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Quality Assurance AuthorityEducation & TrainingTraining      Quality Assurance Authority for for Education &SchoolSReviewU...
SchoolSReviewUnitReview Framework and GuidanceFor use in the Review of All Schools andKindergartens in the Kingdom of Bahr...
Contents    Introduction                                                                 5    • Background to the Quality ...
IntroductionBackground to the Quality Assurance Authority for Education and TrainingThe Quality Assurance Authority for Ed...
The Review Framework    Introduction    The framework sets out the evaluation requirements to be used in the review of all...
•   Leadership, management and governance    - The effectiveness of leadership, management and governance in promoting the...
The Review Framework for Schools    Overall effectiveness       How effective is the school in meeting the needs of stude...
   How good is the students’ personal development?    In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:       Records...
     Use teaching and learning strategies and resources that lead to effective learning;     	      Set tasks and assign...
But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:	      Students are inducted into the school in a way that helps...
But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:     	  The principal and others with leadership responsibilitie...
The Review Framework for KindergartensOverall effectiveness How effective is the kindergarten in meeting the needs of chi...
But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which children of all ages, abilities and     backgrounds:     	  Are ...
 How well does the implementation and enrichment of the curriculum meet the    intellectual, social and physical needs of...
Leadership, management and governance      How effective are leadership, management and governance?         In arriving a...
Review GuidanceIntroductionReviews assess the extent to which schools and kindergartens provide a quality learning experie...
However, the judgements about the school or kindergarten that appear in the review report are     made by the review team,...
     The lead reviewer visits the school/kindergarten to clarify2 days before the review               and adjust any iss...
The self-evaluation form (SEF)     Principals and senior staff will be offered training in the use of the self-evaluation ...
Pre-review brief (PRB)The pre-review brief (PRB) is prepared by the lead reviewer. It should be brief, but it should captu...
 Do all they can to minimise the stress on those involved in the Review, and act with their              best interests a...
Invariably, reviewers will pursue enquiries from a number of angles, including discussions anddirect observations, to get ...
In addition to these occasions, in schools, all reviewers will interview small groups of students to     get their views o...
At the final meeting, the team will come to a collective view on the main questions in the ReviewFramework, including the ...
Quality assurance     Schools/kindergartens will be invited to give their views on the review, its conduct and its likely ...
Guidance on Using the Review Framework for Schools andKindergartensThis guidance sets out advice to schools and kindergart...
Grade description             Interpretation                                   Outcomes or provision are at least good in ...
Overall Effectiveness How effective is the school in meeting the needs of students and their parents?This is the last jud...
Evaluating overall effectiveness                                        All aspects of the school’s work are at least good...
 How successfully does the school fulfil its mission and its promise to parents?    All schools make an informal or forma...
 Has the school enhanced its high level of effectiveness or improved important aspects         of its performance in rece...
Students’ achievement How well do students achieve in their academic work?Evaluating students’ achievement               ...
Reviewers will assess how thoroughly and well the school records and analyses students’         performance in external an...
Students’ personal development will not be inadequate in anySatisfactory (3)                major criteria and it may be g...
 Do students work effectively together, respecting the views, the feelings and the beliefs         of others?        Obse...
The quality of provision How effective are teaching and learning?Evaluating the effectiveness of teaching and learning   ...
 Do teachers have good knowledge about the subjects and courses they teach and how         to teach them?        This cri...
 Do teachers ensure students’ engagement, motivating, encouraging and supporting    them?   Teachers’ success in engaging...
