Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal
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Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal

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Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal

Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal

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Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal  Transforming Invading Plants into Fuel Pellets in Senegal Document Transcript

  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 1 Transforming invading plants into fuel pellets in Ross-Bethio (Senegal) Amadou Oury Ba1, Ndiogou Diongue1, Abdoulaye Fall1, Mamadou Aly Sow1 , Benoit Courteau2 et Djibril Diao3Abstract - This article deals with an integrated project that produces fuelpellets, bio-compost and bio-fuel. Such a study is done by S3IC and itspartners in Ross-Bethio, Senegal. This first stage of this project financed bythe World Bank as Development Market Place 2006 (DM 2006), is abouttransforming invading plants (Salvinia Molesta, Typha, Khaye) on thebanks of Senegal River into fuel pellets for the rural population use in mealcooking. First of all, the article introduces the issue of the initial project andpresents the production line (composed of tools used to cut plants, a pelletpress, a bio-fuel engine and a shredder) designed by the project team toproduce those fuel pellets. Then, the article displays the vision and theimplementation of this integrated project from the experimental stage of the a) - Salvinia Molesta b) - Typha Australisunit to its profitable trading stage and throughout its transitional stage,which is necessary to the accomplishment of fundamental conditions. Theauthors end up the article by presenting the main social, economic andenvironmental advantages of the products (fuel pellets, edible pellets, bio-compost, bio-fuel), that will be gained from the future integrated salebusiness with social advantages.Index terms - Salvinia Molesta, Typha Australis, Khaye, Jatropha, carcus,fuel pellets, edible pellets, bio-compost, bio-fuel, grapnel, pellet press,shredder, bio-fuel engine, etc. c) – Invaded irrigation canals1 - INTRODUCTION Figure 1.1: Invading plants in canals and/or streams of waterJADE project (or DM 2006 Project 1075 of Development 2 - INTRODUCTION OF THE PILOT PRODUCTION UNITMarket Place) of the World Bank which was initially meant totransform Salvinia Molesta (or water Hyacinth) intoecological fuel became along its process a project oriented The objective of this pilot phase of the JADE project is totowards valorizing invading plants and agriculture residues. transform invading aquatic plants in the valley of SenegalThis experimental stage of the project is managed by S3IC1 in River into compost and fuel pellets for domestic cooking. Thecollaboration with Ecoindutrielle2 its Canadian partner, and production of cooking pellets is made from a mechanicalASESCAW3, its Senegalese partner. So, the project targets an equipment (fig.2.2) which is a set composed of a shredder andarea around the Senegal River (initially around Ross-Bethio), a rotary pellet press (PP) driven by a Jatropha (Kîdy ora place overwhelmed for many years by aquatic plants tabanani) oil engine. Therefore, we intend to grove a few(Salvinia Typha, Khaye, and others) (cf. figure1.1) that acres of this plant in the project frame work (cf. fig.5.1).prevent livestock from drinking, and fishermen from working Before taking them to PP, the invading plants are previouslyproperly. All this contributes to the degradation of water shredded; the obtained flour is put in a sieve (which will bequality of the river and the blockage of the soil and draining later on replaced by a grindstone) so as to retain the biggestsystem. particles. The finest particles are then mixed up with water and this aqueous mixture will be introduced in the PP to produce fuel pellets by extrusion.1 - S3IC : Société Sénégalaise des Scientifiques et Ingénieurs au Canada, 8243, Rue St-Denis, Montréal (Qc), Canada, H2P 2G7.2 - EcoIndustrielle : Une Division de Mécanique Industrielle, 569-F Boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes (Qc), Canada, J3X 1P73 - ASESCAW : Amicale Socio-Économique Sportive et Culturelle des Agriculteurs du Walo, B.P. 09, Ross-Béthio, Sénégal.
