QAI - Cmmi Overview - Induction ppt


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QAI - Cmmi Overview - Induction ppt

  1. 1. Welcome to QAI AAA w w w . q a i a s i a . c o m CMMI ver 1.2 Overview
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The Quality of a (software) system is highly influenced by the quality of the process used to develop and maintain it” </li></ul><ul><li>This premise implies focus on process as well as product </li></ul>Process Management Premise Watts S Humphrey
  3. 3. Definition of Process <ul><li>Process - A sequence of steps performed for a given purpose (IEEE) </li></ul><ul><li>Software Process – A set of activities, methods and transformations, practices that people use to develop and maintain Software and Associated Products </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Focus on Process? <ul><li>To help your business! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve your competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better support your customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do more with less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve repeatability of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>product characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher maturity process means lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product quality is a function of process performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process quality reduces causes of poor performance </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A Historical Perspective <ul><li>1930s - Walter Shewart -> principle of statistical quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Developed and demonstrated by Deming and Juran </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted by SEI into the maturity framework </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration - Crosby &quot;Quality is Free&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to software process by Ron Radice and colleagues under direction of Watts Humphrey at IBM </li></ul><ul><li>CMM framework brought to SEI in 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded and refined with the help of government and industry </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of CMMs <ul><li>CMM v1.0 (Software) was the first to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Others were developed subsequently: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE CMM (Systems Engineering) CMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Product Development CMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SA (Software Acquisition) CMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People CMM </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. User - Perplexing Models <ul><li>Explosion of CMMs and CMM-like models </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple models within an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different degrees of detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor interfaces between the CMMs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple training </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple expenses </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Integrate? <ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one model across full enterprise lifecycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corporate perspective for organization-wide improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated processes for integrated product teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one model, one architecture, consistent terminology, common process assets, common goals, one assessment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Why Integrate? <ul><li>Adaptability to enterprise needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed for evolution to meet current and future enterprise-wide process improvement needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can add new process areas, generic improvement approach still applies </li></ul></ul>Contd.
  10. 10. Is SW process improvement enough? <ul><li>What % of your organization’s processes are software processes? </li></ul><ul><li>What % of the project work is related to software only? </li></ul><ul><li>What other processes affect you projects and the success in projects? </li></ul><ul><li>What if software processes are improved and others aren’t? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do other processes need improvement? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should you pursue “integrated process improvement”? </li></ul>
  11. 11. CMMI - SE/ SW <ul><li>Systems Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers the development of total systems, which may or may not include software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on transforming customer needs, expectations, and constraints into product solutions and supporting those product solutions throughout the product life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers the development of software systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on applying systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to the development, operation and maintenance of software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMMI - SE/SW covers both </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Use CMMI SE/SW? <ul><li>Increased dependency between systems engineering and software engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Low maturity of the interfaces between systems engineering and software engineering </li></ul>
  13. 13. What’s New in CMMI Ver 1.2
  14. 14. CMMI ® Framework <ul><li>Constellation: Collection of CMMI ® components that includes the model, its training materials and appraisal-related documents for an area of interest. CMMI models for development, services and acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Model for development provides amplifications for the systems engineering, software engineering, and hardware engineering disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>“ Additions” used to expand constellations for specific additional content - CMMI ® Dev has one such addition (CMMI ® - Dev + IPPD) (In V1.1, IPPD was a discipline.) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the initial efforts to maximize commonality among CMMI models, 16 of the 22 process areas of CMMI-DEV comprise the process improvement core for the three areas of interest currently being pursued: development, acquisition, and services. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structure of PA No common features
  16. 16. Concept of Maturity <ul><li>Software Process Maturity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined, managed, measured, controlled and effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implies a potential growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization’s software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturity Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A well defined evolutionary plateau toward achieving a mature software process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each level provides a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Continuous Model <ul><li>Allows you to select the order of improvement that best meets your organization’s business objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Enables comparisons across and among organizations on a process-area-by-process-area basis </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an easy migration from models with a continuous representation to CMMI </li></ul><ul><li>Uses predefined sets of process areas to define an improvement path for an organization </li></ul>
  18. 18. Staged Model <ul><li>Provides a proven sequence of improvements, each serving as a foundation for the next </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a single rating that summarizes appraisal results and permits comparisons across and among organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI </li></ul>
  19. 19. Process Areas <ul><li>A set of related activities that, when performed collectively, achieves a set of goals considered important for enhancing process capability </li></ul><ul><li>All PAs must be satisfied to achieve a maturity level </li></ul><ul><li>22 PAs in CMMI </li></ul><ul><li>Each PA has Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic: common for all PAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific: specific to a PA </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Goals <ul><li>Signify </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Intent </li></ul><ul><li>of each PA </li></ul><ul><li>In a way, the Key Result Area </li></ul>