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
Handbook english 2011
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Handbook english 2011

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SRU Handbook 2011, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain, Quality Assurance Authority for Education and Training, School Review Unit

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Transcript of "Handbook english 2011"

  1. 1. Quality Assurance AuthorityEducation & TrainingTraining Quality Assurance Authority for for Education &SchoolSReviewUnitReview Framework and GuidanceFor use in the Review of All Schools andKindergartens in the Kingdom of BahrainSecond edition 2011
  2. 2. SchoolSReviewUnitReview Framework and GuidanceFor use in the Review of All Schools andKindergartens in the Kingdom of BahrainSecond edition 2011
  3. 3. Contents Introduction 5 • Background to the Quality Assurance Authority for Education and Training 5 • The Schools Review Unit 5 The review framework 6 • Introduction 6 • Section one: main questions for schools 6 • Section two: main questions for kindergartens 6 The Review Framework for Schools 8 • Overall effectiveness 8 • Students achievement 8 • The quality of provision 9 • Leadership, management and governance 11 The Review Framework for Kindergartens 13 • Overall effectiveness 13 • Childrens growth and development 13 • The quality of provision 14 • Leadership, management and governance 16 Review Guidance 17 • Guidance on Using The Review Framework for Schools and Kindergartens 27 • Section1 : Schools 27 • Section2 : Kindergartens 524
  4. 4. IntroductionBackground to the Quality Assurance Authority for Education and TrainingThe Quality Assurance Authority for Education and Training (QAAET) was established as anindependent national authority, attached to the cabinet, to ensure that the quality of educationand training in Bahrain meets international standards and best practice, in accordance with thevision set by the National Education Reform initiatives. Under Article (4) of Royal Decree No. 32 of2008 amended by Royal Decree No. 6 of 2009, the QAAET is mandated to ‘review the quality of theperformance of education and training institutions in the light of the guiding indicators developedby the Authority.’The QAAET comprises four units, the Schools Review Unit (SRU), the Vocational Review Unit(VRU), the Higher Education Review Unit (HERU) and the National Examinations Unit (NEU).Further information about the QAAET can be found at www.qaa.edu.bhThe Schools Review UnitThe Schools Review Unit (SRU) is responsible for:• Evaluating and reporting on the quality of provision in all schools* and kindergartens (KGs);• Establishing success measures;• Spreading best practice;• Making recommendations for school/kindergarten improvements.[* The term ‘schools’ refers to all establishments providing full-time education for children andyoung people between the ages of six and eighteen].Review involves monitoring standards and evaluating the quality of provision against a clear setof indicators. The reviews are independent, objective and transparent. They provide importantinformation for schools and kindergartens about their strengths and areas for improvement toassist in focusing efforts and resources as part of the cycle of school improvement in order to raisestandards.The framework used by the SRU reflects international best practice in the sector. It has beendeveloped to encompass the context and the needs of all schools and KGs operating in Bahrain,both government and private.The framework and its implementation details are available in the Review Framework andGuidance approved by the QAAET. 5
  5. 5. The Review Framework Introduction The framework sets out the evaluation requirements to be used in the review of all schools and KGs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It lists the main questions that reviewers must pursue to arrive at an answer to the overall question ‘How effective is the school or KG and why?’ in separate sections: Section 1 lists the main questions for schools, and Section 2 lists the main questions for KGs. Section 1 - main questions for schools: In arriving at the answer to the overall question, ‘How effective is the school and why?’ Reviewers consider: • Students’ achievement - How well students of all ages, abilities and backgrounds achieve in their academic work; - The progress that students of all ages, abilities and backgrounds make in their personal development. • The quality of provision - The effectiveness of teaching and learning; - How well the implementation and enrichment of the curriculum meets the educational needs of the students; - How well students are supported and guided. • Leadership, management and governance - The effectiveness of leadership and management, including the governance arrangements where they exist, in promoting high achievement and strong personal development and in bringing about improvement in the school. Section 2 - main questions for kindergartens: In arriving at the answer to the overall question ‘How effective is the kindergarten and why?’ Reviewers consider: • The children’s growth and development - How well children of all ages, abilities and backgrounds are progressing in specific areas of growth and development. • The quality of kindergarten provision - The effectiveness of teaching and learning; - The effectiveness of the curriculum implementation; - How well the kindergarten promotes the children’s welfare.6
