Commercialisation of Geopolymer Concrete    as part of FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Co...
Contents:• Geopolymer Team at Queen’s University Belfast.• Historical background – sustainable construction materials.• FP...
Queen’s University Belfast                    Geopolymer Team (1 of 2)Prof. M Soutsos     Prof. M Basheer           Prof. ...
Queen’s University Belfast                Geopolymer Team (2 of 2)S. Haji          A. Hadjierakleous            Q. Ma     ...
Historical Background:     Sustainable Construction ProductsDeveloping Precast Concrete Products made with RecycledConstru...
Historical Background:      Sustainable Construction Products      North West Construction Knowledge Hub         Construct...
Historical Background:    Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced    Cementless Precast Concrete Products                 ...
FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete,   based on the Integration of All-Waste Materia...
FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete,   based on the Integration of All-Waste Materia...
FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete,   based on the Integration of All-Waste Materia...
Work Packages in FP7 SUS-CON:                                                                                             ...
Complementarity of Partners:                        Waste recycling and processing                                Centro R...
FP7 SUS-CON – Project Information                                           OTHER                                         ...
Work Package #3New Binders - What’s Wrong with Cement?     Around 10 billion tonnes of concrete is used every year        ...
Work Package #3        New Binders from Waste Streams:  Suitability of waste ash and alkali solutions for  geopolymer conc...
Pulverised Fuel Ash based GeopolymerVariables: M+ dosage (%) & Alkali Modulus (AM)• Alkali dosage (M+ dosage) is the mass ...
PFA-BASED ALKALI ACTIVATED BINDERSInvestigated mortars using:• 100% PFA• Na-based alkali solutions    • NaOH    • Na-silic...
Effect of Alkali Dosage on theCompressive Strength - (Curing at 700C)
Effect of Alkali Modulus on theCompressive Strength - (Curing at 700C)
Compressive Strength as affected by alkali dosage and modulus - (Curing at 700C)
Compressive Strength as affected by alkali dosage and modulus - (Curing at 700C)
Compressive Strength versus Age for Thirteen PFA sources from the UK
Quantitative XRF results forThirteen PFA sources from the UK
Ash Characterization- Mineralogical Composition by XRD -
Ash Characterization- Particle Size by Laser Diffraction Granulometry -            2.5            2.0            1.5 volum...
Ash Characterization- Particle Size by Laser Diffraction Granulometry -                                       100         ...
Flow Table Test Results
“Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the     Identification of Reaction Products        Scanning Electron Microscopy ...
“Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the     Identification of Reaction ProductsChemical mapping of PFA-sodium silica...
“Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the     Identification of Reaction Products        Secondary electron imaging & ...
“Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the     Identification of Reaction Products Secondary electron images of PFA-bas...
“Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the      Identification of Reaction ProductsSodium silicate crystals in mortar w...
Effect of PFA/GGBS ratio on the strength           Alkali dosage of 7.5%
100% GGBS cured at 200CSi (green), Ca (blue), and Al (red)
Class C PFA from GreeceSi (green), Ca (blue), and Al (red)
Commercialisation of               Geopolymer Concrete?Cost of Alkali Activated Binders:Assuming commercial alkalis are us...
Cheaper Sources of Raw Materials for             Geopolymer Concrete?Possible sources:1.   Incinerated paper pulp sludge.2...
Hungarys toxic aftermath                            -An aerial photo shows the ruptured wall of the           alumina plan...
The sludge, which contains a mix of metal oxides,   is now making its way towards the Danube,         Europes second-longe...
Develop an Understanding of the     Reaction Mechanism
CONCLUSIONS• An optimum alkali composition was identified for alkali  activation of PFA giving 70 N/mm2 compressive streng...
And finally......Thank you for your attention.Are there any questions?
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Commercialisation of geopolymer concrete as part of FP7 SUS-CON project

  1. 1. Commercialisation of Geopolymer Concrete as part of FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials
  2. 2. Contents:• Geopolymer Team at Queen’s University Belfast.• Historical background – sustainable construction materials.• FP7 SUS-CON - Sustainable, Innovative and Energy- Efficient Concrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials.• New binders from waste streams - WP3 work on pfa and ggbs based geopolymer concrete.• Possible sources of raw materials for “synthesizing” geopolymer concrete – a step towards commercialisation.• Conclusions.
