Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas
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Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas

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Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas

Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas

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Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas  Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene from Jatropha Curcas Document Transcript

  • Vasista Adarsh Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ. Vol. 1 Issue 2 Oct. 2011(123-126) International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment Vol. 1 Issue 2 Oct. 2011(123-126) ISSN 2248-9649Research Paper Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) from Jatropha Curcas: Overall Impact on Environment Vasista Adarsh B* V Semester B.E Student, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, Karnataka, INDIA Available online at: www.ijrce.org (Received 26th August 2011, Accepted 07th September 2011)Abstract - Aviation provides the only rapid worldwide transport network, is indispensible fortourism and facilitates world trade. Annually air transport moves over 2.2 billion passengersworldwide and aviation industry generates 32 million jobs globally. So, aviation industry has itsown impact on various strata of life. It contributes to almost 2% of manmade CO2 emissions andthis is expected to increase for 5% by 2050. Fuel is one of the biggest operating costs for aviationindustry. The changing price of crude oil also makes it difficult to plan and budget for operatingexpenses long- term. So, Aviation industry is now focusing on an alternative source to reduce itsdependence on fossil based fuels. Many researchers recommend Bio-fuel s may act as a partial orcomplete substitute for fossil fuels and also reduce CO2 emissions. Second generation Bio-fuel feedstocks (e.g., Jatropha curcas, Camelina etc) may be able to meet the technical requirements ofaviation fuel. But there are serious debates about the environmental impacts of these Bio-fuel s.This paper analyses an important Bio-fuel crop used in Aviation industry, Jatropha Curcas Linnfor its eco-sustainability.Key words: Aviation Bio-fuels, Jatropha curcas, Camelina, Second generation Bio-fuel s, Jet A-1.Introduction challenges faced by today’s aviation industry is not a Aviation is one of the most wide smaller one. So, the Industry is searching for antransportation networks which facilitate world trade. alternate fuel so that they can reduce their dependenceAir transport improves the quality of life in number of on petroleum derived fuels.ways. It is one of the biggest employers in globalemployment sector and generates a total of 32 million Aviation Bio-fuelsjobs annually. Its global impact is about 7.5% of Many alternatives like Unconventional oil (Shaleworld’s gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is Oil, Oil sands), Jet fuel from Coal, Cellulosic Biomass,estimated that USD 3560 billion. Aviation is one of the Microalgae, Jatropha, Camelina are gainingmajor contributor of climatic change which represents importance in recent days [3]. They are believed to2% of manmade Carbon dioxide(CO2) emissions, reduce the overall CO2 emissions. Substitutingwhich is expected to reach above 3% by 2050[1]. Up till Aviation fuel is not a simple issue, because a fuel innow aviation industry has been parasitic on fossil aircraft handles many functions like hydraulic fluid inbased oils. But the world’s supply of oil has been engine control systems and coolant for certain fueldifficulty in keeping up with demand and also has a system components in addition with acting as a fuel.larger impact on global CO2 increase. Emission from So, thermal stability is an essential characteristic of theaircraft like CO2, regulated pollutants like Carbon fuel [4]. Bio-derived jet fuel has become key element ofmonoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), and the aviation industry to address the environmentalSulphur (SOx), Hydro carbons, pose serious affects challenges and fossil fuel dependency. Significantboth on local air quality and global climate change [2]. research has been made in verifying SyntheticEven though air craft entering today’s fleet are 70% Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK), made from biomass, as anmore fuel efficient than that of 40 years ago, the fuel alternative for fossil derived fuels. A two-hour test 123
  • Vasista Adarsh Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ. Vol. 1 Issue 2 Oct. 2011(123-126)flight using a 50-50 mixture of the new bio-fuel with sustainability of these feed stocks. Experts suggest thatJet A- 1 in the number one Rolls Royce RB-211 engine increased bio-fuel production has a major role in foodof 747-400 ZK-NBS, was successfully completed on price hike by shifting land away from food production.30 December 2008 [5]. The engine was then removed to Nevertheless bio-fuel s have presented as a potentiallybe scrutinized and studied to identify any differences significant contributor to the strategies for reducing netbetween the Jatropha blend and regular Jet A-1. No greenhouse gas emissions from aviation sector. Overalleffects to performances were found. Since, the impact of bio-fuel development on climate