  6. 6. • Leadership, management and governance - The effectiveness of leadership, management and governance in promoting the children’s growth and development and in bringing about improvement.Evaluation:For both schools and kindergartens, the main questions are shown by ‘’and reviewers’ responsesto them are made on the evaluation scale: 1: ‘Outstanding’ 2: ‘Good’ 3: ‘Satisfactory’ 4: ‘Inadequate’In reaching their judgements, reviewers consider• The extent to which particular practices and procedures are in place;• The quality of practice in elements which contribute to the main question.Compliance with particular practices and procedures (shown by ‘’ in the schedule) is judged ona scale: 1: Always 2: Often 3: Sometimes 4: NeverThe quality of the school’s/kindergarten’s performance and practice are evaluated against criteriawhich contribute to the main questions.These judgements (shown by ‘’ in the schedule) are made on the same four-point evaluationscale as the main questions.As well as forming the basis of school/kindergarten review, schools/kindergartens are invited to usethis framework and the evaluation scale in the evaluation of their own performance and practice.The guidance, which accompanies the framework, provides more information about thejudgements to be made and shows how reviewers and schools/kindergartens should interpret themain questions and criteria. 7
  7. 7. The Review Framework for Schools Overall effectiveness  How effective is the school in meeting the needs of students and their parents? The judgement should be based on the extent to which the school enables students to achieve as well as they can academically and in their personal development. It should take into account the extent to which:  Students are satisfied with the school;  The school successfully fulfils its mission and its promise to parents.  How strong is the school’s capacity to improve? The judgement should be based on the extent to which strategic planning is focused on improvement and on how well self-evaluation and other management processes are used to assure quality and improve teaching, learning and achievement. It should also consider the extent to which:  The school has enhanced its high level of effectiveness or improved important aspects of its performance in recent years. Reviewers will assess the school’s strengths and identify areas for improvement. As a result of which the school will develop an action plan which sets out the steps it will take to improve its performance. Schools whose overall effectiveness is ‘inadequate’ will be subject to monitoring visits as per the QAAET policy and procedure. Students’ achievement  How well do students achieve in their academic work? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Assessments are made of students’ ability on entry to the school;  Records of students’ achievements are kept;  Performance results are analysed. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which students of all ages, abilities and backgrounds:  Are performing well in general and especially in key subjects against the standards set by the curriculum in operation in the school;  Are making the progress expected of them in relation to their starting points and their abilities.8
  8. 8.  How good is the students’ personal development? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Records are kept of students’ attendance;  Records are kept of students’ punctuality;  Incidents of poor behaviour and action taken are logged. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which students of all ages and backgrounds:  Attend school regularly and punctually;  Participate fully and enthusiastically in school life;  Develop self-confidence and the capacity to work independently and take responsibility;  Work effectively together, respecting the views, feelings and beliefs of others;  Behave in a mature and responsible way in lessons and around the school;  Feel safe and secure in school and are free from bullying and other hurtful behaviour;  Develop an understanding of the heritage and culture of Bahrain, including the values of Islam.The quality of provision How effective is teaching and learning? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Teachers have the appropriate professional qualifications for their roles;  Teachers have lesson plans which guide their teaching;  Lessons start and end on time;  Learning objectives are shared with the class and pursued;  Students’ work is marked. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which teachers:  Have strong knowledge of the subjects and courses they teach and how this is reflected in their lessons;  Enable students to acquire skills and understanding as well as knowledge;  Enable students to develop higher order thinking skills;  Manage lessons effectively so that they are orderly and productive;  Secure students’ engagement, motivate, encourage and support them;  Challenge students of all abilities so that they make at least the expected progress in relation to their prior attainment; 9
