Introduction to Oil & Gas - an ESO perspective

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• Overview of Oil & Gas Industry …

• Overview of Oil & Gas Industry
• Introduction to Turbo Machines
• Introduction to Gas Turbine Engines
• Introduction to Steam Turbines
• Introduction to Steam Turbines
• Accessories

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  • 1. ©2013 QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd. The information in this document is the property of QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd. and may not be copied or communicated to a third party or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the written consent of QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd. Introduction to Oil & Gas - an ESO perspective
  • 2. Contents • Overview of Oil & Gas Industry • Introduction to Turbo Machines • Introduction to Gas Turbine Engines • Introduction to Steam TurbinesIntroduction to Steam Turbines • Introduction to Compressors • Accessories QuEST Global Confidential 22
  • 3. WHAT IS AN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY The oil & Gas Industry includes different organizations that contribute for the supply of Refined Oil and Natural gas products The Industry composes of : – Fully integrated Oil & Gas Companies – Independent Oil & Gas producersIndependent Oil & Gas producers – Refiners & marketers – Pipeline operators – Service companies – Trade associations & govt. agencies Entire Oil & Gas products spread over 3 domains Upstream– Upstream – Midstream – Downstream QuEST Global Confidential 3
  • 4. WHAT IS AN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY What Oil & Gas Industry does ? • Offshore Production Platform What We do? • Oil/Gas Field • Reinjection Plant • Oil/Gas Treatment Plant • Refinery Plant • 3D Modeling • Engineering Analysis FEA & CFD • Detailed Design & Drafting • Petrochemical Plant • Gas-to-Liquids • Oil Sands • LNG Production Plant Detailed Design & Drafting • Plant Design Engineering • Instrumentation & Control Systems • Electrical • Pipeline Inspection & Integrity • Gas Boosting Station • Oil Boosting Station • LNG Receiving Terminal • Embedded Systems Development • Design Automation • Technical PublicationsLNG Receiving Terminal • Power Generation • Gas Storage Plant • Land Drilling & Production • Subsea Production QuEST Global Confidential 4 • Subsea Production • Offshore Drilling & Production
  • 5. OIL & GAS DOMAIN ENGG CONTENT Compressors Gas Turbines CentrifugalPumps Compressors Gas Turbines Compressors (C/R/A) Expanders,Reactors Gas / Steam Turbines QuEST Global Confidential 5 Centrifugal Pumps Heat exchangers Valves,Piping Gas / Steam Turbines Heat exchangers
  • 6. UPSTREAM - OFF SHORE APPLICATIONS Oil & Gas extraction Upstream (Where hydrocarbons are extracted) O h d ff h d illi• Onshore and offshore drilling • Natural gas reinjection • Natural gas gathering • Natural gas liquefaction (LNG – refrigeration process) N t l li f ti (GTL h i l ) QuEST Global Confidential 6 • Natural gas liquefaction (GTL – chemical process)
  • 7. SUB-SEA DRILLING SYSTEMS Subsea is a term usually referred to equipment, technology and methods employed to explore drill and develop oil & gas fields that exist below the ocean floor. This may be “shallow or deep water “ Floating Production y p Deep water is a term used for projects greater than 1000 feet. Shallow is used for shallower depths include standing jack-up rigs which can be installed on its legs Floating Production Storage Offloading legs QuEST Global Confidential 7 Capital drilling equipmentsFloating production Systems
  • 8. SUB-SEA DRILLING SYSTEMS Surface Drilling & Completions Onshore Surface Drilling & Completions Offshorep Floating production Systems Capital Drilling Equipment Subsea Production Trees Subsea Drilling Systems • Drilling & production systems • Subsea drilling Systems • Subsea production systems • Capital Drilling Equipment • Surface Drilling & Completion Systems QuEST Global Confidential 8 Surface Drilling & Completion Systems • Floating Production Systems • Power systems
  • 9. MID STREAM - APPLICATIONS Natural gas transportation & Storage Hydro-carbon Transportation to consumers Few examples of Indian pipe lines QuEST Global Confidential 9 Few examples. of Indian pipe lines - 1,800 km HBJ Gas - 618 km Hazira-Dabhol - 2,090kms Goa-Hyd-Kakinada
  • 10. DOWNSTREAM - APPLICATIONS Where Hydro-carbon are consumed / converted Refineries ( FCC, Hydro-cracking etc.) Fertiliser plants (Ammonia and Urea plants) Ethylene plants QuEST Global Confidential 10 Power plants
  • 11. WHAT IS A TURBO MACHINE ? A Turbo machine is defined as an equipment that extracts energy or imparts energy to a continuously flowing stream of fluid by the dynamic action of one or more rotating elements. They are Two types • Prime movers: Machines that consume thermal / potential / electrical energy and convert it to mechanical energy from fluid. A decrease in pressure takes place in turbines e.g : Steam & Gas Turbines, Hydro turbines and Electric Motors • Driven equipments: Machines that use the mechanical energy and produce an increase in pressure energy or electrical as in case of generators QuEST Global Confidential 11 e.g. : Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Alternators
  • 12. PRIME MOVERS & DRIVEN EQUIPMENTS • Power Generating Equipments – Steam turbine Uses Thermal energy of Steam – Gas Turbine Uses Calorific Value of Gas burnt – Hydro Turbine Uses Static Head from Water – Wind Turbine Uses Wind energy – Solar Uses Heat from Sun – Geo thermal Uses Heat from depth of earth • Power Consuming Equipments – Pumps – Compressors – Motors • Prime movers – Steam turbine – Gas Turbine – Electric Motor – Reciprocating Engine QuEST Global Confidential 12
  • 13. PRIME MOVERS Prime Movers / Drivers Prime mover is a machine that transforms energy from one form intoPrime mover is a machine that transforms energy from one form into Mechanical torque and makes it available at a shaft: Gas Turbine: – It transforms thermo-dynamic energy contained in hot pressurised air through rotating blades.g – Heat is obtained in the machine through combustion. Steam Turbine: – Transforms thermodynamic energy contained in high pressure steam through movingy gy g p g g blades. Steam is supplied from external source called boiler. Electric motor: – Transforms electric energy supplied from an A/c power grid.gy pp p g Reciprocating Engine: – Works in a similar way as Gas turbines but through Pistons QuEST Global Confidential 13
