This   fact   isn’t   surprising   when   one   considers   that   a   site   such   as   YouTube   has   over   2   billion   views   per   day   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Personally,   I   have   found   Slideshare   to   be   a   particularly  good  site  to  generate  business  leads  as  well.                       YouTube   According   to   its   website,   YouTube   was   founded   in   February   2005   and   it   “allows   billions   of   people   to   discover,   watch   and   share   originally-­‐created   videos.   YouTube   provides   a   forum   for   people   to   connect,   inform,   and   inspire   others   across   the   globe   and   acts   as   a   distribution   platform   for   original   content   creators  and  advertisers  large  and  small.”[4]   On   23rd   April,   2005,   the   very   first   video-­‐-­‐“Me   at   the   Zoo”-­‐-­‐uploaded   to   YouTube   was   a   video.   Today,   YouTube   receives   more   than   2   billion   views   per   day.   YouTube   allows   users   to   create   accounts,   upload  videos,  “Like”  or  “Dislike”  videos,  leave  comments  on  a  video  and  create  channels,  among  other   things.  Some  other  facts  from  the  press  center  include:[5]   • • • Over  800  million  unique  users  visit  YouTube  each  month.   Over  4  billion  hours  of  video  are  watched  each  month  on  YouTube.   72  hours  of  video  are  uploaded  to  YouTube  every  minute.   Page  17  of  51  
  • 18. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 70%  of  YouTube  traffic  comes  from  outside  the  US.   YouTube  is  localized  in  43  countries  and  across  60  different  languages.   In  2011,  YouTube  had  more  than  1  trillion  views  or  around  140  views  for  every  person  on  earth.   Created   in   2007,   the   YouTube   Partner   Program   has   more   than   a   million   partners   from   27   countries  around  the  world.   Thousands   of   advertisers   are   using   TrueView   in-­‐stream   and   60%   of   those   in-­‐stream   ads   are   now   skipable.   YouTube  has  more  than  a  million  advertisers  using  Google  ad  platforms,  the  majority  of  which   are  small  businesses.   Three  hours  of  video  are  uploaded  per  minute  to  YouTube  from  mobile  devices.   YouTube’s   Content   ID   scans   over   100   years   of   video   every   day   for   any   sign   of   copyright   infringement.     More  than  3,000  partners  use  Content  ID,  including  every  major  US  network  broadcaster,  movie   studio  and  record  label.   YouTube   has   more   than   eight   million   reference   files   (over   500,000   hours   of   material)   in   its   Content  ID  database;  it's  among  the  most  comprehensive  in  the  world.   Over  a  third  of  YouTube's  total  monetized  views  come  from  Content  ID.   More  than  120  million  videos  have  been  claimed  by  Content  ID.   500  years’  worth  of  YouTube  videos  are  watched  every  day  on  Facebook,  and  over  700  YouTube   videos  are  shared  on  Twitter  each  minute.   100   million   people   take   a   social   action   on   YouTube   (such   as   likes,   shares,   comments,   etc.)   every   week.   More   than   50%   of   videos   on   YouTube   have   been   rated   or   include   comments   from   the   community.   Music  videos  account  for  20%  of  uploads.   The  video  for  K-­‐Pop  star  Psy’s  “Gangnam  Style”  was  the  first  video  to  clock  up  more  than  one   billion   YouTube   views   (Jones,   2012).   YouTube's   owner,   Google,   claims   the   video   was   watched,   on   average,   between   seven-­‐to-­‐10   million   times   a   day   (Jones,   2012)   and   it   has   netted   the   Korean   rapper   over  US  $8  million.  "Psy's  success  is  a  great  testament  to  the  universal  appeal  of  catchy  music  -­‐  and  ‘er,   great   equine   dance   moves,"   wrote   Kevin   Allocca,   YouTube   trends   manager,   on   the   service's   blog   (Jones,   2012).  YouTube  even  got  into  the  act,  adding  a  dancing  Psy  animation  above  the  hit  counter  once  the   video  eclipsed  the  one  billion  views  milestone  (Jones,  2012).     List  of  Content  Community  Sites   As  the  Content  Community  landscape  changes  on  a  daily  basis,  it  is  impossible  to  list  all  of  the  available   Websites,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  I  have  found:     NAME   23hq   8tracks   ABOUT   Keep  all  your  photos  in  one  safe  place.  With  23  you  can  organise   the  photos,  share  them  with  anyone  you  want,  and  you  can  even   order  real  prints  of  your  digital  photos.     8tracks   is   handcrafted   internet   radio.   It   offers   a   simple   way   for   people  to  share  and  discover  music  through  an  online  mix,  a  short   playlist  containing  at  least  8  tracks.  Listeners  can  search  for  a  mix   by   artist   or   genre,   stream   it   in   a   legal,   radio-­‐style   manner,   and   Page  18  of  51   WEBSITE  
  • 19. Artician   Arto   BabyCenter   Bambuser   Bandsintown   Blinkx   Blogtv   Breakmedia   Brickfish   Brightcove   Bukisa   Clipmoon   follow  others  who  make  compelling  mixes.     Artician   is   a   community   for   creative   professionals.   We   allow   artists,  designers,  photographers,  and  other  creative  individuals  to   build  completely  personalized  portfolios  for  free.   On  Arto  you  can  share  pictures,  videos,  create  friendbooks,  make   a   blog   and   much   more.   You   can   participate   in   fun   quizzes,   interesting   threads   in   the   forum   and   join   thousands   of   groups   -­‐   or   try  some  of  the  fun  games.   BabyCenter   is   the   voice   of   the   21st   Century   Mom®   and   modern   motherhood.   Now   the   Web's   #1   global   interactive   parenting   network,   it   has   nurtured   more   than   100   million   parents   since   its   launch  in  1997.     Bambuser  lets  you  broadcast  live  and  interactive  video  from  your   mobile   phone,   webcam   or   DV-­‐camera   —   and   it's   free!   Alert   people  when  you  go  live;  Shoot  with  almost  no  delay  &  chat  with   your  viewers  while  broadcasting.   Bandsintown   was   started   in   Boston,   MA   back   in   2007.   Our   goal   was   to   make   the   discovery   of   local   live   music   easier,   through   personalized  recommendations  and  notifications.   blinkx   is   the   world’s   largest   and   most   advanced   video   search   engine.   Now,   with   an   index   of   over   35   million   hours   of   searchable   video   and   more   than   720   media   partnerships,   including   national   broadcasters,   commercial   media   giants,   and   private   video   libraries,   it   has   cemented   its   position   as   the   premier   destination   for  online  TV.   Internet  radio  made  social  -­‐  Free  music  streaming  and  sharing  is  the  place  to  discover  the  best  in  original  web  series,  from   professional  and  up-­‐and-­‐coming  producers.  We  give  viewers  free   access   to   a   wide   variety   of   dramas,   comedies,   arts,   sports   and   other   shows   and   make   it   easy   to   find   what   you   want   when   you   want  it.     blogTV  is  a  leading  live,  interactive,  internet  broadcasting  platform   that  enables  anyone  with  an  internet  connection  and  a  camera  to   connect  to  their  audience  in  an  evocative,  direct  way.   Break   Media   is   a   leading   creator,   publisher,   and   distributor   of   digital   entertainment   content   including   video,   editorial,   and   games.   The   company’s   properties   include   the   largest   humor   site   online——as  well  as  Made  Man,  GameFront,  HolyTaco,   ScreenJunkies,  CagePotato,  AllLeftTurns,  Chickipedia,  and  TuVez.     Founded  in  2005,  Brickfish®  is  based  on  the  idea  that  peer  to  peer   interactions   around   a   brand's   product   and   services   have   great   value  and  relevance  to  consumers  and  brands  alike.  The  Brickfish   platform  allows  brands  and  agencies  to  launch  engagement  based   social  media  programs.     Brightcove   Inc,   the   cloud   content   services   company,   provides   a   family   of   products   used   to   publish   and   distribute   the   world's   professional  digital  media.     BUKISA  is  a  one  stop  shop  for  how-­‐to,  informational  &  educational   content.   We   are   both   an   aggregator   and   a   UGC   website.   We   provide   content   in   the   form   of   articles,   videos,   presentations,   audio  recordings  and  image  slideshows.   Your   online   video   sharing   community   portal.   Watch,   upload   and   Page  19  of  51  
  • 20. Clipshack   Clipsyndicate   Coull   Dailymotion   Discogs   Docstoc   Dropshots   Flickr   Filmnet   Fotki   Fotolog   share  videos.  Get  unlimited  video  hosting  space.  It  is  easy,  funny   and  free.   ClipShack   is   always   ahead   of   the   crowd,   and   now   we   have   integrated  Google  Maps™  so  that  you  can  map  your  content  and   search  by  location.   Publish  broadcast  quality  news  on  your  web  site.   Coull   is   the   market-­‐leading   Video   Performance   Network.   The   company's   platform   is   aimed   at   the   video   advertising   market   where  it  drives  revenue  generation,  firstly,  through  capturing  the   attention  of  the  customer,  and  secondly  via  product  pull  through.   Dailymotion   is   about   finding   new   ways   to   see,   share   and   engage   your   world   through   the   power   of   online   video.   You   can   find   -­‐   or   upload   -­‐   videos   about   your   interests   and   hobbies,   eyewitness   accounts   of   recent   news   and   distant   places,   and   everything   else   from  the  strange  to  the  spectacular.     Discogs  is  a  user-­‐built  database  containing  information  on  artists,   labels,   and   their   recordings.   Discogs   also   incorporates   a   Marketplace  where  you  can  buy  and  sell  the  recordings.   Docstoc  is  the  premier  online  destination  to  start  and  grow  small   businesses.   It   hosts   the   best   quality   and   widest   selection   of   professional  documents  (over  20  million)  and  resources  including   expert   video,   articles   and   productivity   tools   to   make   very   small   business   better.   Docstoc   is   among   the   top   500   most   visited   websites  (quantcast)  and  has  over  25  million  registered  users.   DropShots,   Inc.   was   born   from   a   passionate   mission:   To   improve   the  interaction  and  strengthen  the  emotional  connection  between   friends   and   family   through   the   use   of   advanced   technologies.   DropShots  is  accomplishing  this  mission  by  becoming  the  leading   subscription   based   service   for   family   and   friends   to   connect,   converse  and  share  their  life  experiences  captured  on  photo  and   video.     Flickr   -­‐   almost   certainly   the   best   online   photo   management   and   sharing  application  in  the  world  -­‐  has  two  main  goals:  1.  We  want   to   help   people   make   their   photos   available   to   the   people   who   matter   to   them;   2.   We   want   to   enable   new   ways   of   organizing   photos  and  video.     Founded   in   May   2009   and   officially   launched   on   October   22nd,   2009,  FilmNet  is  a  social  community  based  around  video  content.   We  bring  together  filmmakers  and  viewers  through  a  rich  content   library,   advanced   social   networking   tools   and   an   in-­‐depth   database   with   information   about   film   industry   professionals   and   web-­‐based  movie-­‐making.     The   organic,   fat-­‐free   photo   and   video   sharing   site,   which   uses   steroids   only   on   its   technology,   delivers   state   of   the   art   yummy   photo   products   and   prints,   and   grows   healthy   professional   photographers’   business   without   cruelty   to   eyes,   wallets   and   customers.   Fotolog   is   the   world's   leading   photo-­‐blogging   site,   one   of   the   world's   largest   social   networking   sites   and   a   global   cultural   phenomenon.   More   than   22   million   members   in   over   200   countries   use   Fotolog   as   a   simple   and   fun   way   to   express   themselves  through  online  photo  diaries  or  photo  blogs.     Page  20  of  51  
  • 21. Fotopedia   Funnyordie   Gotcast   Godtube   Gogoyoko   Helpfulvideo   Howcast   Hulu   Ihiphop   Instructables   Issuu   Fotopedia   is   breathing   new   life   into   photos   by   building   a   photo   encyclopedia   that   lets   photographers   and   photo   enthusiasts   collaborate   and   enrich   images   to   be   useful   for   the   whole   world   wide  web.     Funny   Or   Die   is   a   comedy   video   website   that   combines   user-­‐ generated   content   with   original,   exclusive   content.   The   site   is   a   place   where   celebrities,   established   and   up-­‐and-­‐coming   comedians   and   regular   users   can   all   put   up   stuff   they   think   is   funny.     GotCast  was  born  from  one  simple  idea  -­‐  you  deserve  your  shot  at   stardom!   Until   now,   getting   there   was   nearly   impossible   for   everyone.   Aside   from   moving   to   Hollywood   and   hoping   to   get   discovered,  the  only  chance  you  may  have  had  was  to  show  up  at   a   talent   competition   or   send   a   video   to   a   TV   Network   -­‐   both   of   these  never  seem  to  work.  is  a  video  sharing  platform  offering  online  Christian   videos  with  faith-­‐based,  family  friendly  content.     gogoyoko  is:  a  new  music-­‐community  that  gives  us  something  we   have   all   been   waiting   for…   Fair   Play   in   Music;   for   all   artists   and   music   fans   who   want   to   interact   in   a   fair   music   market   place;   a   website   where   everyone   can   listen   to   and   buy   music   directly   from   artists  and  anyone  can  sell  and  promote  their  music,  unlike  iTunes   and  MySpace.   is   a   website   to   share   videos   about   everyday   knowledge   and   skills   among   everyday   people.   It   is   better   to   see   once   than   to   hear   or   read   ten   times.   We   hope   you   like!   Howcast   empowers   people   with   engaging,   useful   how-­‐to   information  wherever,  whenever  they  need  to  know  how.  Known   for   high-­‐quality   content,   Howcast   streams   tens   of   millions   of   videos  every  month  across  its  multi-­‐platform  distribution  network.   Hulu  is  an  online  video  service  that  offers  a  selection  of  hit  shows,   clips,   movies   and   more   at,   numerous   destination   sites   online,   and   through   our   ad-­‐supported   subscription   service,   Hulu   Plus.   Hulu's   selection   of   premium   programming   is   provided   by   more  than  260  content  companies.   iHipHop,  a  property  of  Triumph  Media  Holdings,  Inc.,  is  the  most   technologically   advanced   social   network   catered   to   the   hip   hop   community.   The   site   offers   music,   videos,   news,   and   networking   features  to  almost  800,000  users.   Instructables   is   a   web-­‐based   documentation   platform   where   passionate   people   share   what   they   do   and   how   they   do   it,   and   learn   from   and   collaborate   with   others.   The   seeds   of   Instructables   germinated  at  the  MIT  Media  Lab  as  the  future  founders  of  Squid   Labs  built  places  to  share  their  projects  and  help  others.   Issuu   is   the   world’s   fastest   growing   digital   publishing   platform.   Millions   of   avid   readers   come   to   Issuu   every   day   to   read   free   publications,   created   by   enthusiastic   publishers   from   all   over   the   globe.   The   site   is   not   just   a   place   where   you   store   your   albums.   Follow   great   photographers   from   all   over   the   world,   like   and   comment   on   other   peoples'   albums   and   get   feedback   on   Page  21  of  51  