  9. 9.  Use teaching and learning strategies and resources that lead to effective learning;  Set tasks and assignments for students to be undertaken out of lesson time that consolidate and extend work done in class;  Use assessment, including marking, effectively to diagnose students’ needs and adjust their teaching accordingly.  How well does the implementation and enrichment of the curriculum meet the educational needs of the students? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  The school has schemes of work which show how the curriculum should be taught;  Records are kept of students’ participation in extra-curricular activities. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  The school provides for all its students, within the scope of the curriculum it offers, a broad range of experiences, well suited to their educational needs;  The curriculum is kept under review and its implementation revised as a result of self- evaluation and in response to the changing needs of the students;  Links are made between subjects so that students experience a coherent curriculum;  The school seeks to develop students’ understanding of the rights and responsibilities of being part of a community;  The curriculum adequately prepares students for the next stage of their education or for employment;  Extra-curricular activities enhance students’ experiences and promote wide-ranging interests;  The curriculum is enriched by the use of the school environment and resources available in the local community.  How well are students supported and guided? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Records are kept of students’ personal and academic progress and the advice they receive;  Information about curriculum and other choices is provided for students;  Students have access to staff for guidance and support;  Regular information is sent to parents about their children’s progress;  The school has rules and routines defining acceptable behaviour;  The school carries out risk assessments relating to health and safety.10
  10. 10. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  Students are inducted into the school in a way that helps them settle quickly and easily;  The school monitors students’ academic progress so that their needs can be met;  The school monitors students’ personal development so that their needs can be met;  The school deploys staffing and resources effectively to support students with special educational needs of different kinds;  Students are sensitively supported and helped when they have problems;  Students have access to well-informed advice and guidance about the next stage of their education and in preparation for employment;  Parents are well informed about students’ progress;  Students and the school’s administrative and academic staff work in a healthy and safe environment. • In schools with boarding provision, reviewers consider the extent to which:  The living and sleeping accommodation for students, including dining, washing and rest room facilities, meets their needs and ensures their health and safety;  The members of staff with responsibilities for boarding, such as house parents, ensure the health, safety, and care of students;  After-school and weekend activities are of a sufficient range and quality; and boarders and day students are integrated into joint after-school clubs and activities;  There are effective procedures for the welfare and protection of students, including permissions to leave the boarding house after school hours, at weekends and for holidays and provisions for travel and collection.Leadership, management and governance How effective are leadership, management and governance in promoting high achievement and personal development and in bringing about improvement? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Leaders and managers have clear job descriptions which set out their responsibilities;  The school regularly seeks parents’ and students’ views about its provision;  The school plans its development and improvement;  Results over time are recorded and analysed;  Procedures for monitoring the school’s performance and provision are in place;  Records are kept of teachers’ professional development needs and opportunities they have taken up. 11
  11. 11. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  The principal and others with leadership responsibilities have a clear vision for the school, focused on achievement, which is shared with, and by, staff;  Leaders inspire, motivate and support staff effectively;  Self-evaluation, including the analysis of performance, is rigorous and used to assure quality and bring about further improvement;  Strategic planning is firmly focused on improvement;  Staff are effectively managed, developed and efficiently deployed;  Budgeting, planning and resource allocation are firmly linked to ensure the provision of good quality teaching and learning and a high quality learning environment, appropriate to the school’s mission;  The school seeks, and is responsive to, the views of students and parents about its provision;  The school has well-developed links with the local and wider community that enhance and enrich the students’ educational experiences;  Where one exists, the governing body’s roles and responsibilities are understood, respected and kept separate from those of the school’s professional leadership;  Where one exists, the governing body, board of directors or advisory group works effectively with the school’s leaders; holds them accountable for the school’s performance; and makes a significant contribution to the strategic leadership of the school.12
