Lessons from Harvard:
Using Gamification to Juice
Your Sales Training
B. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
VA Boston Healthcare System...
Conflict of Interest Disclosure
• Harvard submitted patent on spaced education
methodology in 2006.
• Harvard launched a s...
Structure of Talk
• What is a game?
• My (strange) research trajectory
• Elements of game mechanics
• Rewards
• Leaderboar...
• 2013 Horizon Report on Educational Technology:
‘game-based learning’ as one of six emerging technologies
likely to have ...
What is a Game? Examples…
Salen & Zimmerman. Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press. 2004.
Working Definition of an Educational Game:
“an active, outcome-oriented learning experience
that involves focused decision...
.
.
.
• Guilds: Blood legion, Zenith clan
• Quests: Collection quests, Kill quests
• Levels:
• 1st
-level Warlock
• 6th
-level R...
• Guilds: Blood legion, Zenith clan
• Quests: Collection quests, Kill quests
• Levels:
• 1st
-level Warlock
• 6th
-level R...
• Guilds: SBPT
• Quests: Making your Q2 numbers
• Levels:
• Salesperson of the year
• District manager
• Regional manager
...
“90% of people
attending Gamblers
Anonymous meetings
in Las Vegas play
only (slot) machines.”
-- Natasha Dow Schull, anthr...
How can we build a slot machine
for learning ?
Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of 351 medical
students at 4 northeastern medical schools
Acad Med. 2006;8...
Retention of BLS and ACLS Training Among Nurses
Resusc 2008; 78: 59-65
n=133
Lammers (Michigan State Univ) Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15: 1181-89
Spaced Education Delivery System:
harnesses both the spacing & testing effects
Spaced Education Delivery System
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
It Works!
• Increases knowledge & retention
- Medical Education 2007: 41:23-31 --- UGME
- Journal of General Internal Medi...
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
How can we build a slot machine for learning ?
Game Mechanics:
► Adaptive algorithm: Qs re-sent at variable
intervals if a...
2012
2012
2012
Global Guidelines Dissemination
Hematuria, priapism, staghorn calculi, infertility, & antibiotic use
Annals of Surgery 201...
Global Guidelines Dissemination
Annals of Surgery 2012 Jul;256(1):33-8
Spaced Education
Delivery System
QstreamOnline Game
3N 2NSICU
Rank Team Ave. Score
1 3N 4083.7
2 SICU 3669.4
3 2N 3581.4
4 A1-MSDU 3425.8
5 CCU 3210.9
6 MI...
Cost & Utilization Outcomes
Structure of Talk
• What is a game?
• My (strange) research trajectory
• Elements of game mechanics
• Rewards
• Leaderboar...
Reward Hierarchy
S – status
A – access
P – power
S – stuff
“SAPS”
Saeed
Abdul
Ghafour
Khouri
Status
Status
To become a Gilt Noir member, you must
spend at least $10,000 on Gilt.com a year
Lets the top 1% of users preview sales
15...
Access
Power
Impact of Incentives -- The Candle Problem
“Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table”
Glucksbu...
The Candle Problem
“Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table”
Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive ...
The Candle Problem – Solved
“Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table”
Glucksburg 1962, cited ...
The Candle Problem
“Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table”
Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive ...
Designing Effective Sticks and Carrots:
• Several studies show that large tangible contingent rewards
can extinguish intri...
Structure of Talk
• What is a game?
• My (strange) research trajectory
• Elements of game mechanics
• Rewards
• Leaderboar...
Leaderboards
Alias…or not
Structure matters!
Structure of Talk
• What is a game?
• My (strange) research trajectory
• Elements of game mechanics
• Rewards
• Leaderboar...
Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:505-514.
Team Size
Matters!
r = -0.68
p < 0.05
Psychol Sci 2009; 20(7):871-877.
Structure of Talk
• What is a game?
• My (strange) research trajectory
• Elements of game mechanics
• Rewards
• Leaderboar...