  • 22. Jamendo   Jelli   Kcoolonline   Keepvid   Kincafe   Kinzin   Lafango   LiveLeak   Livestream   Livevideo   Meemi   Metacafe   yours.   Connect   with   Facebook   or   Twitter   and   share   your   albums   with  your  friends.   Jamendo   is   a   community   of   free,   legal   and   unlimited   music   published   under   Creative   Commons   licenses.   Share   your   music,   download  your  favorite  artists!   Jelli  is  an  interactive  radio  broadcasting  service  launched  in  2009.  is  the  easiest  way  to  create  live  video  and  show  anyone   in   the   world   what's   happening   right   now.   Using   only   a   laptop,   you   can   share   your   event,   class,   party   or   thoughts,   live,   to   anyone   in   over  250  countries  while  they  chat  in  real-­‐time  with  you  and  with   other  viewers.     Kcoolonline   currently   works   for   over   288   streaming   video   sites,   and   more   are   being   added   every   week.   Supported   sites   include   many   popular   stream   sites.   If   you've   got   a   site   that   you'd   like   to   download   videos   from,   leave   a   message   in   the   Guestbook   and   we'll  look  into  it.   Download   videos   from   many   video   sharing   sites,   including   YouTube,   Google   Video,   MySpace   Videos,   DailyMotion,,   Revver  and  other  services.   Kincafe   is  your   family  network  to  connect,  bond  and  cherish  loved   ones   -­‐   the   ones   you   grew   up   with,   the   ones   you   care   for   at   the   center  of  your  heart.     We’ve   created   this   Social   Publishing™   service   to   allow   groups   to   privately  share  photos,  collaborate  and  create  printed  mementos   that  everyone  can  enjoy.     From   musicians   to   comedians,   singers   to   dancers,   and   models   to   photographers   Lafango   gives   everyday   people   the   ability   to   showcase   their   talents   with   the   world.   Lafango   serves   as   a   multimedia   platform   for   artists   and   talent   seekers   to   connect   through   multiple   features   including   distinctive   categories,   advanced  social  networking  and  live  media  distribution.   is   a   music   recommendation   service.   You   use   by   signing   up   and   downloading   The   Scrobbler,   which   helps   you   discover  more  music  based  on  the  songs  you  play.   LiveLeak  is  a  video  sharing  website  that  lets  users  post  and  share   videos.   Liveleak   places   emphasis   on   current   events,   politics   and   reality-­‐based  footage  such  as  war  scenes  from  various  parts  of  the   world.   Livestream   is   the   leading   live   video   destination   and   platform.   Event   organizers,   content   owners,   celebrities   and   artists   around   the   world   use   Livestream's   social   broadcasting   tools   to   engage   and   grow   their   audiences   on   the   web,   mobile   devices,   and   connected  TVs.   LiveVideo   broadcast   yourself   live,   watch,   chat,   interact,   connect   and  share  videos  with  people  all  over  the  world.   The   easiest   way   to   share   and   collect   your   texts,   your   quotes,   your   images,   your   favourites   links,   to   organize   your   events   with   your   friends  or  collect  your  favourites  video.   Metacafe   is   a   video   entertainment   site   that   focuses   on:    Short-­‐form   -­‐   Metacafe   specializes   in   short-­‐form   original   video   -­‐   content   that   is   made   for   the   interactive   Internet   medium.     Entertainment  -­‐  We're  all  about  entertaining  a  large  audience  by   Page  22  of  51  
  • 23. Mevio   Mog   Motortopia   Mp3   Myplick   Myshutterspace   Netvibes   Oovoo   Ourmedia   Ourstage   featuring  only  those  videos  that  amaze,  inspire  and  make  viewers   laugh.   Community  Auditions  -­‐  A  community  review  panel  of  more  than   80,000   volunteers   takes   a   first   look   at   each   of   the   thousands   of   videos  submitted  to  the  site  every  day.     MEVIO   hosts   networks   of   personality-­‐driven   episodic   entertainment   to   best   engage   our   customers-­‐comprised   of   viewers,  producers,  advertisers  and  partners.  MEVIO  is  one  of  the   fastest  growing  entertainment  sites  on  the  web.     MOG   has   one   simple   goal:   to   perfect   your   music-­‐listening   experience.   MOG’s   all-­‐you-­‐can-­‐eat,   on-­‐demand   listening   service   provides   access   to   a   deep   library   of   over   11   million   songs   and   a   million   albums   through   its   mobile   apps   on   iPhone   and   Android,   as   well  as  on  the  Web  and  streaming  entertainment  devices  for  TV.   Our   goal   at   Motortopia   is   to   bring   motor   enthusiasts   and   the   information   they   desire   together   in   one   place.   Whether   you   are   into  cars,  bikes,  boats  or  planes,  Motortopia  enables  you  to  share   your  passion  with  others.     MP3   Music   Downloads   -­‐   offers   links   to   legal   digital   music  downloads  from  a  wide  variety  of  services.  Buy  MP3  music   online  from  your  favorite  artists  with   Myplick  is  a  free  service  that  lets  you  share,  embed  and  discover   presentations   and   slide   shows   online.   You   can   upload   your   presentation   documents   in   a   variety   of   formats   such   as   powerpoint,  pdf,  openoffice  odp,  etc.   MyShutterspace   is   a   social   network   for   digital   photography   enthusiasts.   This   is   your   place   to   connect   with   other   digital   photographers   (both   amateur   and   pro),   share   photos,   videos   &   stories,   get   critiques   on   photos,   and   discuss   photography   techniques  and  gears.   Founded   in   2005,   Netvibes   pioneered   the   first   personalized   dashboard   publishing   platform   for   the   Web.   For   consumers,   is   the   most   awarded   start   page   where   millions   of   people   around   the   world   personalize   and   publish   all   aspects   of   their   daily   digital   lives.   For   agencies   and   publishers,   Netvibes’   universal   widget   technology   (UWA),   widget   distribution   services   and   Premium   Dashboards   help   rapidly   deliver   brand   observation   rooms   and   user-­‐personalized   marketing   campaigns.   For   companies,   Netvibes   Enterprise   delivers   secure,   scalable   personalized  workspaces,  portals  and  industry  dashboards.     ooVoo   offers   the   ability   to   video   chat   face-­‐to-­‐face   with   family   and   friends,   anytime   and   anywhere.   With   ooVoo   you   can   have   free   video   chats   one-­‐to-­‐one,   or   have   a   group   video   chat   with   up   to   6   people  at  once!     Welcome   to   Ourmedia,   a   community   of   individuals   dedicated   to   spreading  grassroots  creativity:  videos,  podcasts  and  other  works   of   personal   media.   Have   a   creative   streak?   This   is   a   place   where   you   can   discuss   home-­‐brew   media,   store   your   stuff   for   safekeeping  and  show  off  your  works  to  a  global  audience.       We’re   not   just   another   music-­‐centric   social   networking   site.   The   OurStage   community   is   made   up   of   undiscovered   artists   hungry   for   exposure,   music   lovers   with   insatiable   appetites   and   industry   Page  23  of  51  
  • 24. Pandora   Pbase   Photobucket   Photopeach   Photoshow   Picturepush   Picturesocial   Picturetrail   Pikchur   Podomatic   Redux   Revision3   professionals   committed   to   bringing   incredible   talent   to   the   masses.     When  was  the  last  time  you  fell  in  love  with  a  new  artist  or  song?   At   Pandora,   we   have   a   single   mission:   To   play   only   music   you'll   love.     PBase   was   conceived   in   July   of   1999   after   observing   countless   camera  wielding  people  that  take  cool  photos  but  find  it  difficult   to  share  their  work.  The  primary  mission  of  PBase  is  to  be  the  best   place  on  the  web  to  display  photos.   Photobucket   is   the   premier   destination   for   uploading,   downloading,   sharing,   linking   and   finding   photos,   videos   and   graphics.   Host   all   your   images   and   videos   for   free,   then   share   them   by   email   or   on   social   sites   like   Facebook,   Twitter   and   MySpace.     Our  idea  is  to  help  you  tell  better  stories  online  using  photos.  With   PhotoPeach  you  can  create  a  rich  slideshow  in  seconds  to  engage   your   friends   or   family.   We   also   support   background   music,   captions,   and   comments   so   you   can   elaborate   on   your   story   further.     Share   your   family's   favorite   stories   with   friends   and   relatives.   They'll  feel  like  they  were  there!  Roxio  PhotoShow  makes  it  simple   to   combine   your   favorite   photos   and   video   clips   from   birthdays,   vacations,   or   any   other   occasion   with   fun   stickers,   animations,   effects,   and   music   to   create   one-­‐of-­‐a-­‐kind   online   PhotoShows   they're  sure  to  love.   Photosynth  is  a  powerful  set  of  tools  for  capturing  and  viewing  the   world   in   3D.   You   can   share   these   views   with   your   friends   on   Facebook,   publish   them   to   Bing   Maps,   or   embed   them   in   your   own  Web  site.  Here’s  the  big  picture:   Picasa  is  free  photo  editing  software  from  Google  that  makes  your   pictures   look   great.   Sharing   your   best   photos   with   friends   and   family  is  as  easy  as  pressing  a  button!     PicturePush  is  a  photo  and  video  hosting  service.  It  is  built  on  the   philosophy  that  you  can  upload  everything  you  have  in  the  highest   quality  possible  and  worry  about  what  to  show  to  whom  later.     PictureSocial   is   a   new   place   where   photographers   from   all   experience   levels   can   share   their   knowledge   and   learn   from   others.     PictureTrail,  Inc.   operates  a  leading  photo  sharing  social  network   and   widget   destination.   Members   and   visitors   share   photos   online,   host   images,   order   prints   and   utilize   most   other   options   available  through  the  top  photo  sharing  sites.     Pikchur   is   a   simple   service   that   updates   your   social   networks   /   micro-­‐blogging   platforms   with   pictures   &   videos!   No   need   to   signup!  Just  login  with  one  of  our  many  supported  platforms  and   start  sending  your  Piks  today!     PodOmatic  podcast  portal:  Create,  Find,  Share  Podcasts!   Redux   helps   you   find   and   enjoy   videos,   photos,   music,   and   websites   recommended   by   people   who   love   the   same   stuff   you   do.   Revision3   has   emerged   as   the   leading   special   interest   video   network,   and   has   attracted   top   Internet   video   talent,   advertisers   Page  24  of  51  
  • 25. Shazam   Skyrock   SlideShare   Smugmug   Soundcloud   SCribd   Thesixtyone   Throwpile   Tinychat   Twitxr   Veoh   Viddler   Videojug   and  distribution  partners.     Grown   into   an   established   business,   but   retained   our   start-­‐up   approach   and   work   ethic:   Shazam   believes   in   creating   a   magical   experience   and   is   passionate   about   developing   innovative   products  and  services.   A  community  with  blogging  as  well  as  sharing  of  music,  videos  and   more   SlideShare   is   the   world's   largest   community   for   sharing   presentations.   With   50   million   monthly   visitors   and   90   million   pageviews,   it   is   amongst   the   most   visited   250   websites   in   the   world.   Besides   presentations,   SlideShare   also   supports   documents,  PDFs,  videos  and  webinars.   The  ultimate  in  photo  sharing.  Easily  create  online  photo  albums.   Share,  store,  organize  and  print.   SoundCloud   is   a   platform   that   puts   your   sound   at   the   heart   of   communities,   websites   and   even   apps.   Watch   conversations,   connections   and   social   experiences   happen,   with   your   sound   as   the  spark.   Scribd   is   the   world’s   largest   digital   library,   where   readers   can   discover   books   and   written   works   on   the   Web   or   any   mobile   device   and   publishers   and   authors   can   find   a   voracious   audience   for   their   work.   Launched   in   March   of   2007   and   based   in   San   Francisco,  California,  more  than  40  million  books  and  documents   have   been   contributed   to   Scribd   by   the   community.   Scribd   content   reaches   and   audience   of   80   million   people   around   the   world  every  month.     On   thesixtyone,   new   artists   make   music   and   listeners   decide   what's   good.   We're   nurturing   a   growing   ecosystem   where   talented   folks   can   sell   songs   and   merchandise   directly   to   their   fans.     Throwpile   enables   you   to   keep   in   touch   with   friends   via   quick   and   easy  photo,  art,  and  picture  updates.   Tinychat  is  a  dead-­‐simple,  live  video  communication  platform.  By   providing   dead   simple,   free   to   use,   video   chat   rooms   that   just   work!     Share   pictures   from   your   mobile   phone.   Automatically   publish   them  on  social  networks  and  photosharing  sites.  Tell  your  friends   where   you   are   and   what   you   are   doing.   Automatically   add   your   location  to  your  pictures  and  status  updates     Ustream  is  the  leading  live  interactive  broadcast  platform.  Anyone   with   an   internet   connection   and   a   camera   can   start   engaging   with   their  family,  friends  or  fans  anytime,  anywhere.     By   bridging   the   gap   between   uniquely   social   interactive   user   experiences  and  the  portability  of  online  video,  games,  music  and   other   multimedia,   Qlipso   empowers   users   to   share   the   Flash-­‐ based  media  content  they  find  and  enjoy  on  the  Web  and  interact   with   friends   and   family   in   a   secure   and   friendly   virtual   environment.   Viddler  is  a  platform  for  video  publishers   Videojug   is   a   next-­‐generation   digital   media   company   that   helps   people   to   ‘get   good   at   life',   wherever   they   are.     Our   aim   is   to   be   a   world-­‐leading   factual   and   learning   resource   for   the   100s   of   Page  25  of  51  