  • 14. Energy QuEST Global Confidential 14QuEST Confidential GE Confidential
  • 15. POWER GENERATION DOMAINS Power Generation equipments Captive power Utility Power Industrial Drives Thermal, Gas based Thermal, Gas, Hydro & Nuclear Thermal, gas Based For Industry needs Community & public distribution Drives for Mech.Equipments Captive power Utility Power Industrial Drives Thermal, Gas based Thermal, Gas, Hydro & Nuclear Thermal, gas Based Power Generation equipments Sector Equipment Fuels / Medium Thermal Steam Turbine Generators Superheated Steam Oil &Gas Gas Turbine Generators Natural Gas, Naphtha, HSD Hydro Hydro Turbine Generators Water Nuclear Steam Turbine Generators ( Close to ) Sat. Steam Industrial Steam Turbine Generators Superheated Steam QuEST Global Confidential 15 Industrial Gas Turbine Generators HSD, Fuel oil Un- Conventional Generators Wind, Solar, Tidal
  • 16. MAJOR PLAYERS - POWER SECTOR GasTurbine Key Market Steam Turbine KeyPlayers Market Share Position GE 41% 1 Siemens 13% 2 Key Players Market Share Position GE 15% 3 Siemens 25% 1 Alstom 10% 3 MHI 10% 4 Solar 10% 5 Alstom 18% 2 MHI 10% 5 Toshiba 10% 4 Ansaldo 3% Hitachi 4% DR 2% Ansaldo 3% Hitachi 6% 6 DR 4%DR 2% MAN 2% RR 3% KHI 2% DR 4% MAN 3% Skoda 2% Elliott 4% QuEST Global Confidential 16 • This information is indicative only
  • 17. WHAT IS A GAS TURBINE ? Gas turbines A gas turbine is a rotating machine transforming the thermodynamic energy stored in a pressurized hot gas into mechanical energy made available at the shaft end. QuEST Global Confidential 17QuEST Confidential GE Confidential
  • 18. GAS TURBINES From Duty 1. Generator drive 2. Mechanical drive From their construction 1. Advanced class Heavy duty 2.Heavy Duty 3. Medium Heavy Duty 4 S ll D A d i i 6 IGCC4. Small Duty 5. Aero-derivatives 6. IGCC From Applications 1.Propulsion 2.Power Plants (50Hz,60Hz ) I th l i i th i t t f th t bi i t th Th• In the propulsion engines, the main target of the turbine is to run the compressor. The Flue gas while getting out of the turbine gives a reaction force which gives the propulsion. (Jet engine) • In power plants, the turbine generates power to drive the axial compressor and the connected load like a generator. QuEST Global Confidential 18
  • 19. GAS TURBINES STANDARD FRAME SIZE AND RATINGS* ADVANCED CLASS HEAVY DUTY H SERIES MS9001H : Net Plant Output 520.0 MW MEDIUM SIZE MS 9001E Net Plant Output 126 MW MS 7001EA Net Plant Output 85.4 MW F SERIES MS9001FA : Net Plant Output 390.8 MW MS7001FA : Net Plant Output 262.6 MW MS9001FB : Net Plant Output 412.9 MW MS 6001FA Net Plant Output 77.0 MW MS 6001B Net Plant Output 42.1 MW MS 6001C Net Plant Output 45.4 MW MS7001FB : Net Plant Output 280.3 MW SMALL HEAVY DUTY MS5001, MS5002C, MS5002D & MS5002E GE 10-1 and GE10-2 INDUSTRIAL AERO-DERIVATIVES LMS 100 OUTPUT POWER 100 MW PGT 16, PGT25 and PGT 25+ IGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC Technology** produces low-cost electricity from low cost feed stocks such as coal LMS 100 OUTPUT POWER 100 MW LM 6000 OUTPUT POWER 50 MW LM 2500 OUTPUT POWER 22 MW LM 2000 OUTPUT POWER 17.6 MW LM 1600 OUTPUT POWER 13.7MW from low cost feed stocks such as coal **Solid fuels, like Coal or Bio Masses are transformed into a gas (called Synthesis Gas) that can be burnt in a Gas Turbine in a Combined Cycle. QuEST Global Confidential 19 y * The information in this slide is taken Courtesy GE Energy web site
  • 20. INDUSTRIAL AERO DERIVATIVE ENGINES LM1600 14.2 MW G Other models LM2000 18.0 MW LM2500 22.8MW PGT 16 is a twin spool LM1600 aero derivative gas generator with Ind. LM2500+ 30.7MW LM2500+ HSPT 30.2MW power turbine. PGT 25 is LM2500 aero derivative gas LM2500+G4 34 MW LM6000 45 MW generator with ind. power turbine. PGT 25+ isLM6000 45 MW LMS100 100 MW developed for 30 MW ISO shaft power QuEST Global Confidential 20 The information in this slide is taken Courtesy GE Energy web site
  • 21. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE I t i P A bi t i i d i tIsentropic Process - Ambient air is drawn into the compressor, where it is compressed. Isobaric Process - The compressed air then runs through a combustion chamber, where fuel is burned, heating that air, a constant-pressure, g , p process, Isentropic process - The heated, pressurized air then gives up its energy, expanding through a turbine (or series of turbines). Some of the work extracted by the turbine is used to drive the QuEST Global Confidential 21 extracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. Isobaric process - Heat rejection (To the atmosphere).
  • 22. MODERN GAS TURBINE WORKING PRINCIPLE 1. Air is taken in by the axial compressor from atmosphere, pressure & temperatures are increased in an adiabatic compression process. – Around 3 kg/s of air are taken in for every MW of generated Power. – Discharge Pressure of Compressor for Gas Turbines is between 20 - 50 bar. Di h T t ft C i i b t 200 500 °C– Discharge Temperature after Compression is between 200 - 500 °C 2. Heat is added to the compressed air, by burning fuel in one or more combustors depending on the design. Part of the air (PRIMARY AIR) is used for combustion of the fuel and part of the air (SECONDARY AIR) is used to dilute the heat generated by thefuel, and part of the air (SECONDARY AIR) is used to dilute the heat generated by the combustion keeping the hot gas within material resistance safe limits. – Almost up to a quarter of Air is used for COMBUSTION. In a modern Gas Turbine Hot Gas Temperature is of the order of 1000 °C– In a modern Gas Turbine Hot Gas Temperature is of the order of 1000 C. 3. The hot gas is expanded in one or more turbine wheels that provide mechanical power to drive the compressor as well as to drive the external Load. Th k i d f th COMPRESSION i h d 60% f th t t l QuEST Global Confidential 22 – The work required for the COMPRESSION is as much as around 60% of the total produced. 4. Hot gas is then exhausted back into atmosphere.