is morefeedstocks for these bio- fuels are plant biomass, the complex still.sustainability of these bio- fuels depend on theirenvironmental impact. So, this paper analyses Social, Ecological Impactsenvironmental and economical effects of these bio- Jatropha Curcas L. is a perennial droughtfuel feed stocks. See Figure 1. resistant shrub usually grown tropical and sub tropical climatic conditions. Semi arid climates of India areJatropha Curcas Linn suitable for Jatropha [7]. cultivation. Heavy variabilityJatropha Curcas L is a perennial, drought resistant of growth and performance has been observed inshrub cultivated worldwide. It has been used for soap Jatropha fields. Worldwide aviation industryproduction and traditional medicine. It is best grown in consumes about 1.5-1.7 billion barrels of Jet A-1tropics adapted to temp 200-2800 C. They have annually. So, in order to meet at least 1% of the abovecapacity to grow even in poor, low nutrient soils [6].It demand, large amounts of Jatropha feed stocks have togrows faster under good conditions and produce fruit be produced[1]. Growing Jatropha according to modernwithin 2- 3 years. It can grow up to 5m in height and intensive practices would result to monoculture [11, 12].can live up to 50 years [7]. Figure 2 shows a typical There are many problems associated with monoculture,Jatropha plant. See Figure 2 Increased risk of soil erosion and mechanicalThe fruits of Jatropha are found to be toxic and degradation, increased risk of nutrition depletion,inedible to man and even to animals [6, 8, 9] and seeds of problems associated with irrigation, problemsfruit contain about 30-35% of oil and this percentage associated with pests etc [8] . Since, research for pestdiffers according to climate. Oil content can be control in Jatropha is in its infancy, it will be veryextracted with a mechanical press or Chemical difficult to maintain growth in monoculture. If plantedextraction as shown in Figure 3. correctly, especially in hedges in marginal lands, it is supposed to increase the fertility of the soil by shading of leaves, decrease soil erosion and increase infiltrationMethodology of rain water [13]. However there is a large need ofSustainability of Bio- fuels is of major concern today. further research regarding the environmental impactsIn order to assess its sustainability, following of cultivation of Jatropha in monoculture and as adimensions are relevant [9]. mixed crop [11, 13, 14, 15, 16]. Recent works have shown(i) Ecological Dimension that growing Jatropha in monoculture is more(ii) Social Dimension susceptible to pests and thus use of large amount pesticides may cause severe eutrophication and other(iii) Economic Dimension environmental issues [13, 17]. Current plans for(iv) Political and Institutional Dimension cultivation of Jatropha are in marginal lands [18]. But, several studies have shown that the yield of fruits in(v) Time Dimension marginal lands is small [13]. So, there is a fear thatThis paper analyses whether SPK from Jatropha farmers switch over to cultivable lands for theCurcas as a viable alternative for conventional aviation production of Jatropha. With regard to land usefuel such as Jet A-1. Bio mass for SPK from Jatropha patterns, if prime land is used for production and foodCurcas has been assessed based on data available in crops are displaced to more marginal soils, foodliteratures based on above mentioned dimensions. For security may be endangered. If ecology or soil qualitythe Bio-fuel to be sustainable, it must have a positive is improved by Jatropha cultivation, this mayeffect on at least several of these dimensions without positively influence food security in the long run. Onhaving negative impacts on the other [7, 9]. Here, we the other hand, if soils are further degraded, foodhave considered Bio mass production in national, security will be decreased in the long run. Consideringplantation scale and their effects on environment is experiences with large-scale plantations of oil palmanalyzed. and sugar cane, monoculture and intensified production may be a risk factor.Results and Discussion There is a widespread interest in bio-fuel Socio-economic Impactscrops as a solution for world’s energy demands and One of the major benefits of cultivatingalso reduces harmful effects of Green House Gas Jatropha for bio-fuel production is the creation ofemissions to environment. Despite of wide spread employment opportunities for the rural poor since nodebate about the potential viability of Bio mass expertise is needed for the cultivation of these cropsfeedstock, it continues to be planted on large scale. So, [19]. Economic fruit yield from Jatropha takes 3-4there is a need of overall analysis of potential years and hence interest among farmers for Jatropha 124