  • 26. Vidque   Vimeo   Webshots   Woophy   Youlicense   Youtube   Zenfolio   millions  of  global  internet  users  hungry  for  knowledge  on  how  to   perform   a   million   large   and   little   life   tasks,   as   well   as   practical   and   valuable  information  on  any  subject  under  the  sun.     Vidque   is   a   free   curation   platform   designed   to   help   discover,   filter   and   archive   online   video   content.   Controlled   and   curated   by   its   users,   Vidque   aims   to   simplify   the   discovery   of   quality   video   content  through  the  joint  effort  of  the  online  community.   From  the  beginning,  Vimeo  was  created  by  filmmakers  and  video   creators   who   wanted   to   share   their   creative   work,   along   with   intimate   personal   moments   of   their   everyday   life.   As   time   went   on,  like-­‐minded  people  came  to  the  site  and  built  a  community  of   positive,   encouraging   individuals   with   a   wide   range   of   video   interests.     With   7.2   Million   monthly   visitors   and   more   than   520   million   photos   to   explore,   Webshots   is   one   of   the   largest   photo-­‐   and   video-­‐sharing  sites.  Webshots  provides  you  with  a  variety  of  ways   to  enjoy  photos  and  videos.   The   goal   of   Woophy's   founders   is   to   create   an   accessible,   visual,   current,   democratic   and   collective   work   of   art   comprised   of   a   database  picturing  our  remarkable  world.     YouLicense   is   an   online   music   licensing   marketplace.   We   have   developed   a   platform   which   enables   artists   and   those   seeking   musical  content  to  conduct  business  directly  with  one  another  in  a   safe  and  secure  environment.     Founded   in   February   2005,   YouTube   allows   billions   of   people   to   discover,   watch   and   share   originally-­‐created   videos.   YouTube   provides  a  forum  for  people  to  connect,  inform,  and  inspire  others   across   the   globe   and   acts   as   a   distribution   platform   for   original   content  creators  and  advertisers  large  and  small.     At   Zenfolio   we   believe   that   a   beautiful   photograph   requires   an   equally  impressive  viewing  experience.  And  because  every  photo   tells  a  story,  we've  made  it  our  business  to  display  them  with  the   same   precision   and   attention   to   detail   that   went   into   making   them.   Chinese  content  communities  include  YouKu,  Ku6  and  Qiyi.     Social  Networks   Perhaps  the  most  recognizable  of  all  social  media  sites  are  the  social  networks,  sites  such  as  Facebook,   Foursquare,   Instagram,   LinkedIn,   Pinterest,   and   MySpace   are   instantly   recognizable.   According   to   Wikipedia,  “a  social  network  is  a  social  structure  made  up  of  individuals  (or  organizations)  called  ‘nodes’,   which   are   tied   (connected)   by   one   or   more   specific   types   of   interdependency,   such   as   friendship,   kinship,   common   interest,   financial   exchange,   dislike,   sexual   relationships,   or   relationships   of   beliefs,   knowledge  or  prestige.”   Boyd   and   Ellison   (2007)   define   social   network   sites   (SNS)   as:   “web-­‐based   services   that   allow   individuals  to  (1)  construct  a  public  or  semi-­‐public  profile  within  a  bounded  system,  (2)  articulate  a  list  of   other  users  with  whom  they  share  a  connection,  and  (3)  view  and  traverse  their  list  of  connections  and   those  made  by  others  within  the  system.  The  nature  and  nomenclature  of  these  connections  may  vary   from  site  to  site.”  What  makes  a  social  network  site  unique  is  its  “ability  to  enable  users  to  articulate  and   Page  26  of  51  
  • 27. make   visible   their   social   networks”   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007),   which   can   result   in   connections   between   individuals   that   would   otherwise   not   have   been   made   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   This   is   one   of   the   key   aspects  of  social  networking  that  makes  it  so  primed  for  marketing,  an  area  I  will  delve  into  further  in   chapter  five.     “While  SNSs  have  implemented  a  wide  variety  of  technical  features,  their  backbone  consists  of   visible   profiles   that   display   an   articulated   list   of   friends   who   are   also   users   of   the   system”   (Boyd   and   Ellison,  2007).  When  signing  up,  a  user  creates  a  profile  by  answering  questions  posed  on  the  Website,   which   can   include   things   such   as   age,   location   and   interests   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   Most   sites   encourage  users  to  upload  a  profile  photo,  while  others  allow  multimedia  content  such  as  video,  music   or   image   files   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   Facebook   even   allows   users   to   add   modules   that   can   include   everything   from   news   feeds   to   notifications   to   other   social   plugins   that   can   substantially   enhance   a   user’s  profile  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Once   a   user   joins   a   social   networking   site,   she   is   prompted   to   identify   other   users   in   the   system   with   which   she   has   a   relationship   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   “The   label   for   these   relationships   differs   depending  on  the  site–popular  terms  include  ‘Friends’,  ‘Contacts’,  and  ‘Fans’”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).   This   public   display   of   connections   is   an   important   element   of   SNSs.   “The   Friends   list   contains   links   to   each   Friend's   profile,   enabling   viewers   to   traverse   the   network   graph   by   clicking   through   the   Friends   lists”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  On  most  sites,  the  list  of  Friends  is  visible  to  anyone  who  is  permitted  to   view   the   profile,   but   some   sites   such   as   LinkedIn   allow   users   to   opt   out   of   displaying   his   network   should   he  choose  that  option  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Most   SNSs   allow   users   to   leave   messages   on   his   or   her   friends'   profiles   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   This  feature  typically  involves  leaving  “comments”  on  a  “wall”  or  some  other  place  that  allows  a  thread   of   commentary.   Most   SNSs   include   a   private   messaging   feature   that   is   similar   to   webmail   (Boyd   and   Ellison,  2007).   Social   networks   can   also   be   important   platforms   for   a   business.   In   their   paper   Expanding   Opportunities  in  a  Shrinking  World  (2009),  Avimanyu  Datta  and  Len  Jessup  state  that  “Social  networks   promote   social   entrepreneurship   by   means   of   (a)   technology   and   knowledge   transfer;   (b)   locating   information;  (c)  generating  entrepreneurial  opportunities;  (d)  building  entrepreneurial  competency;  (e)   financing  innovation;  and  (f)  building  effective  networks  for  commercialization  of  innovations.   History  of  Social  Networks   According  to  Boyd  and  Ellison's  (2007)  definition  of  SNS,  the  first  recognizable  social  network  site  was,  which  launched  in  1997.  The  site  allowed  users  to  create  profiles,  list  their  friends  and,   starting  in  1998,  surf  their  friends’  lists  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Each  of  these  features  existed  in  some   form  before  SixDegrees,  but  SixDegrees  aggregated  them  all  into  one  site  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Launched   in   1995,   was   one   of   the   first   social   networks   to   introduce   the   concepts   of   “friends”   who   either   knew   each   other   or   shared   something   in   common   with   the   other   members  of  the  group,  such  as  a  high  school  or  a  college  affiliation.  However,  it  was  years  before  users   could  actually  create  groups  of  friends.     The   option   to   add   a   profile   existed   on   most   major   dating   sites   and   many   community   sites   at   the   time   as   well   as   on   AIM—AOL's   Instant   Messaging   platform.   ICQ’s   buddy   lists   also   supported   lists   of   Page  27  of  51  
  • 28. friends,   but   SixDegrees   was   the   first   to   combine   these   features   together   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   SixDegrees  promoted  itself  as  a  tool  “to  help  people  connect  with  and  send  messages  to  others,”  but,   although  it  had  more  than  3,500,000  registered  users  at  one  time,  it  failed  to  make  money  and  it  shut  its   doors  in  2000  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     From   1997   to   2001,   sites   such   as   AsianAvenue,   BlackPlanet,   and   MiGentea   came   online   (Boyd   and  Ellison,  2007).  These  included  community  tools  that  allowed  users  to  create  personal,  professional,   and   dating   profiles   as   well   as   to   identify   “friends”   on   their   personal   profiles   without   seeking   approval   from  those  connections  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     LiveJournal  went  online  in  1999  and  it  allowed  people  to  mark  others  as  friends,  which  would   then   give   those   friends   the   ability   to   follow   journals   as   well   as   to   manage   privacy   settings   (Boyd   and   Ellison,  2007).     The  influential  Korean  virtual  world  Cyworld,  which  began  in  1999,  added  SNS  features  in  2001   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007),   while   in   Europe,   the   Swedish   web   community   LunarStorm   evolved   into   an   SNS   in  2000  when  it  added  Friends  lists,  guestbooks,  and  diary  pages  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Launched   in   2001,   San   Francisco-­‐based   was   formed   to   help   people   leverage   their   business  networks  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Its  members  included  several  leaders  of  the  San  Francisco   business   and   technology   community,   many   of   whom   would   later   lead   and   invest   in   some   of   today's   most  successful  SNSs,  including,  LinkedIn,  and  Friendster  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Launched  in  2002  as  a  social  complement  to  Ryze,  Friendster  was  designed  to  compete  against   by   attempting   to   foster   romantic   connections   between   friends-­‐of-­‐friends   rather   than   between  strangers,  which  is  the  way  most  dating  Websites  work  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  It  found  initial   success   among   three   groups   of   early   adopters—“bloggers,   attendees   of   the   Burning   Man   arts   festival,   and   gay   men”   (Boyd,   2004).   Friendster   grew   quickly   through   word   of   mouth   before   positive   press   coverage  in  May  2003  really  put  it  on  the  map  (O'Shea,  2003).     Friendster   immediately   encountered   technical   difficulties,   however,   because   its   servers   were   ill-­‐ equipped  to  handle  its  rapid  growth  and  the  site  regularly  faltered,  alienating  its  users  (Boyd  and  Ellison,   2007).   “Because   organic   growth   had   been   critical   to   creating   a   coherent   community,   the   onslaught   of   new  users  who  learned  about  the  site  from  media  coverage  upset  the  cultural  balance  of  the  site”  (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   Furthermore,   exponential   growth   meant   a   collapse   in   social   contexts:   users   had   to   face   their   bosses   and   former   classmates   alongside   their   closest   friends.   To   complicate   matters   even   further,  Friendster  began  restricting  the  activities  of  its  most  passionate  users”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).   Friendster  was  initially  designed  to  restrict  users  from  viewing  profiles  of  people  who  were  more   than  four  degrees  away  from  them  (friends-­‐of-­‐friends-­‐of-­‐friends-­‐of-­‐friends)  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  In   order   to   circumvent   this   rule,   users   began   adding   acquaintances   and   interesting-­‐looking   strangers   to   expand  their  reach  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Some  users  started  collecting  Friends  en  masse,  an  activity   that  was  implicitly  encouraged  through  the  site's  “most  popular”  feature  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  The   ultimate  collectors  were  fake  profiles  representing  iconic  fictional  characters:  celebrities,  concepts,  and   other  such  entities  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Friendster  quickly  caught  on  to  the  game  and  immediately   deleted  the  "Fakesters"  (as  they  became  known),  as  well  as  many  genuine  users  who  were  using  non-­‐ realistic  photos  in  their  profiles  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Many  early  adopters  left  Friendster  for  other   Page  28  of  51  