  3. 3. Queen’s University Belfast Geopolymer Team (1 of 2)Prof. M Soutsos Prof. M Basheer Prof. D Cleland Prof. W ShaDr. S Nanukuttan Dr. A Boyle Dr. E Cunningham Dr. M Russell University of Liverpool
  4. 4. Queen’s University Belfast Geopolymer Team (2 of 2)S. Haji A. Hadjierakleous Q. Ma L. McCluskey University of Liverpool T. McGrath A. McIntosh A. Rafeet banah UK Ltd http://blogs.qub.ac.uk/geopolymer/
  5. 5. Historical Background: Sustainable Construction ProductsDeveloping Precast Concrete Products made with RecycledConstruction and Demolition Waste (C&DW): • Phase I : Concrete Building Blocks • Phase II: Concrete Paving Blocks and Flags Funded by: The Onyx (Veolia) Environmental Trust & Flintshire Community Trust (AD Waste Ltd) 5th March 2003
  6. 6. Historical Background: Sustainable Construction Products North West Construction Knowledge Hub Construction Sustainability Centre:(a) Recycled demolition aggregate in precast building and paving blocks and concrete flags,(b) Reactive glass powder concrete flags of superior strength,(c) Cementless “geopolymer” concrete products.
  7. 7. Historical Background: Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementless Precast Concrete Products Applied Research Grant Support• The claims culture in the UK costs local authorities £500m each year from trip, slip and fall accidents arising from cracked pavements.• The superior performance of UHPFRC flags indicates that pavements are unlikely to crack even if they are overloaded by unplanned vehicle loading.
  8. 8. FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials• The construction industry is one of the largest consumers raw materials and the built environment consumes a lot of energy and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.• Concrete producers need new, eco-friendly and cost- effective materials and binders for thermally efficient building components – energy efficient buildings.• Waste management is an increasingly complex and challenging task for both local authorities and waste recycling companies.
  9. 9. FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials Develop novel technologies to integrate wastes for the production of lightweight concrete and thus achieve an all-waste and energy-efficient concrete.
  10. 10. FP7 SUS-CON Project:Sustainable, Innovative and Energy-Efficient Concrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials• Main concrete components (binder and aggregates)• Combine them for an all-waste concrete on the basis of a new mix design model• Applications:  structural and non structural  cast-in-situ and pre-cast• Focus on waste materials that are cost-effective, readily available across EU and also a social problem (low- value, big quantities)
  11. 11. Work Packages in FP7 SUS-CON: INDUSTRIAL UPTAKE MATERIAL RESEARCH WP1. GEOCLUSTERING - Mapping availability of waste WP8. Certification, guidelines and decision support tool streams and normative framework across EU-27 WP9. Training, dissemination and exploitation WP7. LCA/LCC/HSE assessment WP2. WASTE MATERIALS - New lightweight aggregatesWP10. Project management and coordination from solid waste WP3. WASTE MATERIALS - New binding systems from waste alkaline solutions/streams and ashes WP4. WASTE MATERIALS - Mix design and testing of all waste concrete with benchmarking WP5. PRODUCTION UPSCALE - Process design and modelling WP6. PRODUCTION UPSCALE - Demonstration INDUSTRIAL IMPLEMENTATION
  12. 12. Complementarity of Partners: Waste recycling and processing Centro Riciclo Nano-additives andAggregates from waste Binders from waste surface treatments Cetma (polymers) QUB BASF TBTC (geo-polymers) S&B Centi Concrete design and process LCA/LCC/HSE/Certification TNO TRE FhG TUV Italia NTUA Industrial end-users Magnetti (pre-cast) Iston (ready-mixed) Iridex (builders) Acciona
  13. 13. FP7 SUS-CON – Project Information OTHER 4%Total cost: 7.200.000 € Manag. 5%EU funding: 4.500.000 €Cost per activity type: Demo. 23%Start date: 01/01/2012Duration: 4 years Research 68%
  14. 14. Work Package #3New Binders - What’s Wrong with Cement? Around 10 billion tonnes of concrete is used every year – more than any other industrial material! Ceramics (mostly concrete) Natural (mostly timber) Metals (mostly steel) Polymers UK production (2009) – 8 million tonnes of cement 5-8% of man-made CO2 – more than aviation Data from Ashby, Materials and the Environment (2009) and ONS
  15. 15. Work Package #3 New Binders from Waste Streams: Suitability of waste ash and alkali solutions for geopolymer concrete:1. Obtain samples from all available sources of reactive aluminosilicate wastes and activators.2. Assess their chemical and physical properties.3. Obtain samples of all available sources of waste alkali streams and assess their chemical and physical properties.4. Determine the reactivity potential of the above materials for form cementless concrete.