EndoWrist® One™
Vessel Sealer
mLearnCon 2013 Mobile Learning Conference, June 18-20, San Jose CA
Spaced Educ Group Feedback:
"Convenient, timely, effective"
"Learned material without
interrupting my day"
"Nothing beats ...
Game Mechanics Can Juice Your Sales Training
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
Lessons from Harvard:  Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM
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Lessons from Harvard: Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM

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Lessons from Harvard: Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training by Dr. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM

  1. 1. Lessons from Harvard: Using Gamification to Juice Your Sales Training B. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM VA Boston Healthcare System Harvard Medical School
  2. 2. Conflict of Interest Disclosure • Harvard submitted patent on spaced education methodology in 2006. • Harvard launched a start-up company (Qstream, www.qstream.com) which hosts this methodology outside of the Harvard firewalls. • As the “inventor”, I am an equity owner and director of this company.
  3. 3. Structure of Talk • What is a game? • My (strange) research trajectory • Elements of game mechanics • Rewards • Leaderboards • Teams • Examples of games in sales training
  4. 4. • 2013 Horizon Report on Educational Technology: ‘game-based learning’ as one of six emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on education over the coming 2-3 years.1 • What is a game? Games as Educational Tools 1 Johnson et al. (2013). The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2013-horizon-report-HE.pdf
  5. 5. What is a Game? Examples…
  6. 6. Salen & Zimmerman. Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press. 2004.
  7. 7. Working Definition of an Educational Game: “an active, outcome-oriented learning experience that involves focused decision-making and proceeds according to rules” Games as Educational Tools • Active • Outcome-oriented • Learning experience • Focused decision-making • Proceeds according to rules
  8. 8. .
  9. 9. .
  10. 10. .
  11. 11. • Guilds: Blood legion, Zenith clan • Quests: Collection quests, Kill quests • Levels: • 1st -level Warlock • 6th -level Rogue • 13th -level Death Knight • 20th -level Shaman Game: World of Warcraft
  12. 12. • Guilds: Blood legion, Zenith clan • Quests: Collection quests, Kill quests • Levels: • 1st -level Warlock • 6th -level Rogue • 13th -level Death Knight • 20th -level Shaman Game: World of Warcraft Crazy ?
  13. 13. • Guilds: SBPT • Quests: Making your Q2 numbers • Levels: • Salesperson of the year • District manager • Regional manager • VP of sales Games are everywhere! Game: Selling Pharmaceuticals
  14. 14. “90% of people attending Gamblers Anonymous meetings in Las Vegas play only (slot) machines.” -- Natasha Dow Schull, anthropology professor at MIT
  15. 15. How can we build a slot machine for learning ?
  16. 16. Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of 351 medical students at 4 northeastern medical schools Acad Med. 2006;81(3):224-30.
  17. 17. Retention of BLS and ACLS Training Among Nurses Resusc 2008; 78: 59-65 n=133
  18. 18. Lammers (Michigan State Univ) Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15: 1181-89
  19. 19. Spaced Education Delivery System: harnesses both the spacing & testing effects
  20. 20. Spaced Education Delivery System
  21. 21. VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
  22. 22. VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
  23. 23. VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
  24. 24. It Works! • Increases knowledge & retention - Medical Education 2007: 41:23-31 --- UGME - Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008; 23(7):973-8 --- UGME - Academic Medicine 2011 (in press) --- UGME - Journal of Urology 2007; 177, 1481-1487 --- GME – Journal of Urology 2009; 181, 2671-2673 --- GME – Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2010; 211: 331-72673 --- GME – Annals of Surgery 2009; 249: 744–749 --- CME • Improves self-assessment of knowledge – American Journal of Surgery 2009; 197(1):89-95 • Changes behavior – American Journal of Surgery 2009: 197(2), 252-257 – American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010; 39: 472-8 • Is well-accepted by learners - Demonstrated in all trials to date
  25. 25. VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial
  26. 26. How can we build a slot machine for learning ? Game Mechanics: ► Adaptive algorithm: Qs re-sent at variable intervals if answered correctly vs incorrectly. ► Progression dynamic: Physicians retired Qs by answering each correctly twice-in-a-row. ► Appointment dynamic: Qs expired if not answered on time. ► Competition was fostered by posting relative performance among physicians. ► Awards: CME credit given based on performance.