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 22.1- Tools used to cut the invading plants In their first proposal to the World Bank, the authors weresupposed to use the grapnel to clean stream borders andirrigation canals in the valley of the Senegalese River.However, if the grapnel is useful to pull Salvinia Molesta, ithas revealed itself not efficient enough against Typha orKhaye which are deep rooted plants in water. Against the a) – A view of the Grapnel b) - Grapnel in uselatter plants, the authors have used scythes and sickles which Figure 2.1: Grapnel in use within a Salvinia environmentwere more efficient. In that respect, CSS (Senegalese SugarCompany) planting many acres of sugar cane, uses‘focardeuse’ machine to cut and clean stream borders andirrigation canals. Photos in Fig.2.1 show grapnels in action.2.2 - Components of the chain of the unit productionAs mentioned, one of the goals of the project is to transformenvironmental waste of invading aquatic plants into fuel fordomestic cooking. In that respect, it was necessary to dry, a) - Pellet Press (PP) b) - Shredder for dry vegetal matterscrush, grind up, optimize parameters (optimum composition ofthe initial mixture, size of the pellet, humidity, etc.), andextrude the vegetal matter to make fuel pellets. The sun driesit, a shredder cuts it into thin particles, a spraying system isused as humidifyer and the rotary press works continuously toproduce pellets.The Pellet Press (PP) is made of a series of pierced platesturning around a compressed wheel that forcefully drives thevegetal matter, inserted into a silo, through holes. The wholesystem turns slowly (35 to 40 rpm) and needs less energycompared to the hydraulic system. The whole set is 1.5m x1.5m x 0.5m of volume and 350 Kg of mass. The PP operateson the principle of extrusion which requires 10 metric tonsforce to put participles together in such a way to produce acylinder of 6 mm of diameter. The PP is a machine whichoperates continuously (cf. fig.2.2a). c)- Main components of the unit The Bio-fuel engine - the PP is driven by a 20 horsepower(hp) diesel engine; half of this power is used to turn on other Figure 2.2: Components of the pellet production unitcomponents such as the shredder or generator. The dieselengine operates on our own bio-fuel. We are completing a 2.3 - Operating the production chainmethod to make sure of the reliability on the way the dieselengine operates (fig 2.2c, in red). Once harvested either by grapnel or by scythe, plants are The shredder- is a rotary device with hammers which dried on the spot and roughly cut into 1.5m pieces in size so asrequires less than 5 hp in order to operate. The equipment is to handle them easily. Stems are then mechanically shreddedcomposed of a clutch and different internal sieves with (2mm, and manually sieved to get the size of the pellets as specified3mm and 4mm wide) allowing different sizes in grind. The previously. The grind matter is thus weight and spread on araw material is introduced through the happer, it is shredded plastic sheet. It is sprayed with a known volume of water inand ground up by the hammers speeding at 4000 rpm, it is order to get the right humidity content to make pellets. Theroughly sieved and then driven out and put in a bag (see fig. whole grind is covered for a while to allow water to soak in2.2b). (cf. photos of fig.2.3). Then, the humidified grind is put in the Sieve versus grindstone - Now, we are using a sieve to supply silo of the press. The compressed grind is driven intoobtain thin particles, necessary to produce pellets. However, the plate holes and becomes a cylinder of 6mm in diameterin case of ultra thin grind, it would be possible to think about which falls off when it reaches 5 cm in length. The output isadding a grindstone in order to transform thin particles into collected under the PP machine, and then dried in order to‘flour’. The principle this grindstone is operating is similar to restore the humidity content it requires to burn. So, pellets arethe system that helps transform grains into flour. ready to be used (cf. fig. 2.4).