  • 29. social  media  networks  and  today  the  site  has  evolved  into  a  social  gaming  platform  focused  on  gaming   and  music  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).   In   2003,   MySpace   was   launched   in   Santa   Monica,   CA,   and   it   competed   against   sites   like   Friendster,   Xanga,   and   AsianAvenue   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   “After   rumors   emerged   that   Friendster   would  adopt  a  fee-­‐based  system,  users  posted  Friendster  messages  encouraging  people  to  join  alternate   SNSs,  including  and  MySpace”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Because  of  this,  MySpace  capitalized   on   Friendster's   alienation   of   its   users   and   grew   rapidly   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   MySpace   quickly   encouraged  indie-­‐rock  bands  to  switch  as  they  were  expelled  from  Friendster  for  failing  to  comply  with   restrictive  profile  regulations  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).   Although  not  technically  launched  as  a  destination  for  musicians,  MySpace  welcomed  them  with   open  arms  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Soon  after  MySpace  courted  them,  Indie-­‐rock  bands  from  the  Los   Angeles   area   created   profiles   showcasing   their   bands   and   their   songs.   Local   promoters   also   used   MySpace  to  advertise  VIP  passes  for  popular  night  clubs  and  concerts  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Intrigued,   MySpace   contacted   local   musicians   to   see   how   they   could   support   them   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   “Bands  were  not  the  sole  source  of  MySpace  growth,  but  the  symbiotic  relationship  between  bands  and   fans   helped   MySpace   expand   beyond   former   Friendster   users.   The   bands-­‐and-­‐fans   dynamic   was   mutually   beneficial:   Bands   wanted   to   be   able   to   contact   fans,   while   fans   desired   attention   from   their   favorite  bands  and  used  friend  connections  to  signal  identity  and  affiliation”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Unlike  other  sites,  MySpace  also  allowed  users  to  personalize  their  pages  by  adding  HTML  code   into  the  forms  that  framed  their  profiles  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  By  2004,  teenagers  were  flocking  to   MySpace  to  connect  with  their  favorite  bands  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  “As  the  site  grew,  three  distinct   populations  began  to  form:  musicians/artists,  teenagers,  and  the  post-­‐college  urban  social  crowd”  (Boyd   and  Ellison,  2007).  Two  years  after  it  was  launched,  MySpace  was  purchased  by  the  News  Corporation   for   $580   million   (BBC,   2005).   Three   years   later,   after   losing   substantial   ground   to   Facebook,   MySpace   was   sold   to   Specific   Media   for   $35   million   (Stelter,   2011).   Today,   MySpace   is   returning   to   its   roots,   calling   itself   a   “Leading   social   entertainment   destination   powered   by   the   passion   of   fans”   (  but  it  has  lost  the  user  count  race  to  Facebook,  undoubtedly,  forever.     SNS   aren't   a   uniquely   American   phenomena,   however.   Although   it   lost   support   in   the   US,   Friendster  flourished  in  the  Pacific  Islands  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Orkut  rose  to  prominence  in  Brazil   and   India   (Madhavan,   2007).   “Mixi   attained   widespread   adoption   in   Japan,   LunarStorm   took   off   in   Sweden,  Dutch  users  embraced  Hyves,  Grono  captured  Poland,  Hi5  was  adopted  in  smaller  countries  in   Latin   America,   South   America,   and   Europe,   and   Bebo   became   very   popular   in   the   United   Kingdom,   New   Zealand,  and  Australia”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  After  it  added  profiles  and  made  friends  visible,  China's   QQ   instant   messaging   service   quickly   grew   to   become   the   largest   SNS   in   the   world   (McLeod,   2006),   while   Cyworld   captured   the   Korean   market   when   it   introduced   homepages   and   “buddies”   onto   their   platform  (Ewers,  2006).     While   most   SNS   want   to   grow   broadly   and   exponentially,   some,   like   aSmallWorld   and   BeautifulPeople,   intentionally   restrict   access   to   appear   selective   and   elite   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   Other  sites,  such  as  “activity-­‐centered  sites  like  Couchsurfing,  identity-­‐driven  sites  like  BlackPlanet,  and   affiliation-­‐focused   sites   like   MyChurch—are   limited   by   their   target   demographic   and   thus   tend   to   be   smaller”  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).  Boyd  and  Ellison  (2007)  argue  that,  “The  rise  of  SNS  indicates  a  shift  in   the  organization  of  online  communities.  While  websites  dedicated  to  communities  of  interest  still  exist   Page  29  of  51  
  • 30. and   prosper,   SNSs   are   primarily   organized   around   people,   not   interests.”   Early   public   online   communities   such   as   Usenet   and   public   discussion   forums   were   structured   by   topics   or   according   to   topical  hierarchies,  but  social  network  sites  are  structured  as  personal  (or  “egocentric”)  networks,  with   the   individual   at   the   center   of   their   own   community.   This   more   accurately   mirrors   unmediated   social   structures,  where  "the  world  is  composed  of  networks,  not  groups"  (Wellman,  pg.  37,  1988).     There   are   several   sites   such   as   Facebook,   Foursquare,   Google+,   Instagram,   LinkedIn,   and   Pinterest  that  I  will  delve  into  next  because  they  are  some  of  the  most  important  social  networking  sites   around  and  they  should  be  foundation  for  most  company's  social  media  marketing  strategies.       Facebook   Unlike   most   other   SNSs,   Facebook   was   initially   built   to   only   support   distinct   college   networks   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   At   first,   a   user   had   to   have   a   email   address   to   join   the   site.   As   Facebook   rolled   out   to   other   universities,   it   kept   its   sense   of   exclusivity   by   requiring   new   users   to   also   have   university  email  addresses  (Boyd  and  Ellison,  2007).     Beginning   in   September   2005,   “Facebook   expanded   to   include   high   school   students,   professionals   inside   corporate   networks,   and,   eventually,   everyone”   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   Another   unique   feature   of   Facebook   was   “the   ability   for   outside   developers   to   build   ‘Applications’   which   allow[ed]   users   to   personalize   their   profiles   and   perform   other   tasks,   such   as   compare   movie   preferences   and   chart   travel   histories”   (Boyd   and   Ellison,   2007).   From   these   humble   beginnings,   Facebook   has   arguably   grown   into   perhaps   the   most   recognizable   social   media   site   in   the   world   outside   of  China.  According  to  the  Facebook  press  office  (2012):   • • • • • • • • • More  than  25  billion  pieces  of  content  (web  links,  news  stories,  blog  posts,  notes,  photo  albums,   etc.)  are  shared  each  month.   Over  300,000  users  helped  translate  the  site  through  the  translations  application.     More  than  150  million  people  engage  with  Facebook  on  external  websites  every  month.   Two-­‐thirds  of  comScore’s  U.S.  Top  100  websites  and  half  of  comScore’s  Global  Top  100  websites   have  integrated  with  Facebook.   There   are   more   than   100   million   active   users   currently   accessing   Facebook   through   their   mobile   devices.   People  that  access  Facebook  via  mobile  are  twice  as  active  as  non-­‐mobile  users.   The  average  Facebook  user  is  connected  to  60  pages,  groups  and  events.   People  spend  over  500  billion  minutes  per  month  on  Facebook.   There  are  more  than  1  million  entrepreneurs  and  developers  from  180  countries  on  Facebook.       In   his   article   “100   fascinating   social   media   statistics   and   figures   from   2012”,   Brian   Honigman   (2012)  adds  a  few  other  interesting  facts  about  Facebook,  including:   • • • • • The  average  Facebook  user  has  130  friends.   25  percent  of  users  on  Facebook  don't  bother  with  any  kind  of  privacy  control.   21  percent  of  Facebook  users  are  from  Asia,  which  is  less  than  four  percent  of  Asia's  population.   488  million  users  regularly  use  Facebook  mobile.   Brazil  publishes  the  most  number  of  posts  out  of  all  Facebook  countries.   Page  30  of  51  
  • 31. • • • • • • • • • • 23  percent  of  Facebook  users  check  their  account  five  or  more  times  a  day.   Facebook  hosts  42  million  "Pages"  with  10  or  more  likes.   More  than  one  million  websites  have  integrated  with  Facebook  in  various  ways.   During  2012,  Facebook  saw  a  41  percent  growth  in  active  users  from  Russia,  South  Korea,  Japan,   India  and  Brazil.   250  million  photos  are  uploaded  to  Facebook  every  day.   As  of  2012,  210,000  years  of  music  have  been  played  on  Facebook.     As  of  2012,  17  billion  location-­‐tagged  posts  and  check-­‐ins  were  logged  on  Facebook.   80  percent  of  social  media  users  prefer  to  connect  with  brands  through  Facebook.   43  percent  of  Facebook  users  are  male,  while  57  percent  of  Facebook  users  are  female.   A  whopping  77  percent  of  B2C  companies  and  43  percent  of  B2B  companies  acquired  customers   from  Facebook.   These   impressive   statistics   make   it   clear   that   Facebook   is   a   great   place   for   businesses   to   both   market  their  products  as  well  as  to  build  fanbases.     Facebook   claims   there   are   four   steps   to   business   success   on   Facebook,   including   building   an   audience,  connecting  with  people,  engaging  an  audience  and  influencing  them  through  their  friends  and   family  members  (     Facebook   is   also   the   perfect   place   for   businesses   to   manage   their   brands   and   reputations,   to   understand   their   customers,   to   recruit   talent,   and   to   promote   events   as   well   as   to   network   and   build   relationships.   I   will   delve   further   into   how   Facebook   and   other   social   media   sites   can   be   used   to   promote   businesses   in   chapter   five.   I   will   also   explain   how   Facebook   advertising   works   and   how   such   target-­‐specific  advertising  can  be  extremely  beneficial  to  businesses.     Foursquare   According  to  its  website,[6]  “Foursquare  is  a  location-­‐based  mobile  platform  that  makes  cities  easier  to   use   and   more   interesting   to   explore.   By   ‘checking   in’   via   a   smartphone   app   or   SMS,   users   share   their   location   with   friends   while   collecting   points   and   virtual   badges.”   Foursquare   has   over   30   million   users   worldwide   that   have   “checked-­‐in”   over   three   billion   times.[7]   Over   a   million   businesses   are   using   its   Merchant   Platform,   which   offers   “free   tools   to   help   businesses   discover   and   connect   with   customers”.[8]   Once  again,  according  to  its  website,  Foursquare  claims  it  can  guide  “real-­‐world  experiences  by   allowing   users   to   bookmark   information   about   venues   that   they   want   to   visit   and   surfacing   relevant   suggestions  about  nearby  venues.  Merchants  and  brands  leverage  the  foursquare  platform  by  utilizing  a   wide  set  of  tools  to  obtain,  engage,  and  retain  customers  and  audiences.”[9]   The  Foursquare  “Friends”  tab  shows  a  live-­‐stream  of  check-­‐ins,  tips,  and  updates  from  a  user’s   friends,   as   well   the   brands   they   love,   and   the   businesses   they   frequent.[10]   The   “Explore”   tab   gives   people   the   ability   to   search   for   businesses,   whether   that   business   is   a   restaurant,   a   retail   establishment,   or   any   other   business   that   might   have   a   Foursquare   presence.   Businesses   show   up   in   the   Explore   tab   when  users  search  for  places  near  them.[11]  A  user’s  “Profile”  tab  is  filled  with  personal  stats,  photos,   tips,  badges  and  lists.[12]     Page  31  of  51  
  • 32. For  a  business,  marketing  through  Foursquare  can  be  some  of  the  best  viral  marketing  around.   When   a   person   check-­‐ins   to   an   establishment,   he   can   immediately   inform   all   of   his   friends   and   contacts   about   that   establishment.   That   checkin   would   be   seen   as   a   recommendation   coming   from   a   trusted   friend,  which  is,  once  again,  one  of  the  best  forms  of  marketing  around.  Because  Foursquare  also  uses   past   check-­‐ins   to   personalize   a   user’s   recommendation,   a   strong   customer   relationship   can   be   built.   Foursquare  can  inform  businesses  what  their  customers  are  saying  about  them  and  their  brand.  Specials   can  also  be  used  “to  attract  and  reward  customers  or  create  unique  experiences  for  fans.”[13]     Google+   Launched  on  June  28,  2011,  Google+  is  a  multilingual  social  networking  and  identity  service  owned  and   operated   by   Google   Inc.   As   of   December   2012,   Google+   had   over   500   million   registered   users,   235   million   of   whom   were   active   on   a   monthly   basis   (Gundotra,   2012).   “Unlike   other   conventional   social   networks   which   are   generally   accessed   through   a   single   website,   Google   has   described   Google+   as   a   ‘social   layer’   consisting   of   not   just   a   single,   but   rather   an   overarching   ‘layer’   which   covers   many   of   its   online  properties”  (Olanoff,  2012).   In   his   article   “100   fascinating   social   media   statistics   and   figures   from   2012”,   Brian   Honigman   (2012)  lists  the  following  interesting  facts  about  Google+:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The  Google  +1  button  is  used  five  billion  times  per  day.   48  percent  of  fortune  global  100  companies  are  now  on  Google+.   The   automotive   industry   has   2.7MM   circlers   on   Google+,   compared   to   1.9MM   for   electronics,   and  1.3MM  for  luxury  goods.   H&M  has  the  most  Google+  posts  of  any  brand,  with  740,  compared  to  571  for  Google,  515  for   Ferrari,  and  460  for  MTV.   47  percent  of  Hispanic  consumers  use  Google+,  compared  to  the  U.S.  average  of  18  percent.   40  percent  of  marketers  use  Google+,  70  percent  want  to  learn  more  about  it  and  67  percent   plan  on  increasing  Google+  activities.   42  percent  of  worldwide  Google+  users  are  single;  27  percent  are  married.   68  percent  of  Google+  users  are  Male,  while  32  percent  are  female.   Google+  active  users  spend  over  60  minutes  a  day  across  Google  products.   Websites   using   the   +1   button   generate   3.5   times   the   Google+   visits   than   sites   without   the   button.   At  least  60  percent  of  Google+  users  log  in  daily.   At  least  80  percent  of  Google+  users  engage  with  the  site  on  a  weekly  basis.   Google+  cost  $585  million  and  took  500  employees  to  build.   30  percent  of  users  who  make  a  public  post  never  make  a  second  one.   Instagram   Instagram  is  an  online  photo-­‐sharing  and  social  networking  service  that  allows  users  to  take  a  picture,   apply   a   digital   filter   to   it,   and   share   it   on   various   social   networking   sites   (   Unlike   most   other   mobile   device   cameras,   Instagram   confines   photos   to   a   square   shape,   similar   to   a   Kodak   Instamatic  and  a  Polaroid  image  (  The  service  was  launched  in  October  2010  and  it  was   distributed  through  the  App  Store  and  Google  Play.     Page  32  of  51  