  27. 27. 2012 2012
  28. 28. 2012
  29. 29. Global Guidelines Dissemination Hematuria, priapism, staghorn calculi, infertility, & antibiotic use Annals of Surgery 2012 Jul;256(1):33-8
  30. 30. Global Guidelines Dissemination Annals of Surgery 2012 Jul;256(1):33-8
  31. 31. Spaced Education Delivery System
  32. 32. QstreamOnline Game 3N 2NSICU Rank Team Ave. Score 1 3N 4083.7 2 SICU 3669.4 3 2N 3581.4 4 A1-MSDU 3425.8 5 CCU 3210.9 6 MICU 3206.0 7 AG 2906.2 8 A2 2493.1 9 PACU-PCU 2153.9 10 2S 1954.3 2S AGA2 Qstream Online Game GO Team GO!!! Nurses check your email every, Tuesday and Thursday got Qstream?
  33. 33. Cost & Utilization Outcomes
  34. 34. Structure of Talk • What is a game? • My (strange) research trajectory • Elements of game mechanics • Rewards • Leaderboards • Teams • Examples of games in sales training 
  35. 35. Reward Hierarchy S – status A – access P – power S – stuff “SAPS”
  36. 36. Saeed Abdul Ghafour Khouri Status
  37. 37. Status
  38. 38. To become a Gilt Noir member, you must spend at least $10,000 on Gilt.com a year Lets the top 1% of users preview sales 15 minutes before they go live online Access
  39. 39. Access
  40. 40. Power
  41. 41. Impact of Incentives -- The Candle Problem “Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table” Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive by Daniel Pink (2009) Study: Top - $25 Top 25% - $5 v. No reward
  42. 42. The Candle Problem “Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table” Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive by Daniel Pink (2009) Study: Top - $25 Top 25% - $5 Vs. No reward
  43. 43. The Candle Problem – Solved “Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table” Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive by Daniel Pink (2009) Study: Top - $25 Top 25% - $5 …3.5 minutes longer v. No reward
  44. 44. The Candle Problem “Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table” Glucksburg 1962, cited in Drive by Daniel Pink (2009) Interesting…but how does this relate to my sales force? “Functional fixedness”
  45. 45. Designing Effective Sticks and Carrots: • Several studies show that large tangible contingent rewards can extinguish intrinsic motivation & limit creativity ….in certain situations • Ideal: Align extrinsic motivators with intrinsic motivations • Be creative !
  46. 46. Structure of Talk • What is a game? • My (strange) research trajectory • Elements of game mechanics • Rewards • Leaderboards • Teams • Example of games in sales training 
  47. 47. Leaderboards
  48. 48. Alias…or not Structure matters!
  49. 49. Structure of Talk • What is a game? • My (strange) research trajectory • Elements of game mechanics • Rewards • Leaderboards • Teams • Examples of games in sales training 
  50. 50. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:505-514.
  51. 51. Team Size Matters!
  52. 52. r = -0.68 p < 0.05 Psychol Sci 2009; 20(7):871-877.
  53. 53. Structure of Talk • What is a game? • My (strange) research trajectory • Elements of game mechanics • Rewards • Leaderboards • Teams • Examples of games in sales training
  54. 54. EndoWrist® One™ Vessel Sealer
  55. 55. mLearnCon 2013 Mobile Learning Conference, June 18-20, San Jose CA
  56. 56. Spaced Educ Group Feedback: "Convenient, timely, effective" "Learned material without interrupting my day" "Nothing beats being able to answer questions and getting immediate feedback" "Qstream keeps you engaged and works well for new devices such as vessel sealer.” “An effective way to ensure the data sticks” No phone calls!
  57. 57. Game Mechanics Can Juice Your Sales Training

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