  • 23. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR A SIMPLE CYCLE GT – SINGLE SHAFT Inlet Air Fuel Legend: Combustor Hot Gas 2 Legend: 1. Axial compressor 2. Combustion Chamber 3. Turbine wheel 4. Exhaust Load1 3 Generator GAS Compressor Turbine Exhaust Gas TURBINE Exhaust Gas 4 Simple cycle GT QuEST Global Confidential 23 ( Single shaft ) p y
  • 24. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR A SIMPLE CYCLE GT-2 SHAFT 1.Axial compressor 2.Combustion ChamberChamber 3.Turbine wheel 4.Exhaust Compressor QuEST Global Confidential 24
  • 25. COMBINED CYCLE 1 In a combined cycle, the waste heat from Exhaust gases is utilized to increase the cycle efficiency. The waste heat is used to raise steam which will be used to expand in a separate steam turbine generator to get additional powersteam turbine generator to get additional power QuEST Global Confidential 25
  • 26. COMBINED CYCLE 2 In combined cycle, the waste heat from Exhaust gases is utilized to increase the cycle efficiency. The waste heat is used to raise steam which will be used to expand in a separate steam turbine to get additional power QuEST Global Confidential 26
  • 27. COGENERATION CYCLE GT In cogeneration cycle, the waste heat from Exhaust gases is utilized to raise steam which in turn will be used for special industrial applications like Desaliation, hot water production, steam generation and drying processes QuEST Global Confidential 27
  • 28. REGENERATION CYCLE GT QuEST Global Confidential 28
  • 29. IMPORTANT GAS TURBINE PARTS Inlet Plenum Axial compressor- Fuel systemAxial compressor Fuel system Combustion Chamber- Nozzles - Buckets Cooling & Sealing Systemg g y Exhaust Plenum Starting system- Bearings-Load gear QuEST Global Confidential 29
  • 30. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT GAS TURBINES • Axial Compressors generally used in large Power Gas Turbines. Why ? – In a Gas Turbines the Pressure Ratio required is relatively small and Flow Rates are relatively very large …see next slide – A centrifugal compressor of large size is required to handle this which is not practicable. • ISO RATING :ISO 3977-2: Gas Turbines Std. reference conditions and ratings. – Ambient Temperature 59 °F (15 °C) – Barometric Pressure 14.696 psi (a) [101.4 kPa (a)] – Relative Humidity 60% – Altitude Sea Level Heat Rate = Kcal/hr kw The higher is the heat rate the less efficient is the turbine and vice versa GT Fuels Liquid Fuel Type Liquid Petroleum Gas Gasoline Gaseous Fuel Type Pipeline Natural Gas Medium BTU Natural Gas QuEST Global Confidential 30 Naphtha , Kerosene Diesel, Fuel Oil LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Refinery Gases
  • 31. RANGE OF APPLICATION AXIAL VS CENTRIFUGAL Positive displacement machines are generally below 3000 M³ / Hr. Flow regions between 3000 -12,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over- lapping between positive displacement and centrifugal compressors Centrifugal compressors are generally below 100 000 M³ / HrCentrifugal compressors are generally below 100,000 M³ / Hr. Flow regions between 1000 - 12,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over- lapping between positive displacement and centrifugal compressors Axial compressors generally above 1,20,000 M³ / Hr. Flow regions between 80,000 - 1,20,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over lapping between centrifugal and axial compressorsover-lapping between centrifugal and axial compressors. AXIAL COMPRESSORS QuEST Global Confidential 31 Axial compressors are designed for high volume and relatively low pressure applications.
  • 32. Effect of Ambient conditions on Gas Turbine Performance QuEST Global Confidential 32
  • 33. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT GAS TURBINES Effect of ambient on GT performance - SITE ALTITUDE 100 QuEST Global Confidential 33GE Confidential 0
  • 34. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT GAS TURBINES Effect of ambient on GT performance AMBIENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY QuEST Global Confidential 34
  • 35. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT GAS TURBINES Effect of ambient on GT performance AMBIENT TEMPERATURE Winter summer QuEST Global Confidential 35
  • 36. SOME INTERESTING FEATURES OF MODERN GAS TURBINES A) Following Exhaust Emission Control measures are taken in Gas Turbines • NOx , SOx and Solid particle Control is achieved by:, p y • Excess air drawn by axial compressor than required for combustion • Application of Dry Low Nox combustor designs • By Water or steam injection in to combustion chamber • Solid particles emission is reduced by a high degree of filtration air and fuel • Acoustic emissions control B) Gas Turbine power enhancement is achieved by the following • Evaporative cooling / Chiller located in compressor inlet • Steam injection in to combustion chamber • Inter cooling in between LP and HP air compressors QuEST Global Confidential 36 Inter cooling in between LP and HP air compressors • Combined cycle and cogeneration cycles utilising waste heat of exhaust gases.
  • 37. CROSS SECTION OF A GAS TURBINE Inlet Plenum Stator Vanes Compressor Rotor Combustor Inlet Plenum Exhaust Diffuser Turbine RotorNozzle Inlet Casing Inlet guide Vanes Turbine Casing Thrust Bearing Base Frame g Compressor Casing Compressor Discharge Casing QuEST Global Confidential 37 This information is taken Courtesy J R Johnston Paper on ‘Performance and reliability analysis’
  • 38. Steam Turbines QuEST Global Confidential 38 QuEST Confidential
  • 39. INTRODUCTION • Steam Turbines are rotating equipments used to produce Mechanical WHAT IS A STEAM TURBINE !! Steam Turbines are rotating equipments used to produce Mechanical Power from Thermal Energy of steam • Steam turbines are mostly 'axial flow' types. (Steam flows over the blades in a direction parallel to the axis of the wheel.) The steam is expanded in nozzles, resulting in the formation of a high velocity jet. This impinges on the moving blades, mounted on a shaft. HOW DOES IT WORK !! s p ges o t e o g b ades, ou ted o a s a t Here it undergoes a change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum The shaft power in a turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotatehigh velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate. Power plants involving Steam Turbines employ Rankine cycle. The Rankine cycle is modified many a time to improve the cycle efficiency by incorporating Reheat QuEST Global Confidential 39 and Regenerative loops.