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 3 3.1 – The main work done on site Also, at the Ross Bethio site (in Senegal) the project team achieved the main work as shown below: -to install and adjust the machines and operate the experimental unit (pellet press, engine, shredder); a) - Shredding Typha stems b) – A secondary sieving stage -to produce a sample of pellets whose calorific power is close to that of charcoal (determining the optimum composition of the initial mixture and making the necessary adjustments in order to get the appropriate torques and speed); -to perform principal technical tests on pellets (i.e. characteristic, toxicity and combustion or water boiling tests, WB/1985); -to have social acceptance tests, evaluate them and write them down on a report; c) - Grinded Typha d) – Humidifying the matter -to produce a sufficient quantity of pellets for sale; Figure 2.3 : Making the raw material -2 persons will be given complete training to take over and run the experimental unit (operation, maintenance and repairing as well as producing pellets); -to hire 3 persons (1 accountant and 2 retailers) to sell pellets in the store of the local partner (ASESCAW); -and finally to write down a business plan, for the project follow up. Moreover, during the accomplishment of the tasks mentioned above, the project team :a)- Some Samples b)- Other samples of pellets - was able to experiment and successfully produce bio- compost (natural fertilizers) from those very aquatic plants; - initiated Jatropha (Kidy/Tabanani) planting over a few acres of land. The Jatropha oil (made of its seeds) will be used as fuel for the engine in use (cf. figure 5.1). c) - Adjusting takings d) – Pellet samples (500 g) 3.2 - The results of the technical tests Figure 2.4 : Sizes of fuel pellets 3.2.1 - The calorific power of the pellets3 - TECHNICAL RESULTS AND NEW PERPECTIVES The calorific power is a measurement of the quantity of Initially, the project was supposed to use 2 well tested energy by the combustion of solid or liquid sample. It is antechnologies (i.e., a floating grapnel and a manual pellet press) essential measurement to determine the energy efficiency of ato produce fuel pellets. The initial goal of the project was to sample.stop the Salvina molesta invasion over the river banks [1].Then, the project has been transformed into a global Method used - The characterisation tests for the pellet calorificintervention of biomass enhancement for the Typha australis power were carried out by the Centre de Transfert de(estimated around 200,000 tons per year) which is an ongoing Techonologique en Ecologie Industrielle (CTTEI) in Tracyflail in the delta of the Senegal river. (Qc) according to the MA.108-P.Cal.1.1 method of Centre d’Expertise en Analyse Environnementale du Quebec Therefore, a production unit has been implemented to (CEAEQ). This method is itself derived from the D240produce fuel pellets. The unit was composed of a rotary pellet method by the American Society for Testing and Materialspress driven by a diesel engine running on biofuel and a (ASTM) called ‘ Heat of combustion of liquid hydrocarbonshredder for dry material. Since the particles coming out of the fuels by bomb calorimeter’.shredder were big enough, the use of a sieve was necessaryfor the time being as the required improvement will be madeto the device later on.
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 4The method principle- According to the MA. 108 method, the 3.2.2 - Water boiling tests using pelletscalorific power is determined by burning a known quantity ofa pellet sample in the calorimeter bomb containing an excess Water boiling tests in relationship to pellets are aboutof oxygen under pressure. It is thus determined from the determining the amount of time it takes for some quantity oftemperature variation read during the sample combustion. The water to boil from room temperature to the boiling point ofapplication framework of this method concerns samples 100 deg Celsius when it is heated by fuel pellets. These testswhose calorific power is between the range of 0.64 to 1000 could thus complement those used to determine the pellets’MJ/Kg. (For example in Quebec, waste oil or other matters calorific power. Within the frame work of this project, acan be used for energy purposes if their calorific power is at major goal would be to perform comparative boiling testsleast 18.5 MJ/Kg). between pellets and charcoal on the one hand and in the other hand to do boiling tests on pellets only using two types of Appendix 1 describes the device and/or the instruments used cooking stoves: the ordinary cooking stove and the Sakanal orand presents the main equations in determining the pellet economic cooking stove as shown in the pictures (in Fig. 3.1).calorific