  • 33. By   September   2012,   there   were   over   100   million   active   users   (   In   April   2012,   Facebook   bought   Instagram   in   a   deal   worth   approximately   $1   billion   in   cash   (BBC,   2012),   the   company’s   largest   deal   to   date.   Some   of   Instragram’s   impressive   statistics   (from   Honigman’s   (2012)   article,   of   course)  include:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In   August   2012,   Instagram   hit   80   million   users   and   had   an   average   of   7.3   million   daily   active   users.   More  than  5  million  photos  are  uploaded  to  Instagram  every  day.   Nearly  4  billion  photos  have  been  shared  on  Instagram  since  its  inception.   There  are  575  likes  and  81  comments  by  Instagram  users  every  second.   Users  uploaded  more  than  800,000  photos  of  Hurricane  Sandy  using  the  hashtag  #Sandy.   The   average   Instagram   user   spent   257   minutes   accessing   the   photo-­‐sharing   site   via   a   mobile   device   in   August,   while   the   average   Twitter   user   over   the   same   period   spent   170   minutes   viewing  Tweets.   40  percent  of  brands  have  adopted  Instagram  for  marketing  purposes.   Of  the  top  brands,  20  percent  surveyed  had  10,000  or  more  followers.   In   a   six-­‐month   span,   Instagram's   average   daily   mobile   visitors   jumped   from   886,000   to   7.3   million,  which  is  a  724  percent  leap.   In  2012,  Instagram  users  liked  78  million  photos.   By  August  2012,  Instagram  had  432,000  more  daily  users  than  Twitter.   By   August   2012,   users   on   Instagram   had   spent   257   minutes   using   the   app,   as   opposed   to   the   169.9  minutes  spent  on  Twitter.   The  Android  version  received  over  430,000  pre-­‐registrations.   When  the  Android  app  launched,  Instagram  had  over  1  million  downloads  in  a  day.   Instagram   was   one   of   the   largest   acquisitions   of   a   venture   capital-­‐backed   consumer   Web   company  since  Zappos  was  bought  by  Amazon  for  $1.22B  in  2009.   According  to  Followgram's  research,  37  percent  of  Instagram  users  have  never  uploaded  a  single   photo  and  only  five  percent  of  users  have  more  than  50  pictures.   The  top  five  of  the  top  100  hashtags  on  Instagram  are  #love,  #instagood,  #me,  #tbt  and  #cute.   Facebook's  billion-­‐dollar  valuation  of  Instagram  makes  the  less-­‐than-­‐two-­‐year-­‐old  startup  more   valuable  than  the  venerable  161-­‐year-­‐old  New  York  Times  Company.   LinkedIn   Founded  in  December  2002  and  launched  on  May  5,  2003,  LinkedIn  is  the  largest  social  networking  site   for   professionals.   As   of   January   2013,   it   had   more   than   200   million   registered   users   in   more   than   200   countries.  LinkedIn  allows  registered  users  to  maintain  a  list  of  contact  details  of  people  with  whom  they   have   some   level   of   relationship,   called   “Connections”.   Users   can   invite   anyone   to   become   a   connection.   According  to,  a  user’s  list  of  connections  can  then  be  used  in  a  number  of  ways,  including:   • • Building   up   a   contact   network   that   consists   of   a   user’s   direct   connections,   the   connections   of   each   of   their   connections   (termed   “second-­‐degree   connections”)   and   also   the   connections   of   second-­‐degree   connections   (termed   “third-­‐degree   connections”).   This   can   be   used   to   gain   an   introduction  to  someone  a  person  he  or  she  wishes  to  know  through  a  mutual  contact.   Users   can   upload   their   resume   or   design   their   own   profile   in   order   to   showcase   work   and   community  experiences.   Page  33  of  51  
  • 34. • • • • LinkedIn  can  then  be  used  to  find  jobs,  people  and  business  opportunities  recommended  from   one's  contact  network.   Employers  can  list  jobs  and  search  for  potential  candidates.   Job   seekers   can   review   the   profile   of   hiring   managers   and   discover   which   of   their   existing   contacts  can  introduce  them  to  this  person.   Users  can  save  (i.e.,  bookmark)  jobs  that  they  would  might  want  to  apply  for.   LinkedIn  Answers  allows  users  to  ask  questions  of  the  LinkedIn  community.  This  feature  is  free,   and   it   differs   from   Yahoo!   Answers   in   that   questions   are   usually   more   business-­‐oriented,   and   all   identities  of  the  people  asking  and  answering  questions  are  revealed.   In   mid-­‐2008,   LinkedIn   launched   LinkedIn   DirectAds   as   a   form   of   sponsored   advertising   (  In  October  2008,  LinkedIn  revealed  plans  to  open  its  social  network  of  30  million   professionals  globally  as  a  potential  sample  for  business-­‐to-­‐business  research  (Neff,  2008).   In   his   article   “100   fascinating   social   media   statistics   and   figures   from   2012”,   Brian   Honigman   (2012)  lists  the  following  interesting  facts  about  LinkedIn:   • • • • • • Oracle’s   Chief   Financial   Officer,   Jeff   Epstein,   was   headhunted   for   the   position   via   his   LinkedIn   profile.   80%  of  companies  use  LinkedIn  as  a  recruitment  tool.   A  new  member  joins  LinkedIn  every  second.   LinkedIn  receives  almost  12  million  unique  visitors  per  day.   Executives  from  all  Fortune  500  companies  are  on  LinkedIn.   Recruiters  account  for  1-­‐in-­‐20  LinkedIn  profiles.   Pinterest   One   of   the   most   successful   social   media   sites   of   2012,   Pinterest   is   a   pinboard-­‐style   photo   sharing   website  that  allows  users  to  upload,  save,  sort  and  manage  images—known  as  pins—and  other  media   content  through  collections  known  as  pinboards  (  Users  can  create  and  manage  theme-­‐ based   image   collections   such   as   events,   interests,   hobbies,   and   more.   Here   are   some   more   of   those   fascinating  facts  and  figures  from  Honigman’s  (2012)  article  “100  fascinating  social  media  statistics  and   figures  from  2012”,  this  time  about  Pinterest:   • • • • • • • • • • It  hit  10  million  U.S.  monthly  unique  visitors  faster  than  any  independent  site  in  history.   97  percent  of  the  fans  of  Pinterest's  Facebook  page  are  women.   Over  80  percent  of  pins  are  repins.   80  percent  of  Pinterest  users  are  women,  while  50  percent  of  all  Pinterest  users  have  children.   American  users  of  Pinterest  spend  an  average  of  1  hour  and  17  minutes  on  the  site  per  month.   Pinterest   referrals   spend   70   percent   more   money   than   visitors   referred   from   non-­‐social   channels.   28.1  percent  of  Pinterest  users  have  an  annual  household  income  of  $100,000  or  more.   Total  unique  visitors  to  Pinterest  increased  by  2,702.2  percent  since  May  2011.   Users  spend  an  average  of  16  minutes  on  each  Pinterest  visit.   Pinterest  pins  with  prices  get  36  percent  more  likes  than  those  without.   Page  34  of  51  
  • 35. • • • • • • • • 83.9   percent   of   a   pinner’s   time   is   spent   “Pinning”,   while   15.5   percent   is   spent   liking   and   0.6   percent  is  spent  leaving  comments.   Out   of   17   million   brand   engagements,   15   percent   occurred   on   the   brand's   boards   and   85   percent  occurred  elsewhere  on  Pinterest.   69   percent   of   online   consumers   who   visit   Pinterest   have   found   an   item   they've   bought   or   wanted  to  buy,  compared  with  40  percent  of  Facebook  users.   Over   one   fifth   of   all   Facebook-­‐connected   users   are   on   Pinterest   daily,   which   represents   more   than  two  million  members.   The  most  popular  age  group  on  Pinterest  is  25  -­‐  34  year  olds.   43  percent  of  people  prefer  Pinterest  over  associating  with  retailers  and/or  brands;  24  percent   chose  Facebook.   25  percent  of  Fortune  Global  100  companies  have  Pinterest  accounts.   57  percent  of  Pinterest  users  interact  with  food-­‐related  content,  the  #1  content  category.   One   of   the   most   important   statistics   about   Pinterest   is   the   fact   that   “47%   of   U.S.   online   consumers  have  made  a  purchase  based  on  recommendations  from  Pinterest”.[14]  Another  surprising   statistic   is   the   fact   that   Pinterest   has   generated   more   referral   traffic   for   businesses   than   Google+,   YouTube,  and  LinkedIn  combined.     In   2012,   Pinterest   started   offering   business   accounts   (the   How   to   Guide   can   be   found   here:­‐to-­‐pinterests-­‐new-­‐business-­‐accounts)   and,   since   it   is   entirely   focused   on   the   visual,   it   is   a   particularly   good   place   for   photographers,   chefs,   fashion   designers,   architects,   interior   designers,   web   and   app   developers,   non-­‐profits,   restaurants,   hotels,   travel   agencies   and   businesses  that  sell  handmade  products.       List  of  Social  Network  Sites   As   the   Social   Network   landscape   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available   Websites,  but  these  are  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  in  use  today:     NAME   43things   Anobii   AsianAvenue   Asmallworld   Badoo   ABOUT   43   Things   is   the   world's   largest   goal-­‐setting   community.   Join   over   3   million  people  who  list  their  goals,  share  their  progress,  and  cheer  each   other  on.   is   a   platform   for   academics   to   share   research   papers.   The  company's  mission  it  to  accelerate  the  world's  research.   aNobii   is   an   online   reading   community   built   by   readers   for   readers   allowing   you   to   shelve,   find   and   share   books.   Our   mission   is   to   bring   book   lovers   together   and   encourage   reading.   Use   the   aNobii   website   and  Apps  to  find  your  next  read  and  tell  your  friends  about  it.     Asian   Avenue   is   a   social   networking   website   targeted   to   the   Asian   American  community.     ASMALLWORLD   is   the   world’s   leading   private   online   community   that   captures   an   existing   international   network   of   people   who   are   connected   by   three   degrees   of   separation.   Members   share   similar   backgrounds,   interests   and   perspectives.   ASMALLWORLD’s   unique   platform   offers   powerful   tools   and   user   generated   content   to   help   members  manage  their  private,  social  and  business  lives.   Badoo  is  already  the  world’s  largest  and  fastest  growing  social  network   Page  35  of  51   WEBSITE  
  • 36. Bebo   Blackplanet   Buzznet   CafeMom   Couchsurfing   Crunchyroll   Dailyburn   Dailystrength   Deviantart   Dispora   Eons   Exploroo   Facebook   Faceparty   for   meeting   new   people   as   proven   by   the   millions   who   have   joined   and   the  hundreds  of  thousands  who  sign  up  daily.   Bebo   is   a   popular   social   networking   site   which   connects   you   to   everyone   and   everything   you   care   about.   Bebo   combines   community,   self-­‐expression   and   entertainment,   enabling   you   to   consume,   create,   discover,  curate  and  share  digital  content  in  entirely  new  ways.     The  largest  Black  community  online  for  a  reason.  We  have  music,  jobs,   forums,   chat,   photos,   dating   personals   and   groups   all   targeted   to   the   specific  interests  of  the  black  community.     Find   online   communities   featuring   emo,   pop,   punk,   rock   and   screamo   bands.  View  thousands  of  pictures,  music  videos  and  connect  with  fans.   CafeMom   is   the   #1   site   on   the   internet   for   moms   and   the   premier   strategic   marketing   partner   to   brands   that   want   to   reach   moms   in   a   rapidly  changing  digital  environment.     CouchSurfing   is   an   international   non-­‐profit   network   that   connects   travelers   with   locals   in   over   230   countries   and   territories   around   the   world.   Since   2004,   members   have   been   using   our   system   to   come   together  for  cultural  exchange,  friendship,  and  learning  experiences.   Crunchyroll   is   an   online   video   service   and   community   that   offers   full-­‐ length   episodes   and   movies   of   the   very   best   in   Japanese   anime   and   Asian  entertainment.  Crunchyroll's  content  is  provided  by  Asian  media   leaders  including  TV  TOKYO,  Shueisha,  Fuji  Creative  Corporation,  Pony   Canyon,   Yomiuri   Telecasting   Corporation,   Toei   Animation,   Gonzo,   Munhwa  Broadcasting  of  America,  and  many  others.     Share   your   training   with   friends   and   stay   motivated.   Find   training   partners,   local   events,   routes,   and   groups.   Social   training   for   runners,   triathletes,  and  cyclists.   DailyStrength   was   created   by   internet   veterans   with   more   than   20   years   of   experience   conceiving,   building,   and   running   the   largest   communities   on   the   web,   including   Yahoo   Mail,   Yahoo   Photos,   Yahoo   Personals,   Yahoo   Groups,   GeoCities,   Facebook,   My   Yahoo,   Yahoo   Message  Boards  and  more.     deviantART  was  created  to  entertain,  inspire,  and  empower  the  artist  in   all   of   us.   Founded   in   August   2000,   deviantART   is   the   largest   online   social   network   for   artists   and   art   enthusiasts   with   over   13   million   registered  members,  attracting  35  million  unique  visitors  per  month.     Diaspora   lets   you   sort   your   connections   into   groups   called   aspects.   Unique  to  Diaspora,  aspects  ensure  that  your  photos,  stories  and  jokes   are  shared  only  with  the  people  you  intend.  You  own  your  pictures,  and   you  shouldn’t  have  to  give  that  up  just  to  share  them.   is   the   premier   online   community   for   Baby   Boomers   and   beyond,   who   want   to   learn   and   do   more   to   make   the   most   of   every   stage  of  life.     Travel  and  explore,  meet  friends  and  share  experiences  with  a  one-­‐stop   social   networking   community,   connecting   users   to   post   blogs,   articles,   videos,   and   events,   book   hotels   or   tours,   get   travel   advice   or   simply   submit  your  favourite  travel  photos.     Facebook  is  a  social  networking  website  —  a  gathering  spot,  to  connect   with   your   friends   and   with   your   friends   friends.   Facebook   allows   you   to   make  new  connections  who  share  a  common  interest,  expanding  your   personal  network.   Faceparty  is  a  UK-­‐based  social  networking  site  allowing  users  to  create   Page  36  of  51  