  • 40. CLASSIFICATION Turbine Type Feature Application Utility Captive & Mechanical drivesApplication Utility , Captive & Mechanical drives Size Small < 15 MW Medium > 15 MW Large > 300 MW Turbine Type Feature g Principle Impulse & Reaction yp Condensing The exhaust steam is expanded down to condenser Pressure (Vacuum) Back Pressure The exhaust steam is sent for a process needing low pressure steam Extraction Condensing Part of steam is extracted at intermediate pressure and rest expands to condenser pressure) (Vacuum) E t ti B k P t f t i t t d t i t di t d t QuEST Global Confidential 40 Extraction Back Pressure Part of steam is extracted at an intermediate pressure and rest is sent for a down stream process
  • 41. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF STEAM TURBINES ST Nomenclature ST Industrial Product Line • Single Casing • Megawatt Ratings from 20 MW to 100 MW • TG Sets, Boiler Feed pumps, Mech Drives ST Combined Cycle & Fossil Product Line • Megawatt Ratings from 100 MW to 1100 MW • Non-Reheat, Single Reheat,& Double Reheat • Single Casing to Five Casing Machines ST Nuclear Product Line f• MW Ratings from 500 to 1500 Ex: TC1F : Tandem compound 1 LP flow Works in a similar way as Gas turbines but through Pistons QuEST Global Confidential 41 y g
  • 42. ABOUT THE FLUID Fluid - Superheated Steam Inlet pressure - 2400 – 4500 PSIG Inlet Temp - 1000 – 1100 Deg FInlet Temp 1000 1100 Deg F Suggestive parameters Sub Critical >= 2400 Psig -1000 F (165 bar / 538 C) Super Critical >= 3500 Psig -1050 F (240 bar / 565 C) Ultra Supercritical >= 4500 Psig -1112 F (310 bar / 600 C) * Nuclear applications ~ 1100 Psig - 570 F ( 78 bar / 300 C) Improvements in power plant performance are achieved by raising inlet steam conditions to Supercritical and Ultra supercritical levels. * Illustrative and typical parameters QuEST Global Confidential 42
  • 43. STEAM TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE Critical pointpoint Water line Wet steam zone Steam line ( saturated ) Simple Rankine Cycle 4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler) 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine), QuEST Global Confidential 43 2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser), 3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump),
  • 44. STEAM CYCLE WITH BOILER -- RANKINE CYCLE 2. STEAM TURBINE 1. BOILER ELECTRICALMain Steam TURBINE Evaporator Super heater ELECTRICAL GENERATOR Main Steam CONDENSATE Economizer Exhaus t Steam Fossil Fuel W out 3. CONDENSER CONDENSATE EXTRAN PUMP 4. BOILER Cooling Water Boiler Feed water Q in 4. BOILER FEEDWATER PUMP Condenser Hot Well Elements of a power plant 1.Boiler Q in 2.Steam Turbine W out Q out QuEST Global Confidential 44 3.Condenser Q out 4.Feed Pump W in W in
  • 45. STEAM CYCLE WITH BOILER -- MODIFIED RANKINE CYCLE BOILER Hot Reheat Superheater Cold Reheat Main Steam ELECTRICAL GENERATOR LP STEAM Economizer Evaporator HP STEAM TURBINE Exhaust TURBINE CONDENSER Exhaust Steam Fuel CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP BOILER FEEDWATER PUMP Cooling Water QuEST Global Confidential 45 PUMP PUMP Condenser Hot Well
  • 46. STEAM CYCLE: REGENERATION STEAM BOILER STEAM TURBINE Evaporator Superheater ELECTRIC GENERATOR Main Steam Economizer Exhaust Steam Extraction Steam CONDENSER BOILER FEEDWATER Steam Boiler Feedwater LP HEATER Fuel CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP Cooling Water QuEST Global Confidential 46 PUMP Condenser Hot Well
  • 47. TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF STEAM TURBINES 1 impulse + reactions All reaction stages QuEST Global Confidential 47 All impulse stages
  • 48. WORKING PRINCIPLE Basically Steam Turbines are 2 types Impulse : Most of the pressure drop for the stage takes place in nozzle R ti P d i tReaction : Pressure drop in a stage takes place aprox. 50% in Nozzle and 50% in Buckets R ti δH b k t / δH StReaction = δH bucket / δH Stage δH bucket : Isentropic heat drop in bucket δH St T t l t I t iδH Stage : Total stage Isentropic heat drop QuEST Global Confidential 48
  • 49. WORKING PRINCIPLE CONTD. Impulse Impulse stages can takeImpulse stages can take a higher enthalpy drop across the stage This makes the ST compactcompact Reaction Reaction stages are more efficient and takesefficient and takes relatively less enthalpy drop across stage QuEST Global Confidential 49
  • 50. STEAM TURBINE CRITICAL PARTS Outer Shell Main Steam Inlet Cross Over Pipe HP Packing Nozzle, Diaphragm HP Inner Shell IP Inner Shell Casing Diaphragm Buckets N2 Packing Head N3 Packing Head Buckets QuEST Global Confidential 50 N1 Packing Head Head Head Nozzle Box HP Rotor
  • 51. DOUBLE EXTRACTION AND CONDENSING STEAM TURBINE QuEST Global Confidential 51
  • 52. Some ST Basics QuEST Global Confidential 52 QuEST Confidential
  • 53. SOME BASICS Units: Pressure abs Gauge Pressure + 1.01325 Temperature Deg K ( Deg C + 273 ) E th l kJ /k ( C b d f M lli h t )Enthalpy kJ /kg ( Can be read from Mollier chart ) Entropy kJ/ Deg K / kg ( Can be read from Mollier chart ) Dryness As percentage Heat Rate kJ/ kW or Kcal/Kg / kW Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat kJ/kg) is the amount of heat required to raise the water to boiling point (hf ) from 0 deg C temperature Enthalpy of evaporation ( latent heat kJ/kg ) is the amount of heat required to change the state of water from boiling temperature into steam Enthalpy of saturated steam = Sensible heat + latent heatEnthalpy of saturated steam = Sensible heat + latent heat Entropy in a steam turbine is defined as the change of heat from the inlet temperature to the exhaust temperature, Divided by the inlet temperature. QuEST Global Confidential 53 Entropy S = dQ/T
  • 54. PROPERTIES OF STEAM When water is boiling , though more heat is added, the temperature of the water remains Saturation constant, till entire water is converted into steam. This temperature is known as the saturation temperature. When the steam temperature drops below its saturation point the steam will condense Superheat When the steam temperature drops below its saturation point, the steam will condense into water In an ideal situation, turbines are built such that the respective pressure and temperature do not drop below the saturation temperature until it reaches the condenser. If the saturated steam produced in a boiler is exposed to a surface with higher temperature, its temperature will increase above the evaporating / saturation Superheat temperature. The steam is then described as superheated. The number of degrees through which it has been heated above saturation temperature is termed as Degree of superheat Only superheated steam is employed in multistage QuEST Global Confidential 54 is termed as Degree of superheat. Only superheated steam is employed in multistage steam Turbines
  • 55. PROPERTIES OF STEAM Pressure and temperatures are related at the saturation point of the steam Pressure and Temperature Dryness Fraction S and amount of heat contained Steam at a temperature equal to the boiling point at that pressure is known as saturated steam. As 100% dry steam is rarely possible, and the steam will usually contain droplets of water. If the water content of the steam is 5% by mass, then the steam is said to be Heat Rate = Kcal/hr If the water content of the steam is 5% by mass, then the steam is said to be 95% dry and has a dryness fraction (x) of 0.95. Heat Rate = Kcal/hr kw The higher is the heat rate the less efficient is the turbine and vice versa QuEST Global Confidential 55 The higher is the heat rate the less efficient is the turbine and vice versa
  • 56. Centrifugal Compressorsp QuEST Global Confidential 56 QuEST Confidential