  12. 12. The Review Framework for KindergartensOverall effectiveness How effective is the kindergarten in meeting the needs of children and their parents? The judgement is based on the extent to which the kindergarten promotes children’s overall growth and development. It should take into account the extent to which:  Children are satisfied with the kindergarten;  The kindergarten successfully fulfils its mission and its promise to parents. How strong is the kindergarten’s capacity to improve? The judgement should be based on the extent to which strategic planning is focused on improvement and on how well self-evaluation and other management processes are used to assure quality and improve teaching, learning and children’s growth and development. It should also consider the extent to which:  The kindergarten has enhanced its high level of effectiveness or improved important aspects of its performance in recent years. Reviewers will assess the kindergarten’s strengths and identify areas for improvement. As a result of which the kindergarten will develop an action plan which sets out the steps it will take to improve its performance.Kindergartens whose overall effectiveness is ‘inadequate’ will be subject to monitoringvisits as per the QAAET policy and procedure.Children’s growth and development How well do the children develop intellectually, socially, creatively and physically? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive assessments are completed that measure children’s overall abilities and skills on entry to the kindergarten;  Records are kept of children’s attendance and punctuality;  Developmental outcomes are consistently collected and analysed;  Information about the development of individual children is reported to parents at critical periods throughout the year. 13
  13. 13. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which children of all ages, abilities and backgrounds:  Are making good progress in communication and numeracy against the standards set by the curriculum in operation in the kindergarten;  Are making good progress in their physical development;  Attend kindergarten regularly and punctually;  Participate fully and enthusiastically in kindergarten activities;  Develop self-regulation skills, sharing and co-operative behaviour, and independence appropriate to their age and ability;  Are curious and inquisitive about the world/community around them;  Are respectful of other children and adults;  Respond creatively to experiences, using media and materials, music, physical activity and imaginative play;  Are ready intellectually, socially, creatively and physically, by the time they leave kindergarten, to begin the primary phase of their education. The quality of provision  How effective are the teaching and learning? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  The kindergarten has an educational philosophy that guides its curriculum and pedagogy;  Teachers and other staff have appropriate professional qualifications for their roles. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which teachers and other staff:  Have strong knowledge of child development and early childhood education;  Manage daily routines and learning experiences effectively, with a balance of adult and child-initiated activities;  Secure children’s engagement; motivate, encourage and support them;  Provide opportunities for children to work in small groups and learn from each other;  Challenge children so that they progress toward the next level of development in all areas of learning;  Use a variety of teaching and learning resources that lead to effective learning;  Use assessment techniques appropriate for the children’s ages.14
  14. 14.  How well does the implementation and enrichment of the curriculum meet the intellectual, social and physical needs of the children? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  The KG has schemes of work which show how the curriculum should be implemented and enriched;  Records are kept of children’s participation in all activities. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  The KG provides for all its children, within the scope of the curriculum it offers, a broad range of experiences, well suited to their intellectual, social and physical needs;  The curriculum is kept under review and its implementation revised as a result of self- evaluation and in response to the changing needs of the children;  Extra-curricular activities enhance children’s experiences and promote wide-ranging interests;  The curriculum is enriched by the use of the KG’s environment and resources available in the local community to enrich the children’s learning. How well does the kindergarten promote the children’s welfare? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Records are kept of home-kindergarten communication with parents;  There are rules and routines defining acceptable behaviour and child guidance strategies;  Incidents of any inappropriate behaviour, and action(s) taken, are logged;  Risk assessments are made relating to the health and safety of children. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  Children are introduced to the kindergarten in a way that helps them feel comfortable and safe;  Parents are actively encouraged to participate in their child’s learning and are offered a variety of ways to become involved;  Children who experience difficulties with learning or behaviour are identified quickly and effectively supported;  Children and staff work in a healthy and safe environment. 15