  16. 16. Pulverised Fuel Ash based GeopolymerVariables: M+ dosage (%) & Alkali Modulus (AM)• Alkali dosage (M+ dosage) is the mass ratio of alkali metal oxides (Na₂O + K2O) in the activating solution to PFA.• Alkali modulus (AM) is the mass ratio of alkali metal oxides to silica plus aluminate in the activating solution.• Fixed parameters in the mix designs were: – Water/solids ratio 0.37. Total water includes added water and that already present in the pre-mixed alkaline solutions (e.g Na-silicate). Total solids include PFA and mass of alkali solids, including those dissolved in pre- mixed solutions. Mass of sand is not included in mass of the solids here. – Sand/Binder ratio: 2.75:1
  17. 17. PFA-BASED ALKALI ACTIVATED BINDERSInvestigated mortars using:• 100% PFA• Na-based alkali solutions • NaOH • Na-silicateVariables include:• Alkali modulus • silica content of activator Na2O AlkaliModulus = SiO2• Alkali dosage Typical mix proportions • concentration of combined activators kg/m3 Na2O AlkaliDosage = PFA 500 PFA• Pre-curing stand times Sand 1375• Curing temperature Sodium silicate solution 196 Sodium hydroxide 48 Water 110
  18. 18. Effect of Alkali Dosage on theCompressive Strength - (Curing at 700C)
  19. 19. Effect of Alkali Modulus on theCompressive Strength - (Curing at 700C)
  20. 20. Compressive Strength as affected by alkali dosage and modulus - (Curing at 700C)
  21. 21. Compressive Strength as affected by alkali dosage and modulus - (Curing at 700C)
  22. 22. Compressive Strength versus Age for Thirteen PFA sources from the UK
  23. 23. Quantitative XRF results forThirteen PFA sources from the UK
  24. 24. Ash Characterization- Mineralogical Composition by XRD -
  25. 25. Ash Characterization- Particle Size by Laser Diffraction Granulometry - 2.5 2.0 1.5 volume-% 1.0 Malvern Mastersizer 2000, Manufacturing Engineering 0.5 0.0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Particle size, microns
  26. 26. Ash Characterization- Particle Size by Laser Diffraction Granulometry - 100 Rocktron 80 alpha and delta Average particle size, microns materials 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Sample
  27. 27. Flow Table Test Results
  28. 28. “Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the Identification of Reaction Products Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  29. 29. “Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the Identification of Reaction ProductsChemical mapping of PFA-sodium silicate geopolymer
  30. 30. “Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the Identification of Reaction Products Secondary electron imaging & EDS
  31. 31. “Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the Identification of Reaction Products Secondary electron images of PFA-based mortars
  32. 32. “Advanced” Microstructural Techniques for the Identification of Reaction ProductsSodium silicate crystals in mortar with low alkali modulus
  33. 33. Effect of PFA/GGBS ratio on the strength Alkali dosage of 7.5%
  34. 34. 100% GGBS cured at 200CSi (green), Ca (blue), and Al (red)
  35. 35. Class C PFA from GreeceSi (green), Ca (blue), and Al (red)
  36. 36. Commercialisation of Geopolymer Concrete?Cost of Alkali Activated Binders:Assuming commercial alkalis are used, concrete based onalkali-activated binders is estimated to cost around 20-25%more than cement-based concrete.Possible Solutions:1. Produce products that will meet higher specifications or last longer than existing ones.2. Low carbon footprint - Green taxes or carbon credits.3. Find cheaper sources of alkalis - sodium silicate is the most expensive component!
  37. 37. Cheaper Sources of Raw Materials for Geopolymer Concrete?Possible sources:1. Incinerated paper pulp sludge.2. Air pollution control residues (APC).3. Basic oxygen slag (BOS).4. TRAAS5. MIKROVER6. Incinerated sewage sludge ash7. Bauxite residues (Red mud)8. Alumina
  38. 38. Hungarys toxic aftermath -An aerial photo shows the ruptured wall of the alumina plant reservoir.
  39. 39. The sludge, which contains a mix of metal oxides, is now making its way towards the Danube, Europes second-longest river.
  40. 40. Develop an Understanding of the Reaction Mechanism
  41. 41. CONCLUSIONS• An optimum alkali composition was identified for alkali activation of PFA giving 70 N/mm2 compressive strength.• Addition of GGBS enables the production of cement-free concrete at ambient temperatures.• There is some evidence that that there is interaction between the two reactions occurring in alkali-activated binders containing PFA and GGBS.• We need to develop a better understanding of the reaction mechanism so we can use materials from waste streams to synthesize geopolymer - commercialisation is likely if a reduction in the cost of producing it is achieved.
  42. 42. And finally......Thank you for your attention.Are there any questions?
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