  • 57. INTRODUCTION What is a compressor? A device used to pump compressible fluids ( mostly Gases ) from lower pressures to higher pressures A d i d i ibl fl id ( l li id ) f l What is a Pump ? A device used to pump incompressible fluids ( mostly liquids ) from lower pressures to higher pressures What is the difference between blower and a compressor? According to API 617, pressure rise below 0.35 bar is a blower and above this is a compressor QuEST Global Confidential 57 this is a compressor
  • 58. TYPES OF COMPRESSORS COMPRESSORS POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT DYNAMIC TYPEPOSITIVE DISPLACEMENT (COMPRESSING FLUID BY REDUCING VOLUME OF COPRESSION CHAMBER) DYNAMIC TYPE (ACCELERATING AND DECLERATING OF FLUID) RECIPROCATING ROTARY TYPE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS AXIAL COMPRESSORS HELICAL SCREW SPIRAL AXIAL STRAIGHT LOBE SLIDE VANE QuEST Global Confidential 58 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
  • 59. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS : APPLICATION RANGE Positive displacement machines are generally below 3000 M³ / Hr. Flow regions between 3000 -12,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over-lapping between positive displacement and centrifugal compressors Centrifugal compressors are generally below 100 000 M³ / HrCentrifugal compressors are generally below 100,000 M / Hr. Flow regions between 1000 - 12,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over-lapping between positive displacement and centrifugal compressors Axial compressors above 1,20,000 M³ / Hr. QuEST Global Confidential 59 Flow regions between 80,000 - 1,20,000 M³ / Hr. can be considered over-lapping between centrifugal and axial compressors.
  • 60. COMPRESSORS TYPES Reciprocating Compressors Positive displacement compressors Positive displacement compressors achieve Increase in pressure by Reducing Reciprocating Compressors Reciprocating compressors are used in a very wide variety of refinery, petrochemical and natural gas services They have a veryachieve Increase in pressure by Reducing volume ( changing entrapped volumes like in IC engines ) Examples: Reciprocating Rotary screw, vane, liquid and natural gas services. They have a very good turn-down capability, while maintaining efficiency levels similar to the ones at full load. They are specially suited for highp g y q and lobe y p y g pressures, high compression ratios and relatively lower volumes QuEST Global Confidential 60
  • 61. COMPRESSORS TYPES Dynamic compressors Dynamic or Turbo Compressors achieve Increase in b i ti KE t th fl id t l tpressure by imparting KE to the fluid to accelerate and then decelerating it to convert into pressure ( example centrifugal pump) Centrifugal Compressors Centrifugal compressors cover a wide range of applications, from the oil and gas production, gas transportation, LNG, refinery, petrochemical Typical Centrifugal Compressorp y p industries, fuel gas boosting and other similar processes. Axial Compressors Axial compressors are designed for high volume and relatively low pressure applications such as LNG, catalytic cracking plants (FCC), air separation plants, QuEST Global Confidential 61 ca a y c c ac g p a s ( CC), a sepa a o p a s, air services and nitric acid plants. Axial Compressor
  • 62. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPRESSORS • Fertilisers (Ammonia Plant ) Syn. Gas, NH3, Air, N2, Nat.gas F tili (U Pl t) CO• Fertilisers (Urea Plant) CO2 • Refineries Air, Wet Gas, Hydrogen P t h i l Pl t P P l Eth l• Petrochemical Plants Propane, Propylene, Ethylene. • Metallurgical Plants O2, Air, Gas • Gas gathering stations Natural gas • Re-injection services Natural gas • Pipeline compressors Natural Gas Chemical Plants • Refrigeration System Ammonia, Ethylene, Propylene • Ind. Applications Instr. air • Gas Boosters Gas Turbines, CCCP QuEST Global Confidential 62
  • 63. DRIVERS FOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS Steam - When there is abundant process steam is available Turbine When several operating conditions are to be met Driver Design Considerations Turbine - When several operating conditions are to be met - This eliminates need for a speed increasing gear Gas - Where there is a good source of natural gas supply T bi Wh l ti diti t b tTurbine - When several operating conditions are to be met Electric Motor - In the absence of either of the two above - When there is only a fixed speed operation Compressors require the following sub-systems for their reliable, safe and reliable operation Compressor sub systems p q g y p • Lube oil system • Anti-surge and performance control system • Sealing system (Oil, DGS, Ejector) • Instrumentation and control system QuEST Global Confidential 63 Instrumentation and control system • Coolers and separators. • Filtration systems
  • 64. COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE CURVE e Surge point What cause surge in a ? Surge Point Anti SurgeLine CompressorSurge Line Pressure g p compressor ? Very low suction flow High discharge resistance Or Choking of flow channels P1 P g surge DesignPoint Choke point P1 QuantityBypassed QuEST Global Confidential 64 Q1Q Q surgereq. Flow
  • 65. THRUST BALANCING IN COMPRESSORS Fig A. In line Fig A Gas thrust generated in a inline compressor is cummulative and acts on the thrust bearingg Fig B. Back to back Fig B Gas thrust generated in a b k t b kback to back compressor gets compensated to a great extent QuEST Global Confidential 65
  • 66. APPLICABLE STANDARDS Compressors and turbines are used in process plants and work with no standby and are considered as critical equipments and hence “ *API “ dictates certain stringent rules to design / manufacture them API 610 Centrifugal Pumps API 611 Auxiliary Steam Turbines * API - American Petroleum Institute API 611 Auxiliary Steam Turbines API 612 Drive Steam Turbines API 613 Gearbox API 614 Oil SystemsAPI 614 Oil Systems API 616 Drive Gas turbines API 617 Centrifugal Compressors API 618 Reciprocating CompressorsAPI 618 Reciprocating Compressors API 670 Instrumentation API 671 Couplings API 672 Packaged, Integrally Geared Compressors QuEST Global Confidential 66 6 ac aged, eg a y Gea ed Co p esso s API 676 Positive Displacement Pumps
  • 67. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPRESSORS Centrifugal Compressors Common Models Horizontally split compressorsy p p Cast casing Pressure up to 40 ata Services : Air / Ammonia / Propylene / Wet gas/ethylene/ Co2 etcServices : Air / Ammonia / Propylene / Wet gas/ethylene/ Co2 etc Vertically split compressor Forged Casing (barrel type)Forged Casing (barrel type) Pressure up to 700 ata Services : Syn gas / Nat gas / H2 recycle / CO2 QuEST Global Confidential 67
  • 68. COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY 1. Casing UH 2. Casing LH 3 Suc Diaphragm 14346 5 715 15 3. Suc. Diaphragm 4. Interstate Diaphragm 5. Disc. Diaphragm 6. End seals 14 7. Balance drum 8. Balance drum seal 9. Impellers 10. Shaft 11. Journal bearing 12. Thrust bearing 13. End seals 14 Coupling 13 12 8 11 14. Coupling 15. RTDs 2 9 10 QuEST Global Confidential 68
  • 69. Reciprocating Compressorp QuEST Global Confidential 69 QuEST Confidential
  • 70. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Reciprocating machines are designed Manufactured as per API 618 & API 11P The important consideration for a Reciprocating compressor is its Volumetric efficiency The primary reasons for the fall of Volumetric efficiency : Cylinder clearanceCylinder clearance Heating of inlet gas Valve losses Gas leakage The movement of gas into and out of cylinder are not uniform and cause a periodic pressure pulsations. To even out the pulsations a pulsation damper is provided at the discharge QuEST Global Confidential 70
  • 71. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS • Reciprocating compressors are classified into two Major types – Single acting D bl A i– Double Acting • Based on cylinder arrangement they are classified as – Horizontal, – Vertical, – Right angled suction suction – Horiz. opposed suction suction QuEST Global Confidential 71 Disch. Disch.