  15. 15. Leadership, management and governance  How effective are leadership, management and governance? In arriving at a judgement, reviewers check whether:  Leaders and managers have clear job descriptions, which set out their responsibilities;  The views of parents and children are regularly sought;  There are procedures for monitoring performance and the quality of provision;  There are plans for development and improvement;  Records are kept of the professional development needs of the staff and where these needs have been met. But particularly, reviewers evaluate the extent to which:  The separate roles and responsibilities of the governing body and the kindergarten’s professional leadership are understood and respected;  The governing body, board of directors or advisory group works effectively with the kindergarten’s leaders, holds them accountable for the kindergarten’s performance and makes a significant contribution to the strategic leadership of the kindergarten;  Staff with leadership responsibilities have a clear vision for the kindergarten, focused on children’s development, which is shared with, and by, other staff;  Self-evaluation, including the analysis of performance, is rigorous and used to assure quality and bring about further improvement;  Strategic planning is firmly focused on improvement;  The staff are effectively managed, developed and efficiently deployed;  Budgeting, planning and resource allocation are firmly linked and ensure the provision of good quality teaching and learning and a high quality learning environment, appropriate to the kindergarten’s mission;  The kindergarten seeks, and is responsive to, the views of parents about its provision;  There are links with the local and wider community, which enhances and enriches the children’s development.16
  16. 16. Review GuidanceIntroductionReviews assess the extent to which schools and kindergartens provide a quality learning experiencefor students which is measured through a number of criteria. The openness of the criteria, theidentification of the strengths and weaknesses of the school and kindergarten, the professionaldiscussion with the school and kindergarten about its work and its self-evaluation, and therecommendations which stem from Review all contribute to the success of the Review process. TheReview Report provides the school with judgements where strengths and areas for improvementare identified. However, the task of improvement is the responsibility of the school or kindergartenand those who give it day-to-day support.The review methodology and guidance are developed to form the basis of the model of review tobe used in the Kingdom of Bahrain.A universal principle is that students and children succeed when they are well taught, are carefullyguided and supported both academically and personally, and when leadership and managementare effective in ensuring that these priorities are met. This guidance sets out:  The approach to review;  The review arrangements and procedures;  Advice to schools and kindergartens on interpreting the Review Framework and Guidance and forming judgements.The Approach to Reviews in Bahrain’s Schools and KindergartenSelf-evaluation plays a central part in the review process. Schools and kindergartens are askedto evaluate their effectiveness, their students’ achievement, the quality of their provision and theeffectiveness of their leadership and management, using the Review Framework, and record theirfindings in a self-evaluation form (SEF). To do this, they are asked to use the same criteria thatreviewers use. Schools and kindergarten are also asked to audit how fully they follow particularprocedures and practices.Reviewers use the evidence which the school offers in its SEF, along with that contained in otherdocuments from the school, to frame hypotheses about the school. These are included, with acommentary, in a pre-review brief (PRB). Reviewers test the hypotheses by directly observingstudents, children and teachers at work, reviewing students’ work, analyzing data and schooldocumentation and talking with key staff and with students. Schools are asked to send aquestionnaire to parents to seek their views on the school and reviewers will talk with parents andstudents.The review approach is collaborative. Through the SEF, the school or the kindergarten suppliesthe main source of information for the review. The principal and senior staff have the opportunityto comment on the PRB and the school will be asked to arrange for reviewers to talk with the keystaff who can shed light on the main issues in the PRB, and schools will be able to suggest whereparticular practices, strong or weak, can be seen in the school. 17
