Pd2Product Design & Development - 2


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Product Design & Development

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  • 30/8/08 Queen Rania Center for Entrepreneurship Made In Jordan Competition/summer training 08-09
  • Pd2Product Design & Development - 2

    1. 1. Product Conceptual Design
    2. 2. Concept Development <ul><li>Concept = Idea </li></ul><ul><li>It ’ s hard to make a good product out of a poor concept. </li></ul><ul><li>First “ Understand the FUNCTION ” , then think of the FORM … Separation not always possible! </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION is a complex expression of CUSTOMER NEEDS </li></ul>
    3. 3. Understanding the FUNCTION <ul><li>The first step in product development is to investigate and understand its FUNCTION. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality-Function Deployment (QFD) is one method for understanding product function based on customer needs. </li></ul><ul><li>QFD will be studied later. </li></ul><ul><li>For now, assume that you have investigated the product function and that you understand it fully. </li></ul><ul><li>It is now required to find a product FORM. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Concept Generation <ul><li>Assumption: A function can be achieved by more than one way (concept) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate as many concepts as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>If U generate 1 concept, it is probably a poor one. If U generate many concepts, U may have a good one. </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on ONE concept, U realize only that concept. By considering several concepts, U realize the problem! </li></ul><ul><li>Successful design is achievable only based on optimizing among possible design alternatives (solutions) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Techniques for Concept Generation 1. Study product prototypes : <ul><li>Designers before U have spent many years developing the existing designs; why repeat their effort? Just study and benefit from it. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Not-Invented-Here, ” NIH, Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Studying an existing product may require DECOMPOSING it into its primary components. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition would uncover design strategy, component functions and subfunctions. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>In DECOMPOSING an existing product, examine component interfaces with each other and the interfacing of the product with other objects. </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION involves material, energy, and information transfer; It happens mainly at interfaces between product components and between product components and external objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall FUNCTION =  SUBFUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>To understand a component function, try removing it from the assembly and examining the effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Computer Components. Competitors cold war against decomposition. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 2. BRAINSTORMING <ul><li>A group of experts conducting a design session. </li></ul><ul><li>1 head is good; 2 is better. </li></ul><ul><li>Two subgroups: Idea Generators and Idea Evaluators </li></ul><ul><li>Idea generators generate as many ideas as possible. No attempts to evaluate at this step. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect all ideas generated. Reject none. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators begin to judge ideas based on customer requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>The most promising (feasible) ideas pass into further treatment. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Exercise <ul><li>Generate at least 10 ways to keep a small stack of paper together. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 3. Use Sources: Patents, Journals, Books, Catalogues <ul><li>Sources = Economy of Thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Patents usually are tested solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal articles are peer reviewed, innovative, and are based on a study of previous experience in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Books provide basic and common solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Let authorities influence you. They would inspire your creativity. Don ’ t let them bound it. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 4. Use of Analogies <ul><li>Consider the FUNCTION and Ask: What else provides this function? Learn from existing devices, objects, or phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Sudden friction causes spark  friction lighters. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Birds  Airplanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 3: Human Arm  Manipulators </li></ul>
    11. 11. 5. The Method of Extremes <ul><li>Better concepts may be generated from a given one. </li></ul><ul><li>Transform the features of a current concept to extremes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Lenses are used for eye glasses and for telescopes. Lenses of infinity focal length = plain window glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: A very rigid spring = solid. Extremely soft spring = no effect. </li></ul>
    12. 12. 6. The Use of Inverses <ul><li>Consider inverting the current concept. The concept remains the same, but performance may be much better. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert moving and fixed members. Example: Piston-Cylinder pair for a car washing station. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert male and female members. Example: Electric plugs for computers and some home appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert straight and curved components. Example: Cam-shaft operation on ICE valves. </li></ul>
    13. 13. 7. Ask Experts <ul><li>If U have little experience in the domain, a quick and good method is to consult with experts. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 8. The Morphology Method <ul><li>Morphology = Study of product structure </li></ul><ul><li>Divide product function into subfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop concepts for subfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Combine concepts (develop interfaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: coffee grinder </li></ul>
    15. 15. TRIZ: The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving <ul><li>Systematic Innovation! </li></ul><ul><li>TRIZ will be introduced later. </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Conservation Principle <ul><li>Material and energy are conserved: Their transformation and transfer should be tracked. </li></ul><ul><li>Output = Input </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Input mechanical energy transformed into heat should be dissipated – How? </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: A cooling fluid should be dispensed or circulated – How? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Teamwork is a critical factor to concept development. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate as many concepts as possible to overcome your mental inertia. </li></ul><ul><li>A good concept is the key to building quality into the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to sources and use the expertise of others... Try to not reinvent the wheel! </li></ul><ul><li>Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration … (Thomas Edison) </li></ul>