power. After tests have been carried out on 3 samples of pellets byCTTEI [8], the results show that the mean value of calorificpower of the pellets produced at Ross-Bethio is 15,250.88[KJ/Kg] with a standard deviation of 463.72. As a matter of comparison, table 3.2 shows datarepresenting the calorific power of some fuels. a) - Regular stove b) - Sakanal or economic stoveTable 3.1: Test results on the calorific power of cooking fuel pellets [8] Figure 3.1: Water boiling tests Calorific Calorific Calorific Standard 3.2.3 - Toxicity tests on fuel pellets power power power Deviation [ Btu/lb ] [ kJ/kg ] [ kJ/kg ] [kJ/kg ] The toxicity tests on pellets are a pre-requisite before puttingPellet 1 6 551.89 15 229.47 pellets in the market as well as any home use to cook meals.Pellet 2 6 765.04 15 724.93 15 250.88 463.72 We are currently looking for laboratories which are likelyPellet 3 6 366.37 14 798.24 performing such tests. Most of the companies we have encountered in Quebec are only doing toxicity tests with regard to products related to aeronautics or AerospatialTable 3.2 : Calorific power from some fuels machines (planes, etc.). However, considering the origin of [ Source : Wikipedia ] the pellets, most laboratories maintain that the combustion of such pellets should not produce toxic gas which is harmful toFuel Calorific power mean people’s health. [ MJ/kg ] [ kJ/L ] [ Btu/lb ] [kJ/mol ]Hydrogen 141.79 12.75 61 000 286Gazoline 47.3 35 475 20 400 --- However, scientific requirement and social responsibility urgeGazoil 44.8 38 080 19 300 --- us to conduct toxicity tests so as to maintain scientifically thatEthanol 29.7 21 300 12 800 1 300 the pellets are harmless and not toxic.Propane 50.35 --- --- 2 219Butane 49.51 --- 20 900 2 800Charcoal 15-27 --- (8-14).103 ---Wood 15 --- 6 500 --- 3.2.4 - Characterization tests on bio-compost Characterization tests on the main chemical elements of the bio-compost have been performed by S.M. Inc. laboratories in Let us notice that the calorific power (of 15, 251 kJ/kg) of Varennes (QC.) which delivered an analysis certificate [9]the pellet fuel produced by the project is lower than the (see table 3.3). The tests have also been done by the chemicalcalorific power of the charcoal. It would require a further lab of the Food Services in the Senegalese Institute foranalysis since the project’s goal is to exceed the value of Agriculture Research (ISRA, Senegal) which has written an17,000 kJ/kg published by some references, in order to be in analysis report for that purpose [10] (see table 3.4).strategic position in term of energy, compared to the charcoalwhich is the main rival of pellets as a domestic fuel.
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 5Table 3.3: Test results for bio-compost characterization 3.3 - Social acceptance tests of the pellets (S.M. Inc.) [9] The project team in Ross Bethio, the pellet production site, Elements Quantity Unity has done cooking tests using different types of stoves (classical stove and Sakanal/economic stove) (see pictures in Humidity ( %) from crude (60 deg C) Fig 3.3). Organic matter per burning 20.0 [ %p/ p] Mineral matter --- Carbon --- Total Nitrogen Kjeldahl 4120 [ mg / kg ] Ratio C/N 24 - Total phospharus 1960 [mg / kg m.s.] Potassium (K) 2830 [ mg /kg ]] pH 7.50Table 3.4 : Tests results for bio-compost caractérisation from ISRA [10] Figure 3.3 : Social acceptance tests Elements Quantity Unity P.c.d.p During those on-site cooking tests, the team has neither felt Humidity ( %) from crude ( 60 deg C) 7.60 nor detected the presence of any toxic gas. It has been Organic matter --- however considered wiser to have the toxicity tests performed Mineral matter 79.51 by a lab before starting the acceptance tests for which the Carbon 8.52 post- test polling document has already been written down. Total Nitrogen 0.79 Ratio C/N --- Phosphorus 0.03 3.4 - New perspectives Potassium (K) 0.35 pH 7.40 During the production period of the fuel pellets, the team P.c.d.p: Percentage content in dry product has mainly discovered a multitude of avenues in revalorizing the Typha autralisis plant which were unknown to them in the beginning of the project. Thus, the team has: i)-successfully mastered the way of using bio-fuel (i.e. finding the right ratio Jatropha oil/ gasoline as well as adjusting the engine) in order to operate the equipments; ii) - been able to produce an excellent bio-compost from invading local plants; this allows people to double their yielding product (in that respect, the team has already had a) - Making Bio-compost b) –View of the Bio-compost several thousand metric tons of bio-compost in demand requested by the Senegalese Ministry of Environment and Figure 3.2 : The project Promissing product - Bio-compost Eaux et Foret Services for the Niayes