  17. 17. However, the judgements about the school or kindergarten that appear in the review report are made by the review team, based on the evidence they collect during the review visit. Regular feedback is an essential part of the review process so that the staff of the school and kindergarten are fully involved and understand how the judgements evolve. The process is intended to encourage rigorous self-evaluation, which the school and kindergarten can use to assure the quality of its provision and identify areas for improvement. The review arrangements and procedures Review timescales and overview The Schools Review Unit (SRU) was established within the programme of the national reform of education, and is responsible for evaluating all schools and kindergarten, using a set of clear and written standards to ensure quality. The standards are explained in the Framework for the Review of Schools and Kindergartens. The review will be organised be a lead reviewer and his or her team. School and kindergarten principals and other staff will be introduced to and trained in the use of a self-evaluation form (SEF) before their school and kindergarten is visited. The SEF is an important element of the review process. Schools and kindergartens will be notified of the review dates one week before the on-site review. The on-site review will normally extend for three days. The following table explains the stages of the review. Time Activity  Training the school / kindergarten principal and other senior staff on completing the self- evaluation form (SEF) Prior to the review but as needed. and not less than 8 weeks  Schools /kindergarten are given the SEF, parents’ before it questionnaire (PQ) to be completed.  Schools / kindergarten send the PQs to parents following the SEF training session. 2 weeks after SEF training  The school/kindergarten returns the SEF and other key and not less than 6 weeks documentation to the SRU. before the expected review  The school/kindergarten sends the completed PQs dates separately from the SEF in a sealed envelope to the SRU.  The lead reviewer writes the Pre-Review Brief (PRB) based 3 weeks before the review on the SEF and the PQ analysis and any other available information.  The PRB is sent to the school/kindergarten. The school/ kindergarten organises the necessary meetings based on 1 week before the Review the PRB.  The SRU informs the school of the date of its review and the name of the lead reviewer.18
  18. 18.  The lead reviewer visits the school/kindergarten to clarify2 days before the review and adjust any issues arising in the review and to discuss the PRB.  The school/kindergarten completes its arrangements for the required meetings.1 day before the review  The school contacts a sample of parents to meet the review team.  A meeting is conducted with the school/kindergarten First day principal and deputy to clarify any concerns regarding PRB and other arrangements.  The school/kindergarten is requested to: arrange meetings On-site with academic and administrative staff, students, parents; Review provide documents and samples of students’ work and any Subsequent other information. days  Final oral feedback will be given to the principal and school/kindergarten management on the final day of the review.  School/kindergarten receives draft report for their accuracy5 - 6 weeks after the Review check1 week after receiving the  School/kindergarten comments integrated wheredraft report appropriateNumber of reviewers and days allocated:The number of reviewers in a team depends on the size of the school/kindergarten and the agerange of its students. The on-site reviews will normally last for three days. The following guidanceusually applies:Number of Students Number of Reviewers200 and fewer 3 reviewers201 - 500 4-5 reviewers501 - 1100 5-7 reviewers1100 - 2000 8-10 reviewersOver 2000 11 reviewers or moreDeployment of reviewersIndividual reviewers will lead on different aspects of the Review Framework. The review teamwill work closely together and the main judgements about the school/kindergarten will be madecollectively.The review teams may at times be accompanied by observers. Observers will not be involved inmaking judgements or recommendations. 19
  19. 19. The self-evaluation form (SEF) Principals and senior staff will be offered training in the use of the self-evaluation form (SEF) before the review takes place. One of the intended outcomes of school/kindergarten review is to help schools to identify the key evidence on which to base self-evaluation and how to use it to evaluate their provision and achievements. The SEF is the main document when planning the review. It is a key source of evidence about the schools/kindergarten’s effectiveness and points to other evidence that will need to be gathered during the review visit. The SEF gives particular insights into the capacity of leaders and managers to evaluate their schools/kindergartens objectively and to be clear about what needs to improve. Rigorous and effective self-evaluation, along with a record of school/kindergarten improvement, is a strong indicator of a school’s/kindergartens’ capacity to improve. During the review, in discussions with managers and teachers, reviewers will refer to the contents of the SEF. They will investigate why the school/kindergarten came to particular conclusions, challenge conclusions if appropriate in the light of emerging direct evidence and explore whether other evidence is available to support its conclusions. In these circumstances, the school/kindergarten will be asked to substantiate the case it has made in the SEF. Guidance will be provided on completing the SEF, but in essence: The SEF follows the structure of the Review Framework for Schools and Kindergartens.  