  • 72. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR 41. Cut off Valve 2. Inlet Filter suction 3. Separator 4. Cooler Optional 5. Volume bottles or suction Pulsation Damper 6. Cylinder 7. Volume bottles or Disch. Pulsation Damper 8. Cooler 9. Separator 10. Check Valve 11. Cut off valve QuEST Global Confidential 72
  • 73. MATERIALS USED IN ROTATING EQUIPMENTS Materials employed in a Turbo Machinery depends on • Higher Stresses demand Alloy steels and Precipitation hardening steels • Gas medium being highly Corrosive, high Humidity etc , needs High Chromium and Stainless St. • Temperature of Gas like – Low temperature applications in Refrigeration services employ high Nickel alloys – High temperature applications like steam turbines Creep resistant steels are used ( Chromium , Vanadium steels ) – Very high temperatures applications like GT hot gas path employ High Ni alloys like Inconelslike Inconels • Pressure Rating of the machine – Low pressure applications employ castings High pressure applications employ Forgings– High pressure applications employ Forgings • Manufacturing Processes – Steels with low carbon are recommended for good Weld ability – Machinability and weld ability QuEST Global Confidential 73 Machinability and weld ability
  • 74. Piping & Auxiliaries QuEST Global Confidential 74 QuEST Confidential
  • 75. PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM A Piping and Instrumentation Diagram( P&ID ) is :A Piping and Instrumentation Diagram( P&ID ) is : A Drawing showing the Piping parts, Process parts of a system and the Instrumentation parts required to operate and control the system itself This is theInstrumentation parts required to operate and control the system itself. This is the starting document for building any Process plant Piping : The set of PARTS specifically engineered to convey FLUIDS from one point to another point according to some specific process requirements Pipingpoint to another point according to some specific process requirements. Piping parts :Pipes, pipe fittings, tubes, tube fittings, valves Instrumentation: The set of instruments used to operate and control a system Process Parts : Pumps, Filters, Heat Exchangers… QuEST Global Confidential 75
  • 76. STANDARDS RELEVANT TO PIPING The American National Standards Institute’s standards used in the design of the Piping System are as listed. ASME B 31. Code for Pressure piping is at present a non- mandatory code in USA though they are adopted as legal requirementmandatory code in USA, though they are adopted as legal requirement. ASME B 31.1 - Power Piping ASME B 31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping ASME B 31.3 - Process Piping ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline Transportation System for liquid hydrocarbon & other Liquids ASME B 31.5 - Refrigeration Piping ANSI - American National Standard Institute API - American Petroleum Institute ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASNT - American Society for Non destructive Testing ASTM - American Society for Testing Materials AWS - American Welding Society CGA - Compressed Gas Association QuEST Global Confidential 76 EJMA - Expansion Joint Manufactures Association MSS - Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valve & fitting Industry NACE - National Association of Corrosion Engineers
  • 77. PIPE FITTINGS DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS 1. ASME B 16.1 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 2. ASME B 16.3 - Malleable-Iron Threaded Fittings 3. ASME B 16.4 - Grey Iron Threaded fittings 4. ASME B 16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 5. ASME B 16.9 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings 6. ASME B 16.11 - Forged Fittings, Socket welding and Threaded 7. ASME B 16.28 - Wrought Steel Butt welding Short Radius & Elbows 8. ASME B 16.42 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 9. MSS- SP- 43 - Stainless Steel Fittings QuEST Global Confidential 77
  • 78. PIPE SIZING FOR OIL & GAS • For a given flow rate – Small diameter means higher velocity of the fluid handled – Higher diameter means low velocity of the medium handled • Velocity of fluid in pipeline affects P d i h i li– Pressure drops in the pipeline (pressure drops are proportional to the square of velocity v2 – Vibrations of the pipe line • Usual velocity of fluids inside pipelines are : – Gas : 20 m/sec max 40-50 m/sec – Liquids : 2 to 4 m/sec max 10 m/sec – Fluids in drain line : <1 m/sec QuEST Global Confidential 78
  • 79. PIPE SIZING FOR OIL & GAS QuEST Global Confidential 79
  • 80. PIPING FOR OIL & GAS QuEST Global Confidential 80
  • 81. PIPING FOR OIL & GAS QuEST Global Confidential 81
  • 82. PIPE FITTTINGS & FLANGES Flanges to ANSI B16 5 Butt welded fittings to ANSI B16.9 Flanges to ANSI B16.5 QuEST Global Confidential 82
  • 83. TYPES OF FLANGE JOINTS 1 2 3 4 5 * 1. WN: Used for all sizes They allow full penetration weld between Pipe &Flange. For this reason they are used for severe applications such as high pressure and high temperature ratings, where failure of weld can not be accepted. 2 Slip On: Used for all sizes They are very much economical because their shape. They do not allow full2 Slip On: Used for all sizes They are very much economical because their shape. They do not allow full penetration welds so they are used for lower ratings and less severe applications 3 Threaded: : Used for smaller sizes They are very used limited for threaded lines and hence for less severe applications 4. Lap joint : A stub end is welded on the pipe after the flange inserted on . This solution is generally used for SS lines for low pressures 5. Socket Weld : Used for small sizes < 2 inch also for less severe joints on SW lines QuEST Global Confidential 83 * NPT : National Pipe taper threads
  • 84. TYPES OF FLANGE JOINTS • Selection of gasket depends upon following factors. – Compatibility of the gasket material with the fluid. Abilit t ith t d th t t f th t– Ability to withstand the pressure-temperature of the system. • Based on the type of construction, gaskets are classified as: –· Full Face Flat asbestos Fibre –· Inside bolt circle Gaskets QuEST Global Confidential 84 –· Spiral wound metallic –· Ring Joint type –· Metal jacketed
  • 85. MOST COMMONLY USED VALVES GLOBE Good behavior when partial opening for regulation of flow is required. GATE Used as On/ Off valves for isolation of pipe lines CHECK or NON These valves are designed to allow flow only in one direction. NON RETURN BALL A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications for high pressuresBALL for high pressures A butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow. A butterfly valve is from a QuEST Global Confidential 85 BUTTERFLY g g g y family of valves called quarter-turn valves. “Quarter Turn” only required to fully open or close the valve.