region); iii) - succeeded to produce flour from thypha roots and make bread for animal feeding as well as for people to eat. There It is well known that the consumption of organic carbon by was already a plan to produce food for livestock from thesesmicro-flora releases a large amount of CO2, and yet, the implemented procedures;progressive decrease in carbon content within a place is the iv) - finally, it has been planned to produce food for livestockresult of noticeable decrease in terms of C/N relationship (that from those procedures already initiated by adding agricultureis inferior to 15) leads to nitrogen losses while a high C/N residues as raw materials.slows down decomposition. According to the fermentationdegree of the carbon that constitutes its residue, we willconsider a C/N relationship from 20 to 40 at the end ofmaturation as favourable. However, many specialists considerthe ratio between 15 and 30 as the ideal one that is a C/Nwhich corresponds to our bio-compost produced in RossBethio. Finally, let us point out again that both analyses got a pHvalue of bio-compost that equals 7.5; such a pH value stillproves it is a very good quality compost. Figure 3.4 : Bread made of Typha roots
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 64 - THE PROJECT VIEW IN THE FUTURE 4.1.1 - Operating conditions4.1 - The Conditions for running a profitable business A reliable supply in raw materials – The first element among operating conditions of a profitable industrial business A transition phase is necessary to put into place is to organize a reliable network of supply in raw materials.preconditions in terms of operation as well as technical and Also, the main stake after the availability of plants (thypha,economic aspects since the JADE project (or DM 2006 khaye, salvinia, etc.) would be to establish a collection systemProject 1075) could not go directly from a production that would ensure a reliable and steady supply all year long. Aexperiment phase to a profitably run sale business phase network of regular suppliers in all invading plants should beduring which that business would produce other products such put into place and find, in collaboration with the Eaux etas food for livestock, bio-compost and bio-fuel. Also, during Forets Services, safe methods of collection from an agriculturethis transition phase a G.I.E business model will be created stand point so as to promote an ecosystem restoration that iswhereas a S.A.R.L or S.A business incorporated type [5, 6] favourable to fish, birds, and animals.will operate during the phase of full sale business exploitationas planned in the project global vision (see Fig 4.1). A sound network of business distribution and sale - In order to be a viable one, any company must have a sound business network of supply and sale. It would be also important to set up such a network in a way that suppliers would be able to put the vegetal pellets produced by the company in most of the shops as well as the stocking places for charcoal. For example the groups of women who are currently in charge of charcoal supply could constitute a starting network in receiving the pellets. 4.1.2 - Technical conditions An available bio-fuel- The use of an engine running on biofuel is one of the conditions for the project to be profitable economically and to be acceptable ecologically. However, there is not yet an organized production unit using oil in Senegal, despite the existing PROGEDE project own by the government which has already provided acres of land in order to plant Jatropha carcus. That is the reason why since its experimental phase, the JADE project has managed to create a nursery of plants and to start planting them (see Fig. 5.1). Since the plant only yields its seeds after a two year period of existence, the issue of mechanically transforming grains in cooking oil ought to be solved. For the time being, one of rare source of supply in Jatropha oil is a traditional method of production. It would be therefore necessary to think about a supply channel from neighbouring countries such Niger, and mainly Mali which is in advance in the growing of the plant. A technical capacity to produce pellets continuously- The current level in the technical capacity for the experimental production must be reinforced if we want to reach the phase of a profitable business production. In that respect, significant improvements and technical tests must be performed in order to go from an experimental run business to a profitable business. All these improvements should take place during the transition phase. Figure 4.1: Vision of the implementation of the sale unit Therefore, this sale production unit could very soon becomean integrated company type whose products would beprofitable from social, economic and environmental standpoints.