  • 37. Faces   Families   Flixster   Foursquare   Friendster   Gather   Geni   Goodreads   Google+   hi5networks   Kiwibox   LinkedIn   Livemocha   MySpace   online   profiles   and   interact   with   each   other   using   forums   and   messaging  facilities  similar  to  email.   Faces   is   a   social   network   with   an   online   fraternity,   its   a   great   way   to   make  friends.  Meet  women  and  men  for  dating,  a  relationship,  or  find   people   looking   to   have   fun.   It   is   completely   free   to   use   and   has   a   3D   compatible   free   online   chat.   If   you   are   fun   loving   and   outgoing   this   is   the  place  to  be.   Parenting.   Education.   Planning.   Join   our   community   and   meet   other   parents  that  you  can  share  tips  and  ask  advice  from.   Flixster   is   a   social   movie   site   allowing   users   to   share   movie   ratings,   discover  new  movies  and  meet  others  with  similar  movie  taste.     Foursquare   is   a   location-­‐based   mobile   platform   that   makes   cities   easier   to   use   and   more   interesting   to   explore.   By   “checking   in”   via   a   smartphone   app   or   SMS,   users   share   their   location   with   friends   while   collecting  points  and  virtual  badges.   Friendster,   a   pioneer   and   leading   global   online   social   network,   is   focused  on  helping  people  stay  in  touch  with  friends  and  discover  new   people  and  things  that  are  important  to  them.     Gather  is  the  place  where  millions  of  people  come  for  fresh  perspective   on  what's  happening  now.  Gather  members  can  share  their  own  views   and  join  in  conversations  with  others  who  share  their  interests.     Geni  is  solving  the  problem  of  genealogy  by  inviting  the  world  to  build   the   definitive   online   family   tree.   Using   the   basic   free   service   at,  users  add  and  invite  their  relatives  to  join  their  family  tree,   which   Geni   compares   to   other   trees.   Matching   trees   are   then   merged   into   the   single   world   family   tree,   which   currently   contains   nearly   50   million  living  users  and  their  ancestors.   Goodreads   is   the   largest   social   network   for   readers   in   the   world.   We   have   more   than   5,100,000   members   who   have   added   more   than   160,000,000  books  to  their  shelves.   Google+  is  a  multilingual  social  networking  and  identity  service  owned   and  operated  by  Google  Inc.  It  was  launched  on  June  28,  2011.  Unlike   other   conventional   social   networks   which   are   generally   accessed   through   a   single   website   Google+   as   a   "social   layer"   consisting   of   not   just  a  single  site,  but  rather  an  overarching  "layer"  which  covers  many   of  its  online  properties.     Social  gaming  and  entertainment  for  the  worldwide  market.  hi5  is  the   world's   leading   social   play   network,   focused   on   delivering   a   fun,   interactive   and   immersive   experience   online   to   audiences   around   the   world.   is   a   social   networking   destination   and   online   magazine   for   young   adults,   with   over   half   a   million   members.   Kiwibox   is   a   social   network   with   user   profile   pages,   forums,   blogs,   and   an   online   magazine.   LinkedIn   operates   the   world’s   largest   professional   network   on   the   Internet   with   more   than   100   million   members   in   over   200   countries   and  territories.   Livemocha   is   the   world’s   largest   online   language   learning   community,   offering   free   and   paid   online   language   courses   in   35   languages   to   more   than  9  million  members  from  195  countries  around  the  world.   Aimed   at   a   Gen   Y   audience,   Myspace   drives   social   interaction   by   providing   a   highly   personalised   experience   around   entertainment   and   Page  37  of  51  
  • 38. Mywebprofile   Netlog   Nexopia   Pinterest       Playlist   Plazes   Raptr   Reverbnation   Ryze   Shelfari   Snapchat   Stickam   Tagged   connecting  people  to  the  music,  celebrities,  TV,  movies,  and  games  that   they  love.     Create   your   free   profile   page   and   stay   in   touch   with   your   friends   all   over  the  world   Netlog   is   an   online   social   portal,   specifically   targeted   at   the   European   youth.   On   Netlog,   you   can   create   your   own   web   page   with   a   blog,   pictures,  videos,  events  and  much  more  to  share  with  your  friends.   With   over   1.2   million   members,   and   hundreds   of   new   accounts   created   every   day,   Nexopia   is   quickly   solidifying   its   reputation   as   the   online   place  for  teens  to  connect  and  express  themselves.     Pinterest  is  a  Virtual  Pinboard.  Pinterest  lets  you  organize  and  share  all   the  beautiful  things  you  find  on  the  web.  People  use  pinboards  to  plan   their   weddings,   decorate   their   homes,   and   organize   their   favorite   recipes.   Best   of   all,   you   can   browse   pinboards   created   by   other   people.   Browsing   pinboards   is   a   fun   way   to   discover   new   things   and   get   inspiration  from  people  who  share  your  interests.  is  the  world's  largest  music  community.  We're  here  to  help   our   48   million   music   fans   discover,   create,   organize,   enjoy   and   share   their  music  playlists.     With   Plazes   you   can   now   easily   coordinate   activities   online   with   your   friends.   Whether   it's   initiating   a   spontaneous   lunch   date   or   coordinating  a  trip  abroad,  Plazes  lets  you  and  your  friends  update  each   other  about  what  you  are  doing  when  and  where.   Raptr   is   the   best   place   for   gamers   to   share,   interact,   and   discover   personalized   content   from   all   over   the   web.   Raptr   is   also   the   only   platform  that  integrates  all  major  gaming  platforms  and  IM  services.   is   the   leading   online   music-­‐marketing   platform   used   by  over  1,422,000  artists—plus  managers,  record  labels,  and  venues— to  grow  their  reach,  influence,  and  business  across  the  internet.     Ryze  helps  people  make  connections  and  grow  their  networks.  You  can   network   to   grow   your   business,   build   your   career   and   life,   find   a   job   and   make   sales.   Or   just   keep   in   touch   with   friends.   Members   get   a   free   networking-­‐oriented   home   page   and   can   send   messages   to   other   members.     Shelfari   is   a   gathering   place   for   authors,   aspiring   authors,   publishers,   and   readers,   and   has   many   tools   and   features   to   help   these   groups   connect  with  each  other  in  a  fun  and  engaging  way.     Snapchat   is   a   photo   messaging   application   developed   by   Stanford   University   students.   Using   the   app,   users   can   take   photos,   record   videos,   add   text   and   drawings,   and   send   them   to   a   controlled   list   of   recipients.   These   sent   photographs   and   videos   are   known   as   "Snaps".   Users  set  a  time  limit  for  how  long  recipients  can  view  their  Snaps  (as  of   May  2012,  the  range  is  from  1  to  10  seconds),  after  which  they  will  be   hidden   from   the   recipient's   device   and   deleted   from   the   Snapchat   server.     Created   in   2005,   Stickam   is   the   pioneer   of   the   live   interactive   video   streaming  space.  With  over  7  million  registered  members,  we  are  home   to   the   largest   live   community   online.   The   Stickam   platform   enables   anyone   to   stream   live   video   to   audiences   large   or   small,   from   a   computer  or  mobile  device.     Other  social  networks  are  for  staying  in  touch  with  people  you  already   know.  At  Tagged,  we  make  it  easy  to  meet  new  people  through  social   Page  38  of  51  
  • 39. games,   friend   suggestions,   browsing   profiles,   group   interests   and   much   more.   TravBuddy   is   a   free   site   for   people   who   love   to   explore   the   world   Travbuddy   around   them.   You   can   use   TravBuddy   to   find   travel   buddies,   record   travel   experiences   in   travel   blogs,   or   share   travel   tips   with   travel   reviews.   Travellerspoint   Travellerspoint   is   one   of   the   web's   largest   and   most   active   travel   communities   with   members   representing   every   country   in   the   world.   More  than  30,000  blogs  have  shared  175,000  stories  to  date  and  over   1.2   million   photos   have   been   posted.   Our   forums   and   travel   helpers   answer  numerous  travel-­‐related  questions  365  days  of  the  year.   was   released   in   1997   when   it   was   introduced   as   the   Travelpod   web's   first   site   to   enable   its   members   to   create   online   travel   blogs   which  revolutionized  the  way  people  travel  and  share  their  adventures   with  the  world.     The   people   you   connect   to   can   be   your   friends,   people   who   live   in   your   neighborhood,   or   people   who   live   in   your   city   that   share   a   common   interest  with  you.  makes  finding  those  people  easier.     Viadeo   is   a   Web   2.0   professional   social   network   with   over   50   million   Viadeo   members  worldwide  in  2013,  and  a  membership  base  that  was  growing   by   more   than   one   million   per   month   in   2009.[4]   Members   include   business  owners,  entrepreneurs  and  managers  from  a  diverse  range  of   enterprises.   Get   in   touch   with   people   to   generate   contacts   that   stay   connected   to   Xing   you  for  a  lifetime.  They  may  well  help  you  in  your  career  by  providing   contacts,   offering   jobs,   or   coming   up   with   ideas.   Thanks   to   XING   you   can   stay   in   touch   with   your   contacts   all   the   time!   On   top   of   that,   you   can  get  new  contacts,  find  a  job,  events,  groups,  and  companies.   Chinese  social  networks  include  RenRen,  Kaixin,  Qzone,  Douban,  Pengyou  and  the  Foursquares   of  China,  Jiepang  and  Qieke,  and  Ushi,  a  business  networking  social  network  similar  to  LinkedIn.       Virtual  Game  Worlds   According   to   Wikipedia,   “a   virtual   world   is   an   online   community   that   takes   the   form   of   a   computer-­‐ based   simulated   environment   through   which   users   can   interact   with   one   another   and   use   and   create   objects.”   Wikipedia   goes   on   to   add   that   the   term   is   largely   synonymous   with   interactive   3D   virtual   environments,  where  users  take  the  form  of  two-­‐dimensional,  or  three-­‐dimensional  avatars  visible  and,   through  them,  interact  with  others.     Virtual   game   worlds,   specifically,   “are   platforms   that   replicate   a   three   dimensional   environment   in   which   users   can   appear   in   the   form   of   personalized   avatars   and   interact   with   each   other   as   they   would  in  real  life.  In  this  sense,  virtual  worlds  are  probably  the  ultimate  manifestation  of  Social  Media,   as   they   provide   the   highest   level   of   social   presence   and   media   richness   of   all   applications"   under   discussion”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  64,  2010).   List  of  Virtual  Game  World  Websites   As   the   landscape   for   Virtual   Game   worlds   change   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available  Websites  here,  but  these  are  some  of  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  in  use  today:   Page  39  of  51  
  • 40. NAME   4th  Coming,  The   9  Dragons   Allods  Online   Astro  Battle   Battlestar   Gallactica   Bloomers  Island   Continuum   Eggochi   Eve  Online   ABOUT   x   The  4th  Coming  was  one  of  the  first  MMORPGs  available  on  the   Internet,   and   its   success   was   immediate.   Why?   The   Fourth   Coming   is   one   of   those   unique   games   in   which   the   ambiance   immediately   hooks   you.   The   addictive   music,   the   beautiful   graphics,   and   of   course   the   deep   story   line   help   pump   in   a   vast   player  community  that  is  still  growing.     9Dragons   is   a   martial   arts-­‐themed   massively   multiplayer   online   9dragons.gamescampus. role   playing   game,   developed   by   Korean   video   game   company   com   Indy21.  The  game  features  3D  graphics  and  traditional  Massively   multiplayer  online  game  control  schemes.  Set  in  China  during  the   Ming  Dynasty,  it  includes  actual  Chinese  geography  and  historical   features  such  as  the  Great  Wall  of  China  and  the  famous  Shaolin   Monastery.   Allods  Online  is  a  free-­‐to-­‐play  3D  fantasy  MMORPG  developed  by   Astrum   Nival   and   published   by   Mail.Ru   Group   in   Russia,   Turkey   and   Italy,   Webzen   Dublin   Ltd.   in   Europe   and   North   America,   Cayenne   Tech   in   Taiwan,   Hong   Kong,   and   Macau,   Level   Up!   Games   in   Brazil   and   the   Philippines,   and   Game   Power   7   in   the   MENA  region  (renamed  as  Allods  the  Legend).   Overhead   multi-­‐directional   shoot-­‐em-­‐up   where   players   design   their  own  ships.   Battlestar   Galactica   Online   is   a   browser-­‐based   Massively   battlestar-­‐ Multiplayer   Online   Game   based   on   the   2004   television   series   Battlestar  Galactica.  Released  in  open  beta  on  February  8,  2011,   it  was  developed  by  Bigpoint  and  Artplant  using  the  Unity  game   engine   for   the   game   client   in   the   browser.   The   game   server   is   written  in  Erlang.  In  less  than  three  months  of  release,  the  game   surpassed   2   million   registered   users   but   subsequent   retention   statistics  have  not  been  made  available.   The   mission   of   Bloomers!   is   to   bring   the   magical   world   of   gardens,  flowers,  plants  and  nature  to  life,  in  exciting  new  ways   for   young   children.   When   rich   play   meets   a   variety   of   play-­‐ grounds,  and  compels  children  to  engage  with  the  natural  world   around   them   in   relevant   and   fun   ways,   developmental   milestones   can   be   reached,   educational   moments   can   be   achieved,  and  most  importantly,  children  learn  to  take  the  game   offline  and  keep  the  play  alive.   Continuum   began   as   Sniper   in   1995   and   proceeded   through   2   years   of   beta   development   as   SubSpace   and   launched   commercially   on   November   30,   1997.   So   in   preparation   of   the   glorious   10th   year   anniversary   in   2007-­‐2008,   we're   looking   for   some  fresh  blood  to  revitalize  the  population  and  to  bring  some   new   skills   to   battle   against   a   decade   of   veteran   spaceship   mastery.   An  amazing  free  virtual  world  located  in  a  huge  park.  Within  the   park   live   remarkable   creatures   that   can   fly.   A   virtual   world   where   there  are  games,  missions  island,  cinema,  mall  and  more...  After   registration  you  get  an  egg,  from  this  egg  an  Eggochi  come.  You   need  to  raise  and  take  care  of  it.     Eve  Online  (stylised  EVE  Online)  is  a  video  game  by  CCP  Games.  It   is   a   player-­‐driven,   persistent-­‐world   MMORPG   set   in   a   science   Page  40  of  51  