  • 86. MOST COMMONLY USED VALVES OTHER VALVES ( LIKE INSTRUMENTS) • PRESSURE SAFETY VALVE – A valve that discharge fluid to the atmosphere when the pressure in the system is too high. The valve must be closed manually by the Maintenance Staff after verification of what caused the event. RELIEF VALVE• RELIEF VALVE – Often used as a synonym of Safety Valve. Indeed the difference is that a RELIEF VALVE will close automatically when the pressure in the system lowers to normal. • CONTROL VALVE – A Valve that in conjunction with some SENSOR will open or close to maintain a set VALUE of a specific PHYSICAL PARAMETER in a part of the SYSTEM. – Main Fluids Parameters are Pressure, Temperature and Flow Rate, so main kind of Control Valves will be: • PCV: Pressure Control Valves • TCV: Temperature Control Valves QuEST Global Confidential 86 • TCV: Temperature Control Valves • FCV: Flow Control Valves
  • 87. AUXILIARIES Centrifugal Compressors Reciprocating Compressors Steam Turbine Gas Turbines Inlet filtration Inlet filters and Surge Vessels Governing system Inlet system, Anti surge control Anti surge control Condensing system Exhaust system Sealing system Sealing system Sealing system Starting system Gas coolers separators Gas coolers separators Fuel system Gear box Gear box Barring gear& Gear box Accessory & Load gear box Lube oil system Lube oil system Lube oil system Lube oil system Process Gas Piping Process Gas Piping Steam & Drain Piping Process Gas Piping Base plates Base plates Base plates Base plates Instruments & Instruments & Instruments & control Instruments & control QuEST Global Confidential 87 Instruments & control System Instruments & control System Instruments & control System Instruments & control System
  • 88. AUXILIARIES - CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS Centrifugal Compressors Purpose Inlet filtration This is applicable for only air compressors to prevent entry of foreign bodies and dust which can eventually damage compressor internals. Level of filtration 20 Microns Anti surge control This is applicable for all types of compressors to prevent surging and protect the compressors. Sealing system Compressors handling hazardous and flammable gases needs a reliable sealing tog y p g g g prevent leakage to atmosphere. Gas coolers separators To provide efficient compression in multi stage compressors, gas is cooled after every phase either by water or air cooled exchangers Gear box Where driver and driven equipments are required to run at different speed such asGear box Where driver and driven equipments are required to run at different speed such as Motor +compressor or GT + compressor Lube oil system The Lube oil console takes care of the lubrication requirements of compressor and its driver P G Th ti i i hi h i d t t i i t i l t dProcess Gas Piping The entire piping which is used to connect various equipmentsin a plant comes under this category. Base plates The fabricated supporting structure for the equipment which gives rigidity and fixing of the rotating equipments. QuEST Global Confidential 88 Instruments & control System Measurement control and monitoring of rotating equipments for vibrations , bearings temperatures, flow and surge control
  • 89. AUXILIARIES - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Reciprocating Compressors Purpose Inlet filtration Surge Vessels This is applicable for only air compressors to prevent entry of foreign bodies and dust which can eventually damage compressor internals. Level of filtration 20 Microns Anti surge This is applicable for all types of compressors to prevent surging and protect the control compressors. Gas coolers separators To provide efficient compression in multi stage compressors, gas is cooled after every phase either by water or air cooled exchangers Gear box Where driver and driven equipments are required to run at different speed such asGear box Where driver and driven equipments are required to run at different speed such as Motor +compressor or GT + compressor Lube oil system The Lube oil console takes care of the lubrication requirements of compressor and its driver. G Th ti i i hi h i d t t i i t i l tProcess Gas Piping The entire piping which is used to connect various equipmentsin a plant comes under this category. Base plates The fabricated supporting structure for the equipment which gives rigidity and fixing of the rotating equipments. QuEST Global Confidential 89 Instruments & control System The measurement control and monitoring of rotating equipments such as vibrations , bearings temperatures, flow control etc.
  • 90. AUXILIARIES - STEAM TURBINE Steam Turbine Purpose Governing Steam turbine control system is designed to contol certain criticalg system y g parameters like turbine speed, Live steam pressure, / quantity, exhaust pressure and driven equipment parameters like compressor suction pressure. Condensing By creating a vacuum it helps the exhaust steam to condense at subCondensing system By creating a vacuum, it helps the exhaust steam to condense at sub atmospheric pressure Sealing system To provide gland steam leakage and inter-stage steam leakage Barring gear To help the steam turbine to coast down after trip and keep it running atBarring gear To help the steam turbine to coast down after trip and keep it running at very low speeds to prevent thermal distortions Lube oil system The Lube oil console takes care of the lubrication requirements of compressor and its driven equipment in case of a generator. Base plates The fabricated supporting structure for the equipment which gives rigidity and fixing of the rotating equipments. Instruments & control System The measurement control and monitoring of rotating equipments such as vibrations bearings temperatures flow control etc QuEST Global Confidential 90 control System vibrations , bearings temperatures, flow control etc.