  21. 21. Generic Goals <ul><li>Address Institutionalization issues </li></ul><ul><li>Same goal statement appears across multiple PAs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Generic Goals <ul><li>For Level 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GG2 : The process is institutionalized as a managed process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Levels 3, 4 and 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GG3: The process is institutionalized as a defined process (standard is available at org level, is tailorable, is measured & improved) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Institutionalization <ul><li>Organization culture conveys process </li></ul><ul><li>It is nurtured by management </li></ul><ul><li>Process survives personnel turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Practice becomes a habit </li></ul><ul><li>Means that PA : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is repeatable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will continue to follow the process” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Specific Goals <ul><li>Applies to a specific PA </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses unique characteristics of PA </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li> PA - Configuration Management : </li></ul><ul><li>SG1: Establish Baselines </li></ul>
  25. 25. Specific Practices <ul><li>The operative part </li></ul><ul><li>Describes procedures / roles to implement a PA </li></ul><ul><li>Typically involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li> PA - Configuration Management : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SP1.1: Identify Configuration Items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SP1.2: Establish a Configuration Management system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SP 1.3: Create or release baselines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. CMMI – Maturity Levels Quantitatively Managed (4) Initial (1) Managed (2) Defined (3) Optimizing (5)
  27. 27. Level 1 - Initial <ul><li>Adhoc or Chaotic </li></ul><ul><li>Success is people dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Process “Out of Control” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot predict results </li></ul><ul><li>No Process Area </li></ul>
  28. 28. Level 2 - Managed <ul><li>Basic processes in place </li></ul><ul><li>Processes are project oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Project Management Practices </li></ul><ul><li>7 Process Areas come into play </li></ul>
  29. 29. Level 3 - Defined <ul><li>Organization wide process focus </li></ul><ul><li>Organization processes defined; however, tailoring by projects is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Engineering Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Process data base very important </li></ul><ul><li>Training, Peer reviews </li></ul><ul><li>11 Process Areas come into play </li></ul>
  30. 30. Level 4 – Quantitatively Managed <ul><li>Quantitative measures being used extensively for predicting quality goals </li></ul><ul><li>Process data base used for doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>An engineered organization - that can accurately predict what it will do </li></ul><ul><li>2 Process Areas come into play </li></ul>
  31. 31. Level 5 - Optimizing <ul><li>PARADIGM Shift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defect detection to defect prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did the problem occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess Processes to fine tune continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of process improvements is now factual </li></ul><ul><li>2 Process Areas come into play </li></ul>
  32. 32. Process Areas <ul><li>Level 1: None </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Monitoring and Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier Agreement Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement and Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process and Product Quality Assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration Management </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Process Areas <ul><li>Level 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Process Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Process Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Analysis and Resolution </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Process Areas <ul><li>Level 4: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Process Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Innovation and Deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causal Analysis and Resolution </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Typical Roadmap Initiation Action Planning CMMI ® Understanding Gap Analysis Process Enhancement Process Implementation Pre Appraisal Close Pre Appraisal Gaps CMMI ® Training for ATMs Appraisal using SCAMPI SM (Class-A)
  36. 36. CMMI® Understanding <ul><li>Typically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a 2 day course on CMMI for those actively involved in “process” definition and implementation (like QAI’s “The CMMI® Overview”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a 1 day course for other Senior members of the organization </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Gap Analysis <ul><li>Called Gap Analysis for CMMI - (GACi) in QAI </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a 4 to 5 day activity </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by a Senior consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Activities include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>documentation review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interviews with groups/ individuals performing different roles in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation of the gaps with respect to Process Areas of selected maturity levels </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Action Planning <ul><li>This is based on the gaps </li></ul><ul><li>High level action plan identifies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>next target level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time period for major milestones (phase wise gap closure, any additional gap analysis, pre-appraisal, formal Appraisal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detailed action plan addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how each of the gaps will be closed, with responsibilities and time lines </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Process Development & Implementation <ul><li>Transitioning from existing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying implementation of the new processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ironing out implementation issues </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing till the new processes are institutionalized </li></ul>
  40. 40. Pre-appraisal <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to check for readiness for SCAMPI (Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set time frame for assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically lead by a Lead Appraiser and a 6 day activity </li></ul><ul><li>The organization’s assessment team members assist the leader </li></ul><ul><li>Ends with a presentation of strengths and weaknesses </li></ul>
  41. 41. Close Pre-appraisal Gaps <ul><li>Make action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Change processes as required </li></ul><ul><li>Training, orient, brief members of the organization as required </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and institutionalize </li></ul>
  42. 42. Mandatory Training for ATMs <ul><li>Official 3-day “Intro to CMMI®” Training </li></ul><ul><li>3-day ATM Team Training </li></ul>
  43. 43. Mandatory Training for ATMs Appraisal Pre-appraisal Gap Analysis/ Spot Checks Typically User for Large Medium Small Team Size High Medium Low Resource needs Yes No No Ratings generated High Medium Low Amount of objective evidence Class A Class B Class C Characteristic
  44. 44. SCAMPI A Appraisal <ul><li>The SCAMPI-A Appraisal includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation & Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Onsite Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Report generation & Registering with SEI </li></ul>
  45. 45. Typical Timeframe <ul><li>Overview to CMMi = 2 days </li></ul><ul><li>CMMi Gap Analysis = 5 days </li></ul><ul><li>Action Planning = 1 day </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting = 12 - 15 days </li></ul><ul><li>In-house Training = Need based </li></ul><ul><li>Pre Appraisal = 6 days </li></ul><ul><li>SEI’s Official Intro to CMMi = 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>ATM Team Training = 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>SCAMPI A Appraisal = 16 – 20 days </li></ul>Note: These are only tentative figures and vary tremendously depending on target level & size of the organization
  46. 46. Name: Kalpana Singh Email Id: [email_address] Phone Number: Ext - 235/ Mobile - 9999673583