  • 41. Guild  Wars  2   Infantry   Lord  of  the  Rings   Meridian  59   Omerta   PlaneShift   fiction  space  setting.  Characters  pilot  customizable  ships  through   a   galaxy   of   over   7,500   star   systems.   Most   star   systems   are   connected   to   one   or   more   other   star   systems   by   means   of   stargates.  The  star  systems  can  contain  moons,  planets,  stations,   wormholes,  asteroid  belts  and  complexes.     Guild  Wars  2  is  a  massively  multiplayer  online  role-­‐playing  game   developed   by   ArenaNet   and   published   by   NCsoft.   Set   in   the   fantasy   world   of   Tyria,   the   game   follows   the   re-­‐emergence   of   Destiny's  Edge,  a  disbanded  guild  dedicated  to  fighting  the  Elder   Dragons,   a   Lovecraftian   species   that   has   seized   control   of   Tyria   in   the  time  since  the  original  Guild  Wars.  The  game  takes  place  in  a   persistent   world   with   a   story   that   progresses   in   instanced   environments.   Infantry   Online   is   a   multiplayer   combat   video   game   with   sprite   animation   graphics,   using   complex   soldier,   ground   vehicle   and   space-­‐ship   models   on   typically   complex   terrains.   Team   with   gamers   from   around   the   world   in   this   adrenaline-­‐pumping   collection   of   online   combat   games.   It's   all-­‐out   frenetic   action   in   the   world   of   Infantry   where   battles   featuring   up   to   100+   wage   throughout  the  day.  Easy  to  play  and  simple  to  get  into,  Infantry   offers   a   quick   blend   of   tactics   and   action   unlike   any   other   massively  multiplayer  online  game.   The   Lord   of   the   Rings   Online   (commonly   abbreviated   to   LOTRO,   LotRO),   initially   branded   as   The   Lord   of   the   Rings   Online:   Shadows   of   Angmar,   is   a   massively   multiplayer   online   role-­‐ playing  game  (MMORPG)  for  Microsoft  Windows  and  OS  X  set  in   a   fantasy   universe   based   upon   J.   R.   R.   Tolkien's   Middle-­‐earth   writings  and  Peter  Jackson's  Lord  of  the  Rings  films.  It  takes  place   during  the  time  period  of  The  Lord  of  the  Rings.   Meridian   59   was   the   first   3D   massively   multiplayer   game,   released   in   1996.   It's   back,   and   it's   free   to   play!   What   makes   Meridian   fun   is   the   small   community   of   players   you'll   meet   every   time   you   log   in.   Build   up   your   character   by   fighting   monsters   and   working   together   with   others   to   solve   puzzles.   But   watch   your   back:   Meridian   has   a   well-­‐balanced   player-­‐versus-­‐player   combat   system  that  will  keep  you  coming  back  for  more  long  after  you've   mastered  the  game  world.   Omerta  is  a  text-­‐based  massive  multiplayer  RPG  game,  based  on   the   stories   about   the   legendary   don   Barafranca.   Set   in   the   1930's   gangster   and   mafia   world,   the   game   is   all   about   status,   money   and  respect.  Players  get  rank  points  by  doing  crimes,  stealing  cars   and   busting   friends   out   of   jail.   You   can   even   run   you're   own   organised  crime  ring,  robbing  local  banks  and  holding  up  cars  on   quiet   roads.   As   you   delve   deeper   into   the   dark   gangster   world,   many  players  find  other  business  opportunities,  such  as  gambling   clubs,  reselling  booze  and  even  drug  dealing.   PlaneShift   is   a   Role   Playing   Game   immersed   into   a   3D   virtual   fantasy  world  which  is  FULLY  FREE  to  play.  Fully  free  means  you   will   have   no   surprises   of   premium   content   which   will   limit   your   gameplay   or   unbalance   the   game.   There   are   no   limitations   in   skills,  ranks,  abilities,  items  you  can  gain  with  your  free  account.   There   are   no   time   limits   or   additional   constraints.   Other   similar   Page  41  of  51  
  • 42. games   just   advertize   the   "free"   concept   to   sell   you   premium   accounts.   We   don't.   Servers   and   bandwidth   will   be   donated   by   sponsors.   Runes  of  Magic   Runes   of   Magic   (RoM)   is   a   massively   multiplayer   online   role-­‐ us.runesofmagic.gamefo playing  game  (MMORPG)  developed  by  the  Taiwanese  developer   Runewaker   Entertainment   and   adapted   for   the   English   and   German-­‐speaking   market   by   German   company   Frogster   Interactive.   Frogster   has   also   opened   servers   for   France,   Spain,   Poland,  Netherlands,  and  Australia  as  well  as  servers  dedicated  to   the  European  Union.     Terra   Terra   is   a   FREE   Massively   Multiplayer   Online   Game   (MMOG)   persistent   world   universe   in   which   Warriors   battle   with   heavy   weapons   on   personal   and   team   levels   to   conquer   the   Outlands!   Terra  is  a  war  game  unlike  any  other,  modeled  after  none,  similar   to  absolutely  nothing!  Terra  is  a  persistent  game  world  in  which   you   fight   both   Warriors   (humans)   and   Robots   (AI)   to   gain   rank/experience   and   built   your   own   assets,   claim   land   and   protect  it.  Play  with  friends,  create  your  own  clan,  or  even  meet   new  friends.   Urban  Dead   Urban  Dead  is  a  free-­‐to-­‐play  browser-­‐based  multi-­‐player  game   where  you  play  the  survivor  or  victim  of  a  zombie  outbreak  in  a   quarantined  city  centre,  alongside  tens  of  thousands  of  others.   Xonotic   Xonotic   is   a   free   and   fast-­‐paced   first   person   shooter   for   Linux,   Mac,  and  Windows.  It  combines  addictive,  arena-­‐style  gameplay   with   rapid   movement   and   a   wide   array   of   weapons.   Xonotic   is   available  under  the  permissive  GPLv2  license.   World  of  Warcraft   World  of  Warcraft  (WoW)  is  a  massively  multiplayer  online  role-­‐   playing  game  (MMORPG)  created  by  Blizzard  Entertainment.  It  is   the   fourth   released   game   set   in   the   fantasy   Warcraft   universe,   which  was  first  introduced  by  Warcraft:  Orcs  &  Humans  in  1994.   World   of   Warcraft   takes   place   within   the   Warcraft   world   of   Azeroth,   approximately   four   years   after   the   events   at   the   conclusion   of   Blizzard's   previous   Warcraft   release,   Warcraft   III:   The  Frozen  Throne.     More  virtual  game  worlds  can  be  found  here:­‐playing_games/.   Virtual  Social  Worlds   “Virtual  social  worlds  allow  inhabitants  to  choose  their  behavior  more  freely  and  essentially  live  a  virtual   life  similar  to  their  real  life.  As  in  virtual  game  worlds,  virtual  social  world  users  appear  in  the  form  of   avatars   and   interact   in   a   three-­‐dimensional   virtual   environment;   however,   in   this   realm,   there   are   no   rules  restricting  the  range  of  possible  interactions,  except  for  basic  physical  laws  such  as  gravity”  (Kaplan   and  Haenlein,  pg.  64,  2010).   Founded   by   San   Francisco-­‐based   Linden   Research   Inc.,   Second   Life   is   arguably   the   most   well-­‐ known  of  all  virtual  social  worlds.  Users—who  prefer  to  be  called  “residents”—can  do  almost  anything   that   is   possible   in   real   life,   such   as   talking   to   other   avatars,   taking   a   walk,   shopping,   or   even   learning   about  products  and  services  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  64,  2010).  Second  Life  users  can  “create  content   (e.g.,   to   design   virtual   clothing   or   furniture   items)   and   to   sell   this   content   to   others   in   exchange   for   Page  42  of  51  
  • 43. Linden   Dollars,   a   virtual   currency   traded   against   the   U.S.   Dollar   on   the   Second   Life   Exchange”   (Kaplan   and  Haenlein,  pg.  64,  2010).     “Virtual   social   worlds   offer   a   multitude   of   opportunities   for   companies   in   marketing   (advertising/communication,   virtual   product   sales/v-­‐Commerce,   marketing   research),   and   human   resource  and  internal  process  management”  (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  64,  2010).  For  example,  working   with  Second  Life,  Xerox  developed  a  customer-­‐centric  research  and  development  model  that  allowed  its   scientists   around   the   world   to   collaborate   with   customers   to   determine   which   features   and   products   they   would   like   to   see   offered.   The   exercise   was   so   successful   Xerox   attracted   more   than   five   million   people  to  its  Second  Life  virtual  island  (Glagowski,  2007).   Also   partnering   with   Second   Life,   Cisco   Systems,   a   supplier   of   networking   equipment   and   network   management   solutions   for   the   Internet,   created   a   virtual   world   in   which   visitors   could   learn   how   to   use   the   company’s   products.   In   this   virtual   world,   Cisco   has   two   islands;   one   that   features   an   amphitheater  for  mass  tutorials  and  product  launch  details;  the  other—Cisco  Island—provides  an  area   for  people  to  discuss  the  company’s  products  and  it  allows  Cisco  to  conduct  class  meetings,  executive   meetings,  as  well  as  provide  technical  support  and  training  to  its  customers  (Holden,  2006).   The   multinational   computer   technology   and   services   company   IBM   purchased   12   Second   Life   islands   to   serve   as   virtual   meeting   places   for   employees,   an   information   marketing   center   for   IBM   customers  and  a  virtual  retail  area  for  customers  to  meet  and  discuss  IBM  products  (Fathi,  2007).  IBM   also   uses   Second   Life   to   both   improve   customer   service   and   engage   customers   in   discussions   (Fathi,   2007).     List  of  Virtual  Social  World  Websites   As   the   landscape   for   Virtual   Social   Worlds   changes   on   a   daily   basis,   it   is   impossible   to   list   all   of   the   available  Websites,  but  these  are  the  most  common  and  popular  platforms  in  use  today:   NAME   Azivia   Onverse   Second  Life   Shaker   ABOUT   Azivia  is  a  fully  customizable,  high-­‐end  browser  based  virtual  world.  Azivia  is  a   cutting  edge  3D  web  based  Virtual  World  Platform  that  runs  on  your  browser.   It  is  fully  customized  with  a  huge  range  of  high  quality  avatars,  environments   and   simulations   to   meet   your   specific   meeting,   training   and   educational   needs.     Onverse  is  a  free  online  virtual  world  full  of  fun  people  and  cool  things  to  do.   We   give   you   an   online   profile,   a   free   virtual   home,   clothing,   furniture,   tools   and   points   to   get   you   started.   You   can   customize   your   avatar   however   you   like  and  chat  live  in  a  fully  3D  environment.  You  can  play  games,  explore  for   points,  go  shopping,  decorate  your  home  and  avatar,  and  meet  people.     Second   Life   is   an   online   virtual   world   developed   by   Linden   Lab   which   was   launched  on  June  23,  2003.  A  number  of  free  client  programs  called  Viewers   enable   Second   Life   users,   called   Residents,   to   interact   with   each   other   through   avatars.   Residents   can   explore   the   world   (known   as   the   grid),   meet   other   residents,   socialize,   participate   in   individual   and   group   activities,   and   create  and  trade  virtual  property  and  services  with  one  another.  Second  Life   is   intended   for   people   aged   13   and   over,   and   as   of   2011   has   more   than   20   million  registered  user  accounts.   Shaker  creates  online  venues  where  you  can  host  events  of  different  kinds  for   just   about   any   size   of   audience.   From   live-­‐stream   music   events   to   networking   events  and  conferences.   Page  43  of  51   WEBSITE  
  • 44. SmallWorlds   Twinity   SmallWorlds   is   a   new   generation   of   virtual   world   that   runs   inside   your   web   browser,   without   the   need   to   download   or   install   any   other   software.   SmallWorlds   combines   media,   web   content,   and   casual   games   into   a   highly   accessible  &  compelling  3D  world  that  integrates  seamlessly  with  the  rest  of   the   web,   bringing   Virtual   Worlds   into   the   mainstream.   SmallWorlds   allows   users  to  create  and  customize  their  own  rooms  and  worlds,  and  fill  them  with   a   wide   variety   of   items   and   activities   for   them   and   their   friends   to   enjoy   together.   With   their   online   friends   and   acquaintances,   they   can   share   experiences   like   playing   games,   watching   YouTube   videos,   listening   to   their   favorite   bands,   browsing   through   photo   galleries,   and   so   much   more.   SmallWorlds   brings   together   the   best   aspects   of   online   games,   instant   messaging,   social   networks   and   digital   media,   and   wraps   them   into   a   persistent  virtual  world  that  is  never  more  than  a  hyperlink  away.   Twinity   is   a   3D   mirror   world   based   on   real   cities   and   real   people.   Virtual   World   is   a   space   for   an   online   community   which   looks   and   feels   almost   like   the  real  world.  virtual  world  People  are  represented  by  avatars,  and  they  are   able  to  carry  our  activities  that  they  can  do  in  real  life,  without  the  constraints   of   real   space,   such   as,   having   a   3D   chat   with   people   who   are   thousands   of   miles  away  (even  with  voice  on  VOIP!),  modelling  without  the  bother  of  glue   and   paint,   hanging   out   in   virtual   cities   and   even   owning   a   3D   apartment   in   areas   which   would   be   out   of   reach   in   real   life!   virtual   world   Twinity   does   exactly   this!   Twinity   is   a   3D   Virtual   World   currently   spanning   Virtual   Berlin,   Virtual   London   and   Virtual   Miami,   where   you   travel   as   an   avatar,   own   3D   Apartments   and   have   a   3D   Chat,   through   text   or   VOIP,   with   people   from   across  the  world!       Conclusion   Few   companies   will   succeed   in   this   new   millennium   without   embracing   social   media.   UGC   refers   to   a   wide   range   of   applications,   including   blogs,   news   stories,   digital   video,   podcasting,   mobile   phone   photography,  online  encyclopedias  and  user  reviews.  UGC  can  be  broken  down  into  three  categories— mobile  dating  and  chat  room  services,  personal  content  distribution  sites  and  social  networks.   When  a  company  is  first  delving  into  social  media,  Eley  &  Tiley's  (pg.  85,  2009)  state  that  there   are  four  steps  of  social  media  that  should  be  followed—listen,  join,  participate  and  create—and  these   steps  must  be  strictly  followed  in  that  order.  Listening  can  be  done  on  blogs,  content  communities  and   social   networks.   By   keeping   an   eye   on   any   comments   made   to   blogs,   uploaded   content   or   on   actual   Facebook,   Instagram,   Pinterest,   Twitter   or   a   whole   host   of   other   social   network   pages,   social   media   marketers  can  get  a  sense  of  what  the  community  feels  about  their  business.   Once  you  understand  the  community  and  what  it  is  all  about,  it  is  time  to  join  a  social  network.   Many  networks  require  that  you  have  an  account  on  their  site  to  participate  in  the  discussions  and  you   should   sign   up   to   these   sites   as   it   is   always   better   to   have   an   account   because   you   always   want   to   claim   your  brand  and/or  company  name  to  gain  credibility.   Once   you   have   joined   the   discussion,   then   it   is   time   to   participate   in   the   community.   Participating  includes  replying  and  posting  to  online  forums  and  blogs,  reviewing  products  and  services   and  bookmarking  sites  that  you  like  or  find  interesting.  By  participating,  you  will  build  your  online  brand   and  people  will  start  to  respect  you  as  a  valuable  contributor  to  the  community  (Eley  &  Tilley,  pg.  88,   Page  44  of  51  