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 74.1.3 - Economic conditions 4.2.2 - Objectives for running a sale business Here, we are presenting concisely our estimation on the The vision of the phase about running a sale business iseconomic profitability of the new enterprise whose main presented below. A profitable company should take over afterproduct would be fuel pellets, pellets to feed livestock, the transition phase. Such a profitable company should bebiofuel, and biocompost. beneficial socially, that is to say:According to our estimation, the biocompost would generate - to make products which are likely to satisfy the real needs ofcash flow after the business had run for a three months period the local populationonly. Moreover, its low cost production makes the biocompost - to offer products made by / with the local population anda very profitable product. which have not any negative impact on the environment As for biofuel, its sale price would be higher during the first - to be profitable to the local population from an economictwo years. However its price would be as competitive as the stand point.gasoline price right at the third year. Also our long termprojection becomes very interesting mainly because of the 5 - SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTStendency of the gasoline price to go up. When compared tocharcoal, the use of pellets for fuel would not be profitable 5.1 - Fuel pellets and food for livestockduring the first three years (except if the unavailability ofcharcoal raw material is taken into account). So, the lack of The use of pellet as domestic fuel instead of charcoalprofitability of pellets during the three years would be contribute first to stopping the desert progress, thus savingcompensated by profits made by other products. trees from being used as raw material in the production of charcoal. While insuring the cleaning of the river banks However if the pellets are finally used to feed livestock they (better water quality, good irrigation, ecosystems morewould become economically competitive thanks to their low favourable to birds, fish, and animals), the production ofcost of production (less constraints in the production process pellets contributes to the ecological valorisation of biomassmakes the raw material available). . into fuel whose combustion would be less harmful than that of charcoal. Meanwhile, this use of pellets reduces the4.2 - Objectives of transition and sale phases dependency on energy for people in the region thanks to pellets and biofuel made of jatropha oil. Finally, agriculture4.2.1 - Objectives of the transition phase residues are in other respect used to produce feeding pellets for livestock, this generates employment and revenues for Before getting to a sale business company, the main local people in addition to providing food for livestock.objectives mentioned below should be achieved, these are: 5.2 - Bio-compost- to establish a reliable network supply in aquatic plants(Salvinia, typha, khaye, etc.) that is secure and ecological; Using biocompost, a natural fertilizer, allows the reduction of- to find a secure and definitive solution to the issue of biofuel harmful effects of the chemical fertilizer such as the pollutionsupply; of lands and waters. Meanwhile, the biocompost would- to guarantee a capability in continuously producing the improve yielding in such a way to increase people’srequired quantity of pellets that is necessary to the level of a satisfaction in terms of food. Finally, the easy way ofprofitable sale business; producing such a type of fertilizer and its low sale price would- to finalize the technical tests of characterization of the pellets help local people make savings.- to write down ways and procedures of how to make rawmaterial and the production of pellets with a strong calorific 5.3 - Biofuel and planting Jatrophapower;- to write a guide for the use, maintenance, and the making ofthe different components of a production unit; Planting Jatropha carcus was launched by the PROGEDE- to introduce and develop constituents of pellets production project in Senegal over an area of 25 hectares in 2003. Therefor food, of biocompost and biofuel; was an extension over 100 hectares in 2005-2006 in- to develop an improve stove for the combustion of pellets partnership with the World Bank through its program of- to conceive and test the implementation of a strategy to promoting re-newable energies.market with a supply network located throughout the pilot Biofuel production as well as Jatropha planting from whichregions; it derives would not only stop land erosion and the- to write down contract documents and have them signed up deforestation of regions, but they would also participate tobetween different partners of the different phases of the promoting rural women. As re-newable sources of energy,integrated project; they would thus contribute to the development of rural- to put into place the management board and find funding for economy and reduce poverty among the most sensitivethe future sale enterprise unit. population layers. (cf. Appendix 2 dealing in details with some positive aspects from ecology, energy, and economy stand points).