  • 91. AUXILIARIES - GAS TURBINES Gas Turbines Purpose Inlet system, The inlet system is meant for drawl of air for combustion and ventilation air, ffiltration, minimize pressure drop, noise reduction, inlet cooling, anti-icing. Exhaust systems Ducts discharging exhaust air from the enclosure, expansion joint and exhaust silencer Starting system To accelerate the gas turbine to self sustaining speedg y g g p Fuel system The Main Fuel System provided on the GAS TURBINE has the task of delivering the correct flow rate of fuel demanded by GT Accessory Gearbox To connect starting means with the GT shaft, and also to drive a number of user l t lik MOP H d li li id f l d t i i ielements like MOP, Hydraulic pump, liquid fuel pump and atomizing air compressor. Lube oil system To supply oil to the GT bearings, integrated auxiliaries, and control oil to the hydraulic oil systems. Base plates In addition to supporting the GT , the base plate holds number of auxiliary equipments like Lo tank, accessory gear, starting systems, fuel control systems, pumps and filters Instruments & control Control regulation and protection system performs number of functions to QuEST Global Confidential 91 System ensure correct operation of the GT and protect the machine
  • 92. GT AIR INLET SYSTEM • Air is taken in by the GT Air Inlet system for two main systems: Combustion air : It is the air taken in by the Axial Compressor and it is mainly used as medium fluid for the Thermodynamic Cycleused as medium fluid for the Thermodynamic Cycle. ( Only about 25% of this air is used for the Combustion of the Fuel.) Ventilation air : It is air flowing through the Gas Turbine Enclosure with the help of a Fan It cools the Enclosure area and dilutes possible gas leakagesof a Fan. It cools the Enclosure area and dilutes possible gas leakages. • Basic design criteria: C f f– Correct degree of filtration. – Compliance with noise regulations. Low friction losses to meet guaranteed power– Low friction losses to meet guaranteed power. – Structural design in compliance with building codes • Inlet cooling: To cool the Air at Intake to increase the Gas Turbine Power. QuEST Global Confidential 92 g • Anti-icing : To avoid formation of Ice in the Ducts or at Compressor bell-mouth
  • 93. AIR INLET SYSTEM - COMPONENTS • FILTER HOUSE – Steel box housing the filtering elements and accessories like Pulse Jet Cleaning System, Heating / Cooling Coils and Evaporative Cooler FILTER HOUSE STRUCTURE• FILTER HOUSE STRUCTURE – Steel Structure to support the Filter House. • INLET DUCT – Ducting work connecting the Filter House to the Inlet Plenum. Includes Transition Pieces,Ducting work connecting the Filter House to the Inlet Plenum. Includes Transition Pieces, Elbows, Straight Empty Ducts, Silencer and Expansion Joints • INLET DUCT STRUCTURE – Steel Structure to support the Inlet Ducting. It usually supports also the Ventilation Inlet Ducts INLET PLENUM• INLET PLENUM – It distributes the Air Flow on the Circular Section of the Axial Compressor inlet. • VENTILATION INLET DUCTS. – Connects the Filter House to the GT Enclosure. Dampers are provided to seal the Enclosure inConnects the Filter House to the GT Enclosure. Dampers are provided to seal the Enclosure in case of Fire. • FANS – Driven by Electric Motors. They provide the required Head for the Ventilation air Provided with Silencers QuEST Global Confidential 93 Silencers. • VENTILATION EXHAUST DUCTS – Ducts discharging hot ventilation air from the enclosure. Dampers are provided to seal the Enclosure in case of fire.
  • 94. FILTER HOUSE Filter House Weather protection :protection from rain fall or snow fall. Hoods. Inlet screen :a wire mesh to avoid ingestion of large flying objects, birds, insects.Filter House Is the First component of the Inlet System, insects. Pre-filter :(Optional) Media filter used to remove larger solid particles before the high efficiency filter. Inertial filter: Optional pre-filter separating high inertia solids from low Where the filtered air will be sucked by Gas Turbine. Based on Inertial filter: Optional pre filter separating high inertia solids from low inertia air by impressing a sudden change in direction of the air stream. Demister: Always supplied with cooling systems to eliminate moisture designed to drain out liquid drops larger than 20 µm. Based on application, Static and Pulse Jet Filter house will be selected Coalescer: A media filter designed to gather liquid droplets smaller than 20 µm until the liquid drop is big enough to be drained out by gravity. High efficiency filter: Also called barrier filter the main and only filter always present It is a media filter specially designed to remove 99 9 %be selected. always present. It is a media filter specially designed to remove 99.9 % of solid particles larger than 5 µm. Pulsed jet filter: A pressure differential transmitters monitor inlet pressure and activates the pulse filters at 3 inch WG (76 mm) increasing i l Ab t 10% f t t l C t id l d th h i QuEST Global Confidential 94 signal. About 10% of total Cartridges are cleaned through reverse air pulse at a time. The pulse filters remain active until a 2.5 inch WG (51 mm) decreasing signal is reached.
  • 95. INLET DUCT ASSY Inlet System Consists of Expansion joint, - connected to Filter house on one end and takes care of axial variationsvariations. Empty Duct - straight duct which will be fitted with other accessories like Internal Bleed heater, Cooler Flange based on site conditions. Silencer Duct fitted in the row of the empty duct which is internally insulated and fittedSilencer Duct, - fitted in the row of the empty duct, which is internally insulated and fitted with panels - reduces the noise of Inlet air. Elbow Duct, Internally insulated duct, Which guides the air to plenum of the Gas turbine. Inlet Ventilation System connecting the filter house and Enclosure of the gas turbine, which will supply the cleaned air to the Gas turbine enclosure, by means of fans.pp y , y The ventilation system consists of the Expansion joints and the ventilation ducts, which are supported on Inlet empty duct or on support structure of the Inlet/Exhaust accessories. QuEST Global Confidential 95
  • 96. EXHAUST STACK ASSY Exhaust System Consists of Expansion joint, which will be connected to Exhaust Plenum to Exhaust Duct, The Expansion joints are internally insulated to with stand the exhaust temperature ofExpansion joints are internally insulated to with stand the exhaust temperature of 500Deg C. Exhaust Duct, are Uninsulated / internally / Externally insulated ducts and supported on the support structurethe support structure Exhaust Silencer Duct, will be fitted in the row of the Exhaust duct, which is internally insulated and fitted with panels which reduced the noise of the Exhaust air. Exhaust Ventilation System connecting to the Enclosure and other end opened to atmosphere, so that air from enclosure go The ventilation system consists of the Expansion joints and the ventilation ducts, the end of the duct covered with bird screen, so that foreign component shall not enter the duct. All the ducts are supported on support structure of the Inlet/Exhaust accessories. Support Structure, which supports the filter house and Inlet exhaust ducts, and QuEST Global Confidential 96 Support Structure, which supports the filter house and Inlet exhaust ducts, and provided with the platforms/ladders to access the doors of the filter house and different elevation of Inlet/Exhaust system during installation and maintenance
  • 97. ©2013 QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd. The information in this document is the property of QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd. and may not be copied or communicated to a third party or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the written consent of QuEST Global Services Pte Ltd.