Sustainable Architectureforthe 21st Century

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Sustainable Architectureforthe 21st Century, Part II: critical resources and the built environment

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Sustainable Architectureforthe 21st Century

  1. Sustainable Architecture for the 21st Century Part II: critical resources and the built environment JOHN E. FERNÁNDEZ, DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, MIT AMMAN, JORDAN : JUNE 2007
  2. source: Houghton, J.T. et al. (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: pg. 29
  3. Sustainable Architecture is design and construction of the 1.built environment that carefully allocates appropriate levels of 2.critical resources to address the primary needs of 3.distinct regions.
  4. What is the built 1 environment? What are critical 2 resources? What strategies 3 work best?
  5. 1 What is the built environment?
  6. Global Cities • Half the world’s people - a majority on the coasts • By 2030, the global population = 61% urban • 50-80% CO2, 75% wood consumption, 60% H2O • Increasingly poor urban world • Asia accounts for half of the world’s urban population • United Nations estimates that between 2000 and 2010, 85% of world population growth will be in urban areas (virtually all of this growth will be in Africa, Asia and Latin America). Therefore, cities are the centers of the majority of resource consumption (and contributors to global climate change) source: McGranahan, G. and D. Satterthwaite. 2003. Urban Centers: An Assessment of Sustainability. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28:243-74.
  7. What are critical resources? 2
  8. ~40 percent of primary energy use US Energy flows 2003 (Quadrillion Btu) ~60-70 percent of electricity 19% of global electricity consumption devoted to artificial lighting source: IEA
  9. 70% total societal material throughput 20-30% municipal waste stream* * Developed countries - source: Wagner, L. 1997., Fernández, J. 2006.
  10. CHINA 5-8% of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. source: Low, M. (2005) MFA of concrete in the US. MSBT thesis, MIT: pg. 16 adapted from:Van Oss, Hendrik G. and Padovani, Amy C.
  11. 6 billion 3 billion source: Living Planet Report 2006, World Resources Institute.
  12. Lifecycle energy, % of total 3 What strategies work best?
  13. Sampling of strategies 1. Computer aided integrated design (mat. selection) 2. Passive heating and cooling (insulation/thermal mass) 3. High performance exterior envelopes (aerogel/textiles) 4. Building rating system (LEED/USGBC) 5. Urban Metabolism for sustainable communities (New Orleans/Los Angeles) Scales of inquiry: a. materials and component (micro) b. building and building system (meso) c. community and city (macro) Columbia University Law School Amsterdam and 116 Street: New York City
  14. Screen capture of: Fernandez-Ashby Material Selector for Architecture and the Built Environment www.grantadesign.com
  15. “Labyrinth” concrete thermal mass
  16. The Passive House Institute: http://www.passiv.de/
  17. Lucille Ynoscencio: MArch cand.: 2007
  18. Aerogel Exterior Envelope System
  19. A: Exterior finish and mechanical barrier B: Air barrier C. Radiant barrier D. Insulation pocket E. Insulation F. Insulation pocket G. Vapor retarder H. Flame resistant textile I. Interior finish and mechanical barrier
  20. Natural fiber reinforced concrete
  21. Fernández, J. Materials for aesthetic, energy efficient and self-diagnostic buildings. Science, V315,N5820, March 30, 2007: 1807-1810.
  22. Test
  23. Average Savings of Green Buildings WASTE COST WATER SAVINGS USE 50-90% CARBON SAVINGS SAVINGS 30-50% 35% ENERGY SAVINGS 30% Test Source: Capital E
  24. $200 BILLION Estimated value PROJECTED of new LEED for New Construction $10 registered projects BILLION $7.73 BILLION The value of U.S. construction starts significantly declined by almost half from $5.76 BILLION 2000 to 2003 $3.81 BILLION $3.24 BILLION $792 MILLION Test 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006
  25. 200+ LEED for new construction Distribution 100-199 buildings as of 07/06 by geography 50-99 20-49 1-19 186 480 23 (DE) 24 (NH) 134 174 33 9 4 22 173 105 119 36 11 9 11 68 120 12 AK=10 23 79 40 61 27 HI=16 28 69 14 95 9 (DE) 38 (DC) PR=1 19 4 57 8 74 5 (OK) 11 82 25 22 52 102 125 19 18 6 6 73 Test
  26. Tom Weathers: MArch, 2007
  27. Mapping resource opportunities (renewable and downcycle) ISEE STELLA systems model
  28. Energy efficient housing prototype F natural ventilation D E D A. Zero-energy community center and rescue shelter B. Emergency water cistern C. Thermal storage reservoir of phase change material slurry D. Micro wind turbines and building integrated photovoltaics E. Emergency power source F. Local surge break (gambion construction) Coastal Housing: Energy efficient, hurricane resistant & resilient communities
  29. Fernández, J. Materials for aesthetic, energy efficient and self-diagnostic buildings. Science, V315,N5820, March 30, 2007: 1807-1810. Fernández, John. 2006. Material Architecture, emergent materials for innovative buildings and ecological construction. (Arch. Press, Oxford). www.grantadesign.com

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