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 8 The article has finally presented the social, economic, and environmental impacts of the main products of this future enterprise which is integrated, and socially profitable. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Our thanks go first to Global Environment Facility (GEF) and to the World Bank which both financed this project. In a) - Jatropha nursery b) - Jatropha Plantation particular, we thank Mr O. Ozloo and Mr O. Diop, supervisors of JADE who strongly contributed to the success of this project. Then, we thank all the members of the JADE team as well as the local monitoring committee of the project, the partner in Senegal (ASESCAW), and the industrial partner (Eco Industrielle). We will not forget Mr Levasseur whose machine, the Corncompact, was at the basis of the PP conception. Finally, we thank Dr. M. Sow who translated this c) - Extracting press d) – Jatropha oil paper, the reviewers of this article (Dr. M. Fall, Dr. O. Dioume, and Dr. O. Cissé), all the members of S3IC, its COP, Figure 5.1 : Jatropha planting and the oil it yields in Ross Béthio and all those who have contributed to the achievement of this big project. REFERENCES [1] M.A. Ledoux et B. Courteau, Document de Proposition de projet au World Bank Development Market Place, S3IC et EcoIndustrielle 2006. [2] M. A. Ledoux, DM06 Proejct1075 Progress Report No.1, S3IC et EcoIndustrielle, Jan. 24th 2007 [3] M. A. Ledoux, DM06 Proejct1075 Progress Report No.2, S3IC et a) - Growing invading plants b) – Raw materials EcoIndustrielle, Aug. 31 2007 [4] A.O. Ba, N. Diongue, A. Fall, B. Courteau, DM06 Proejct1075 Final , Figure 5.2: Planting Jatropha and raw materials S3IC et EcoIndustrielle, May 26th 2008. [5] A.O. Ba, N. Diongue, A. Fall, B. Courteau, DM06 Proejct1075 Business Plan Final , S3IC et EcoIndustrielle, May, 30, 2008.6 - CONCLUSION [6] Document de l’APIX.- Site Web [7] Centre d’expertise en analyse environnementale du Québec (CEAEQ), Détermination du pouvoir calorifique : méthode de combustion avec une The goal of the JADE project consisted in transforming bombe calorimétrique ( M.A.108.P.Cal.1.1), 2006-09-11.invading aquatic plants and agricultures residues in the [8] Renée Rossignol, Certificat d’analyse de granules combustibles, CTTEISenegal river region into compost and into fuel pellets for Centre de Transfert Technologique en Écologie Industrielle, Tracy (Qc), 12 Août 2008.meal cooking. The production of fuel pellets is made from the [9] André Dor et Nader Daoud, Certificat d’analyse du Bio-compost,experimental unit which is composed of a shredder and a Laboratoires d’Analyses S.M.Inc., Varennes (Qc), 18 Août 2008.rotary pellet press driven by an engine running on Jatropha [10] ND. S. Ndiaye, Bulletin d’analyse du Bio-compost, Laboratoire deoil. This ecological project, valorizing biomass into fuel and Chimie, Service Alimentation, Institut Sénégalais de Rechercheinto compost while ensuring the cleaning of the river banks Agronomique (ISRA), Dakar, 13 Août 2008. [11] A. O. Ba, N. Diongue, A. Fall, M. A. Sow, B. Courteau et D. Diao,(better water quality, good irrigation, and ecosystems more Transformation des herbes envahissantes en granules combustibles àfavorable to flora, to wildlife and to humans), will in the mean Ross-Béthio (Sénégal), Rapport S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001, Montréal,time contribute to the treat-management strategy of invading Février 2009.plants, to fight against deforestation (through Jatrophaplanting) and mainly to reduce energy dependency of peoplein the region of Senegal river. PROFILES OF THE INVOLVED ORGANIZATIONS According to the vision of the project team, moving from S3IC - is a NPO (Non Profit Organization) with its head office in Canada. Itthe experimental unit (or the JADE project) to the stage of a is composed of professionals (scientists and engineers) who carry out projects for the benefit of Senegal and Senegalese people in and outside the countryprofitably run business requires a transition stage (a G.I.Ebusiness type) is necessary for the achievement of certain EcoIndustrielle - is a division of Industrial Mechanic Company B. Courteauoperation conditions as well as technical and economic Inc., from Varennes (Qc.), working on the field of industrial ecology.conditions. That phase of a profitably run business would bedone within the framework of a (SA or SARL) company ASESCAW – is a Senegalese NGO in charge of the economic cultural andsocially profitable and of an integrated type whose main sport improvements of Walo farmers (in the region of the Senegal riverproducts would be fuel pellets and / or food for livestock, valley).biocompost, biofuel made of Jatropha oil, and electricityproduced by Typha pellets or Jatropha biofuel.
