Exercise or Physical activity:Includes anything that gets you movingEg: Walking, dancing, orworking in the yard. Sports: It is all forms of competitive physical activity
COMPONENTS OF PHYSICALFITNESS SKILL RELATED involves skills that will enhance one’s performance in athletic or sports events
Speed: The ability to move quickly from one pointto another in a straight line.For example, when playing golf,the speed of your arms and upperbody and creating the swingare vital in driving the ball over a longdistance.
Reaction Speed and Time: The ability to reachor respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feelResponding to the gun at the start of a race,goalkeeper saving a penalty, or a badminton player reacting to a smash shot.
Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or movingIn gymnastics and ballet where having good balance may prevent you beingtackled to the floor
Coordination: Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses.Hand-eye coordination in racket sports and the co-ordination to use the opposite arm and leg when sprinting.
Power:The ability to do strength work at an explosive pace. For example, a sprint start, a shot-put orjavelin throw or long-jump.
Agility: The ability of the body to changedirection quicklyIn sports such as football and rugby where the player with the ball dodges a defender,or in badminton or tennis, moving around the court quickly to reach the shuttlecock/ball in time.
COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS (Ryan) HEALTH RELATED involves skills that enable one to become and stay physically healthy
Cardiovascular Fitness: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise.
Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc)
3. Flexibility: The range of movementpossible at various joints
Muscular strength: The amount offorce that can be produced by asingle contraction of a muscleMuscular endurance: The ability of a musclegroup to continue musclemovement over alength of time.
AEROBICS EXERCISE• Aerobic literally means "with oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen in muscles energy-generating process• In such exercise, oxygen is used to "burn" fats and glucose in order to produce adenosine triphosphate, the basic energy carrier for all cells.• Aerobic exercise includes lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time.• Activities like walking, jogging, and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to make the energy needed for prolonged exercise..
ANAEROBIC EXERCISE• The term "anaerobic" means "without air" or "without oxygen."• Anaerobic exercise helps us increase our muscle strength and stay ready for quick bursts of speed.• Anaerobic exercise uses muscles at high intensity and a high rate of work for a short period of time.• Anaerobic exercise is typically used by athletes in non- endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass.
INTERMITTENT EXERCISE Intermittent Exercise alternates spurts of intensive exertion (work interval) with periods of lower intensity activity (relief period) or rest in one exercise session Eg: Soccer , Basketball Soccer players are required to alternate between various modes of activity such as walking, standing, running, sprinting and jumping
b) ENDURANCE ANDRESISTANCE EXERCISES (Anandini)
ENDURANCE EXERCISE• Activity for a long period of time• Relies on the aerobic system for energy• Aerobic system provides energy over long duration• Examples : running, swimming, cycling
STRENGTH EXERCISE• Muscle contraction - increases muscle mass• Build strength and size of skeletal muscles• Anaerobic form of exercise
Benefits of strength exercise:• Improved muscle strength & tone• Weight Management• Improves posture• Increases bone density• Lowers body fat• Boosts metabolism
c) ISOMETRIC AND ISOTONICEXERCISE. INDIVIDUAL SPORTS (Shona)
ISOMETRIC EXERCISE• Doesnt altering the length of muscles• There is no joint movement.• Hold a pose for as long as you can• Dont move or put your muscle(s)through any range of motion.Examples would include:1) Holding a static pushup position;2) Holding a dumbbell in one hand3) Pushing against an immovable object,such as a wall.4) Pressing the hands together
ISOTONIC EXERCISE •• Alters the length of muscles• There is joint movement.• Isotonic exercises involve a eccentric (lowering phase) and a concentric (lifting phase)• Muscles working through a range of motion.Examples would includeLifting weights,swimming,rock climbing, cycling
TEAM SPORTSHockey, Football, Cricket,Baseball, Basketball, Volleyball,Tennis, Water polo, Rowing, RugbyINDIVIDUAL SPORTSGolf, Cycling,Sprinting,Archery, Shot put