  • 45. 2009).   When   respected,   others   will   help   to   promote   you   and,   possibly,   your   company   without   even   being  asked  to  do  so,  which,  as  most  marketers  will  tell  you,  is  some  of  the  best  marketing  around.   When   you   have   built   yourself   an   online   brand   by   listening,   joining   and   participating,   it   is   time   to   create  your  own  content.  You  will  now  have  an  audience  to  share  your  content  with  and  they  will  help   you  spread  your  content  far  and  wide.     According  to  their  influential  article  Users  of  the  world,  unite!  The  challenges  and  opportunities   of   Social   Media,   Kaplan   and   Haenlein   (2010)   break   Social   Media   down   into   the   following   six   different   catogories:   Collaborative   projects,   Blogs   and   micro-­‐blogs,   Content   communities,   Social   networking   sites,   Virtual  game  worlds,  and  Virtual  social  worlds.     The   main   idea   behind   collaborative   projects   is   that   joint   efforts   can   lead   to   a   better   outcome   than   individual   action   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   62,   2010).   Collaborative   projects   can   be   used   to   increase   productivity.   For   example,   the   Finnish   mobile   manufacturer   Nokia   “uses   internal   wikis   to   update   employees   on   project   status   and   to   trade   ideas,   which   are   used   by   about   20%   of   its   68,000   staff   members”   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Also,   the   U.S.   application   software   company   Adobe   Systems   “maintains   a   list   of   bookmarks   to   company-­‐related   websites   and   conversations   on   Delicious”   (Kaplan  and  Haenlein,  pg.  63,  2010).         Social   bookmarking   is   both   the   method   of   storing   and   managing   Web   page   bookmarks   with   individually   chosen   keywords   as   well   as   the   sharing   of   this   information   with   others.   At   social   bookmarking   sites,   users   can   tag,   save,   manage   and   share   Websites   with   their   friends   and   their   connections.  Users  can  add  descriptions  in  the  form  of  metadata  and  these  descriptions  can  be  anything   from  free  text  comments,  favorable  or  unfavorable  votes,  or  tags  that  collectively  form  a  social  thread  of   information.   For  the  promotion  of  a  business,  social  bookmarking  is  important  because  it  helps  a  Website  get   quality   backlinks.   When   a   Website   is   submitted   for   ranking   by   a   search   engine,   the   search   engine   considers  the  quality  of  the  backlinks,  i.e.,  the  quality  of  the  sites  linking  back  to  it.  This  means  that  if   you  bookmark  popular  sites,  the  search  engine  spiders  will  automatically  follow  the  links  back  to  your   site.   Blogs   are   incredibly   popular   because   they   are   cheap,   easy   to   set   up   and   they   can   provide   maximum  exposure  with  limited  effort.  Blogs  can  take  many  forms,  including  a  diary,  a  news  service,  a   collection   of   links   to   Internet   resources,   a   series   of   book   reviews,   reports   of   activity   on   a   project,   the   journal  of  an  expedition,  a  photographic  record  of  a  building  project,  or  any  one  of  a  number  of  other   forms.  Although  similar  to  a  blogging  website,  a  microblog  site  differs  from  a  traditional  blog  in  that  its   content  is  typically  smaller  in  both  actual  and  aggregate  size.     Content  communities  exist  for  a  wide  range  of  media  types,  including  text,  photos,  videos,  and   PowerPoint   presentations   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Content   community   sites   such   as   YouTube,  Slideshare,  Flickr,  Metacafe,  Picasa,  and  Vimeo  are  useful  for  sharing  media  content  as  their   users  number  in  the  millions.  Although  businesses  might  run  the  risk  of  having  their  copyright-­‐protected   material   stolen,   the   advantages   of   getting   one’s   content   into   the   social   media   community   seriously   outweighs   the   disadvantages   of   potential   copyright   infringement   (Kaplan   and   Haenlein,   pg.   63,   2010).   Page  45  of  51  
  • 46. The   popularity   of   these   content   communities   make   them   a   very   attractive   contact   channel   for   many   businesses.     Perhaps   the   most   recognizable   of   all   social   media   sites   are   the   social   networks.   Sites   such   as   Facebook,   Foursquare,   Instagram,   LinkedIn,   Pinterest,   and   MySpace   are   instantly   recognizable.   In   China,   RenRen,  Kaixin,  Qzone,  Jiepang,  Qieke  and  Ushi  dominate  the  social  network  landscape.     Facebook   claims   there   are   four   steps   to   business   success   on   Facebook,   including   building   an   audience,  connecting  with  people,  engaging  an  audience  and  influencing  them  through  their  friends  and   family  members  (  Facebook  is  also  the  perfect  place  for  businesses  to  manage   their   brands   and   reputations,   understand   their   customers,   recruit   talent,   and   promote   events   as   well   as   to  network  and  build  relationships.   Instagram   can   be   used   by   more   than   just   fashion   brands.   Even   though   it   is   a   social   picture-­‐ sharing   platform,   companies   as   diverse   as   General   Electric   (GE),   the   National   Football   League   (NFL),   Red   Bull,   and   Sharpie   all   use   it   to   build   their   brand.   GE   “posts   neat   behind-­‐the-­‐scenes   pics   of   things   you   wouldn’t  normally  see,  like  engineers  working  on  huge  engines,  industrial  machines  and  new  technology   they  are  developing”  (Weissman,  2012).  The  NFL’s  Instagram  account  showcases  the  NFL's  athletes  and   their  important  games  “by  pulling  in  photos  from  all  of  the  NFL  photographers  and  mixing  in  other  fun   things   like   vintage   football   pictures”   (Weissman,   2012).     Along   with   using   Instagram   for   contests,   Red   Bull   “posts   high-­‐quality   action   shots   of   all   kind   of   sports   and   adrenaline-­‐pumping   stunts”   (Weissman,   2012).   Perhaps   the   most   counter-­‐intuitive   of   all   these   examples   is   Sharpie,   the   marker   pen   maker,   whose   Instagram   account   features   hand-­‐drawn   images   that   use   Sharpies   as   coloring   tools   (Weissman,   2012).     Interestingly,   Pinterest   has   generated   more   referral   traffic   for   businesses   than   Google+,   YouTube,   and   LinkedIn   combined.   Since   it   is   entirely   focused   on   the   visual,   it   is   a   particularly   good   place   for   photographers,   chefs,   fashion   designers,   architects,   interior   designers,   web   and   apps   developers,   non-­‐profits,  restaurants,  hotels,  travel  agencies  and  businesses  that  sell  handmade  products.       Another   recent   addition   to   the   social   networking   landscape   is   Snapchat.   It   was   one   of   the   runaway   success   stories   of   2012   (Wasserman,   2013).   Users   send   about   50   million   pics   (called   "Snaps")   a   day   on   the   platform.   Bearing   truth   to   that   statement   that   copying   is   the   highest   form   of   flattery,   the   success  of  Snapchat  has  prompted  Facebook  to  release  a  competitor,  Poke  (Wasserman,  2013),  which  is   gaining  some  traction.     In  what  might  be  a  first  for  marketing  through  Snapchat,  the  New  York  frozen  yogurt  chain  16   Handles  “is  leveraging  Snapchat  for  a  promotion  that  presents  users  with  a  coupon  that  self-­‐destructs   within   10   seconds”   (Wasserman,   2013).   Noticing   that   a   lot   of   its   young   users   were   using   Snapchat   handles  to  interact  on  social  media,  the  yogurt  chain  started  an  advertising  campaign  that  asked  users  to   send  them  a  picture  of  themselves  and  their  friends  at  a  16Handles  location  tasting  one  of  their  flavors   (Wasserman,   2013).   In   return,   users   received   a   coupon   for   anywhere   from   16%   to   100%   off   their   purchase,  but  they  only  had  10  seconds  to  let  the  cashier  scan  the  coupon  (Wasserman,  2013).   Social  media  is  all  about  adding  value  to  communities  of  customers  and  prospects  by  providing   interesting   content   (blogs,   podcasts,   webinars,   etc.).   It   allows   immediate   engagement   with   groups   of   customers   and   prospects.   Today,   the   traditional   model   of   blasting   messages   to   customers   and   potential   Page  46  of  51  
  • 47. customers   is   fading   as   trust   in   corporate   America   is   at   an   all-­‐time   low.   In   today’s   difficult   economic   climate,   peer   referrals   are   becoming   more   and   more   important.   Consumers   are   tuning   out   regular   advertising  and  tapping  into  social  media  for  advice.   Foursquare   is   another   SNS   that   can   prove   very   beneficial   to   businesses.   Marketing   through   Foursquare   can   be   some   of   the   best   viral   marketing   around.   When   a   person   check-­‐ins   to   an   establishment,  she  can  immediately  inform  all  of  her  friends  and  contacts  about  where  she  is  and  why   she  likes  a  place.  Because  Foursquare  also  uses  past  check-­‐ins  to  personalize  a  user’s  recommendation,   a  strong  customer  relationship  can  be  built.  Foursquare  can  also  inform  businesses  what  their  customers   are  saying  about  them  and  their  brand.     Social   Media   is   constrained   only   by   the   imagination   of   a   company’s   marketers   and   it   offers   enormous  potential  both  creatively  and  financially  to  any  company  willing  to  enter  the  arena.       Tips   • When  first  delving  into  social  media,  there  are  four  steps  of  social  media  to  remember—listen,   join,  participate  and  create.  And  follow  the  steps  strictly  in  that  order.   • Use  to  claim  your  brand  and  then  set  up  accounts  at  all  of  the  major  social   networking  sites.   • Sign  up  on  social  media  sites  even  if  you  don't  plan  to  use  them  extensively  as  it  is  always  better   to  have  an  account  even  if  you  are  not  required  to  have  one  because  you  always  want  to  claim   your  brand  and/or  company  name  to  gain  credibility.       • Join   communities   where   you   are   most   likely   to   find   your   customers—I   know   this   sounds   obvious,  but  some  research  is  required  to  understand  your  customer's  favorite  hangouts.     Once  you  have  joined  the  discussion,  it  is  time  to  participate  in  the  community;  post  to  online   forums  and  blogs,  review  products  and  services  and  bookmark  sites  that  interest  you.   Once  you  have  built  yourself  an  online  brand  by  listening,  joining  and  participating,  it  is  time  to   create  your  own  content.   For  the  promotion  of  a  business,  social  bookmarking  is  important  because  it  helps  a  Website  get   quality  backlinks.  Discover  relevant  blogs  and  ask  for  backlinks.   Create   a   blog–they   are   incredibly   popular   because   they   are   cheap,   easy   to   set   up   and   they   provide  maximum  exposure  with  limited  effort.   Once   you   have   created   a   blog   remember,   first   amendment   protection   only   goes   so   far,   therefore   anyone   planning   to   blog   on   subjects   others   might   deem   libelous   or   scandalous   should   take  out  liability  insurance  for  defamation.     Although   similar   to   a   blogging   website,   microblog   sites   such   as   Twitter   and   QQ   in   China   allow   people   to   broadcast   short   messages,   so-­‐called   microposts   that   can   consist   of   text   messages   enriched  with  contextual  metadata.   • • • • • • • Link  content  and  similar  keywords  throughout  your  social  channels.       • Include  a  strong  call  to  action  in  all  of  your  content.   Page  47  of  51  
  • 48. • Participate  by  replying  and  posting  to  online  forums  and  blogs,  reviewing  products  and  services   and  bookmarking  sites  that  you  like  or  find  interesting.       • Create  and  ask  readers  to  sign  up  for  an  RSS  feed.       • Answer  all  questions  and  share  peer  referrals.       • Feature  community  members  on  your  site.         • Share  customer  stories  throughout  your  site.         • Ask  influencers  to  share  your  web  links.       • Interview  an  influencer  for  web  content.     • Have  an  influencer  guest  blog.       • Help  an  influencer  write  content  about  your  brand.       • Share  products  with  influencers  for  feedback  and  web  content.       • Create  Wikipedia  web  pages  for  your  company.     • Make   yourself   an   industry   leader   by   curating   and   aggregating   the   best   content   from   around   the   web  on  subjects  that  interest  you.     • Pull  together  all  of  the  company’s  best  customer  testimonials  in  a  social  bookmark  and  then  link   customers  and  potential  customers  to  it.       • Personalize  your  blog  and  ensure  that  it  contains  great  content,  frequent  posts,  has  user  friendly   navigation,  eye  pleasing  content.  It  should  also  connect  to  other  content.       • Build   a   following   on   Twitter   by   sharing,   listening,   questioning   your   followers,   responding   to   requests,   rewarding   customers,   demonstrating   leadership,   referencing   articles,   and   championing  your  stakeholders.   • Twitter   also   offers   three   ways   to   advertise   on   its   service;   promoted   tweets;   promoted   trends;   and  promoted  accounts.   • Facebook  four  steps  to  business  success  include  building  an  audience,  connecting  with  people,   engaging  an  audience  and  influencing  them  through  their  friends  and  family  members.       • Create  a  Foursquare  presence  to  allow  check-­‐ins  and  promote  localized  specials  and  deals.     • Start  a  LinkedIn  group  around  a  subject  matter  that  want  to  blog  about.   • Link  back  to  dedicated  landing  pages  on  your  Website  for  conversion.     • Create  a  forum  or  community  section  on  your  website  for  like-­‐minded  individuals  to  congregate.   • Post  your  presentations  on  Slideshare  and  embed  them  on  your  site.                     Page  48  of  51  
  • 49. • Include   your   website   in   all   your   social   media   channel   bios   and   if   you   have   an   account,  add  a  link  to  it  in  your  email  signature.                                                                           Footnotes:     [1]   [2]  Media  Law  Resource  Center.  Legal  Actions  Against  Bloggers. Against_Bloggers.htm  (Accessed  February  2,  2013).   [3]     [4]   [5]   [6]     [7]   [8]   [9]   [10]   [11]  ibid   [12]  ibid   [13]  ibid   [14]       References:   Baker,   John.   Origins   of   “Blog”   and   “Blogger.”­‐ bin/wa?A2=ind0804C&L=ADS-­‐L&P=R16795&I=-­‐3,  20  Apr  2008.  (Accessed  July  22,  2013).   BBC.   (2005,   July   19).   News   Corp   in   $580m   Internet   buy.   Retrieved   July   21,   2007   from  (accessed  August  6,  2011).   Bifet,   Albert   and   Frank,   Eibe.   (2010).   Sentiment   knowledge   discovery   in   twitter   streaming   data,   University  of  Waikato,  Hamilton,  New  Zealand.  2010.     Boyd,   Danah   and   Ellison,   Nicole   (2007).   Social   Network   Sites:   Definition,   History,   and   Scholarship.   Journal   of   Computer-­‐Mediated   Communication   (Vol.   13).   Page  49  of  51  
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