  • S3IC / JADE Project/ Report S3IC, No. S3IC-2009-001/ Montreal, February 2009 9APPENDIXES APPEDIX 2- Environmental social and economic aspects from exploiting bio-fuelAPPENDIX 1 - Determining the Calorific Power We are summarizing, below, some positive environmental, social and economic aspects related to exploiting bio-fuel and its raw material, theMeasurement Tools/Instrument – The main tools and/or instruments used in Jatropha plant.this method during the tests are: - 1 calorimetric bomb in 300ml oxygen content; 1) - Re-newable energy: - 1 pressure gauge and holder with a bomb monitor; - production of electricity and rural electrification;- 1 bomb support; - Lister engines(running on jatropha oil) are used to drive grain mills and- 1 fire box; waterpump, etc.-1 water bath; - the technology for using natural pure Jatropha oil as substitute for paraffin- 1 gaz : oxygen; oil for lamps and cookers is not yet available.-1 oval tank with 2 liter capacity- 1 thermocouple or thermometer that can read temperature variations of 2) – Erosion control and soil improvement: 0.02 oC - Jatropha ‘living fences’ not only control unwanted animal access to the- 1 grip adapted to hold the bomb; fields, but also reduce wind erosion;- 1 analytical scale of 0.1 mg in sensitivity. - the plant roots cause more water to penetrate into the soil and boost harvests;Calorific Capacity of the Calorimeter - The calorimetric capacity of the - the press cake which remains after oil extraction by the expellers is a veryequipment (i.e., the equipment constant) is given by equation (1) good organic fertilizer. H ab ⋅ g ab (1) W= ⎡ 1000⋅ (T fo − Ti o ) ⎤ 3) - Promotion of women: ⎣ ⎦ -Rural women, equipped with engine-driven grainmills (by biofuel fromwhere: Jatropha oil), can see their daily tasks of meal cooking eased. W - calorimetric capacity of the calorimeter, in ⎡ kJ / 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ - consequently, those mills have the tendency to lead to some impoverishment of the village because of the cash necessary both to buy and to transportH ab - combustion heat of the benzoic acid, equals 26453 [ kJ / kg ] these external resources to the village(such as fuel lubricant, maintenanceg ab - weight of the benzoic acid pastille, in g [ ] etc.); -however, the use of jatropha oil locally produced as fuel and lubricant, makeT o - final temperature of water in the tank after setting fire f it possible to stop the cash outflow from the village. oTi - initial temperature of water in the tank before setting fire - finally, rural women use jatropha as medicine ( seeds as laxative, the latex stops bleeding and against infections and the leaves against malaria) and for o T fo and Ti , in ⎡ 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ soap production. 4) Reducing poverty:Oil Calorific factor- The calorific factor of mineral oil is given in relation (2) : - By promoting the integrated use of the Jatroha plant the Jatropha system ( ⎡ 1000⋅ T fo − Ti o ⋅W ⎤ )HH = ⎣ ⎦ (2) can provide direct financial benefits to the rural: gH - reducing crop losses caused by wandering livestock or wind damage; - increasing rainfall infiltration resulting in less / irrigation water needed forwhere: local gardens;H H - calorific factor of mineral oil, in kJ / kg [ ] -increasing soil fertility by use of presscake as fertilizer; o - final temperature of water in the tank after setting fire - increasing use of inexpensive local resources rather than expensive externalT f resources;Ti - initial temperature of water in the tank before setting fire, o -reducing disputes between farmers and livestock owners regarding crop o damage, as well as among farmers themselves regarding the boundaries ofT fo and Ti , in ⎡ 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ their fields;W - calorific capacity of the calorimeter, in ⎡ kJ / 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ -Providing local jobs, lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment.g H - oil weight, in [ g ]Calorific factor of the sample – According to this method, the calorific factor(PC) of the hole sample is calculated using relation (3). ⎡ 1000⋅ (T fo − Ti o ) ⋅ W ⎤ − [ H H ⋅ a ] (3) ⎣ P.C. = ⎦ bwhere: P.C. - calorific value, in [ kJ / kg ]T fo - final temperature of water in the tank after setting fireTi o - initial temperature of water in the tank before setting fire, oT fo and Ti , in ⎡ 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦HH - calorific factor of mineral oil, in [ kJ / kg ]W - calorific capacity of the calorimeter ( equipment constant determined withthe benzoic acid ), in ⎡ kJ / 0C ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ a - the sample weight, in [ g ]b - oil weight, in [ g ]