  • Vasista Adarsh Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ. Vol. 1 Issue 2 Oct. 2011(123-126)cultivation is currently low because of low profit 5. James.D.Kinder, Timothy Rahmes, “Evaluationmargin and larger idle time [20]. India one of the largest of Bio-Derived Synthetic Paraffinic KeroseneJatropha cultivators for oil production but a little (Bio-SPK)”, Boeing Company Sustainable Bio-amount research has been done in commercial viability fuel s Research Program Report, April (2009).of Jatropha based SPK in aviation industry. In densely 6. Heller, J. Physic nut, “Jatropha curcas Linn”,populated country like India, so called “Wastelands”, Vol. 1, International Plant Genetic Resourcesis often used by poor livestock keepers and other Institute (IPGRI), (1996).landless people and occupation of this land causes 7. Expertise Centrum voor Duurzame Ontwikkelingsevere economic crisis on the rural people [16]. Further (ECDO) “Size Doesn‟t Matter”, Decemberlarge scale cultivation of Jatropha in developing (2006).country like India will largely depend on government 8. Begg, J. & Gaskin, T. “IPCS INTOX Databank,policies. Factors that influence economic viability of Jatropha curcas L.” Poisons Informationcultivation of Jatropha in large scale depend on many Monograph (PIM) 570, (1994).factors like labor availability, availability of land etc. 9. Makkar, H. & Becker, K. “Jatropha curcasFor establishment of Jatropha as a large scale oil crop, toxicity: Identification of toxic principle(s), in T.a bottom up organization of production may even be Garland & A.C.Barr, ed.,Toxic Plants and Othercritical, as successful Jatropha production needs long Natural Toxicants”, New York: CABterm time commitment current experiences with International, pp. 554-558, (1998).Jatropha seem to indicate that profit margin is still low 10. Vlasman, A. & Dankelman, I., “Denkraam voorfor large scale production of Jatropha is viable[7]. duurzame ontwikkelingen. DuurzameThere is a possibility of negative impact on rural ontwikkeling entoekomstdenken.society when cultivation takes in large scale by big Eeninleiding.”,DHO., (2006).companies and land owners. Poor farmers will be 11. Vlek, P. L. G., Kühne, R. F. & Denich, M.,seriously affected by this. “Nutrient resources for crop production in the tropics”, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. B 352(1356), 975-Conclusion 985., (1997). From the above mentioned facts cultivation of 12. Muller, A., “Burning the Future - Long-term andJatropha in large scale so as to produce SPK from it Large-scale Problems of Bioenergy”, (2005).has a large number of hurdles right now. The existing 13. Euler, H. & Gorriz, D. “Case Study Jatrophaeconomic and environmental situation pose a large Curcas India”, Global Facilitation Unit forhindrance for cultivation non edible Jatropha, Underutilized Species (GFU), Deutschenevertheless good Bio-fuel policies may affect the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeitlarge scale production in a positive way. Government (GTZ) GmbH,( 2004).policies should support small land holders and rural 14. Syers, J. K., “Managing soils for long-termfarmers for the cultivation of Jatropha, otherwise it productivity”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352(1356),will create a large socio-economic gap between various 1011-1021, (1997).classes of society. So we conclude that cultivation of 15. Wallace, J. S. & Batchelor, C. H., “ManagingJatropha as a feedstock for aviation graded Bio-fuel water resources for crop production”, Phil.seems largely an undiscovered option and further Trans. R. Soc. B352 (1356), 937-947, (1997).research and analysis is needed for sustainable 16. BIRD-K, “The bio-fuel hype: Chance orcultivation of it. challenge for sustainable agriculture? in: Sustainable agriculture: Apathway out of povertyAcknowledgement for India‟s rural poor.”GTZ Sustainet, Deutsche Author is grateful to Mr. Girish, Co- Gesellschaftfür TechnischeZusammenarbeit,coordinator, Bio-fuel Park, Centre for Agricultural Eschborn., (2006).Research, Madenur, Hassan Dist. Karnataka, India for 17. Grimm, C. & Maes, J., “Arthropod faunahis valuable advice. associated with Jatropha curcas L. in Nicaragua: a synopsis ofspecies, their biology and pestReferences status, in G.M. Gübitz; M. Mittelbach & M.1. Air transport action group,”Beginer’s Guide for Trabi, ed., Bio-fuel s and industrialproducts Bio-fuel s”, Report, (2009). from Jatropha curcas”, Dbv-Verlag, Graz, pp.2. Bob Saynor, Ausilio Bauen, Matthew Leach,” 31-39., (1997). Potential for Renewable Energy Sources in 18. Government of India “Indian Bio-fuel Policy”, a Aviation”, Imperial, College Centre for Energy report from Dept. of Renewable Energy, (2008). Policy and Technology, report March (2003). 19. Francis, G.; Edinger, R. & Becker, K., “A3. Omega, “Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Alternative concept for simultaneous wasteland reclamation, Aviation Fuels: Full Report”, University of fuel production,and socio-economic development Cambridge Institution for Aviation and in degraded areas in India: Need, potential and environment, (2009). perspectives of Jatrophaplantations”, Natural4. Chevron, “Aviation Fuels: Technical Review”, Resources Forum 29(1), 12-24., (2005). (2006). 20. Henning, R. K. “The Jatropha Booklet - A Guide to Jatropha Promotion in Africa”, Deutsche 125
  • Vasista Adarsh Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ. Vol. 1 Issue 2 Oct. 2011(123-126)Gesellschaftfür Technische Zusammenarbeit(GTZ), (2003) Fig.1: Figure showing Jatropha oil [Courtesy: Bio- fuel Park, Centre for Agricultural Research, Madenur, Hassan, Karnataka, INDIA] Fig.2: Figure showing Jatropha Plant [Courtesy: Bio-fuel Park, Centre for Agricultural Research, Madenur, Hassan, Karnataka, INDIA] Fig.3: Figure showing Mechanical Extractor of Jatropha Oil [Courtesy: Bio-fuel Park, Centre for Agricultural Research, Madenur, Hassan, Karnataka, INDIA] 126