Schools/kindergarten should evaluate their performance, the quality of provision and the effectiveness of leadership and management in relation to each of the main questions (denoted by ‘’ in the Review Framework) and the criteria (denoted by ‘’) using a grade.  For each of the criteria, schools/kindergartens should cite the key evidence that led to the judgement; this could include references to other documents;  As an aid to forming judgements, schools/kindergartens should use the Guidance on using the review framework for schools and kindergarten;  Schools/kindergartens should also complete the self-audit questions, which appear in the SEF, assessing how far they have in place particular procedures and practices (denoted by ‘’ in the review framework). Schools/kindergartens should return the completed SEF to the SRU six weeks before the review together with:  The school’s/kindergarten’s brochure for parents or similar document;  Any analyses of the school’s/kindergarten’s performance by external bodies, such as accrediting agencies;  The school’s/kindergarten’s plan/s;  A timetable of lessons each week;  Data on students’ academic achievement/ children’s growth and development;  The school’s/kindergarten’s development or improvement plan;  The completed parents’ questionnaires in unopened envelopes.20
  20. 20. Pre-review brief (PRB)The pre-review brief (PRB) is prepared by the lead reviewer. It should be brief, but it should capturethe most important points about the school/kindergarten. It will draw primarily on the SEF andthe other documents provided in advance by the school/kindergarten. The PRB consists largely ofan analysis of the SEF and how far it appears to be adequately evidenced. For each of the mainquestions in the review framework it will identify:  Apparent strengths and weaknesses, particularly in relation to the criteria in the review framework;  Hypotheses about the performance of the school/kindergarten and factors likely to be influencing it;  Any gaps in evidence;  Areas where the judgements in the SEF conflict with the evidence cited;  Internal inconsistencies between aspects of provision and outcomes, for example students’ achievements against the quality of teaching;  The main issues to be resolved and hypotheses to be tested in the review.The PRB will be discussed with the principal and sent to the review team together with a reviewplan based on the issues to be explored and the hypotheses to test.The reviews are likely to focus particularly on the standards achieved by students, the quality ofteaching and the effectiveness of leadership and management in assuring and improving quality.Review proceduresDuring their time in school, reviewers will:  Observe lessons and other activities;  Evaluate students’ written and other work/ children’s growth and development  Analyse any available data about the performance of students;  Study policy and other documents which are crucial to the school’s/kindergarten’s work;  Hold discussions with staff, especially senior staff, students/children and parents;  Inspect the premises.Reviewers have a code of conduct, which will be observed at all times.Code of conductReviewers will uphold the highest professional standards in their work, and ensure that staff ofthe school are treated fairly and benefit from their review. These standards are ensured throughthe following code.Reviewers will:  Evaluate objectively and impartially;  Report honestly, ensuring that judgements are fair and reliable;  Carry out their work with integrity, treating all those they meet with courtesy and sensitivity; 21
  21. 21.  Do all they can to minimise the stress on those involved in the Review, and act with their best interests and well-being as priorities;  Maintain purposeful and productive dialogue with those whose work is being evaluated, and communicate judgements clearly and frankly;  Respect the confidentiality of information, particularly about individuals and their work. Lesson visits Reviewers will normally spend at least 60% of their time in school/kindergarten observing lessons, but not all teachers will be seen teaching. Reviewers will sample lessons from across the school/ kindergarten. Each reviewer will aim to see a number of lessons or parts of lessons. Reviewers will not always be able to observe a whole lesson, although they will stay for at least 20 minutes and normally more. As determined by the lead reviewer, lesson visiting will be planned to follow up issues or check hypotheses in the PRB, but most will be in English, mathematics, science and Arabic. In kindergartens, visits will cover all areas of learning. Reviewers will offer brief feedback to the teacher either at the end of the lesson or later. The feedback will not include a judgement about the quality of the lesson as a whole. If the reviewer is visiting a lesson to pursue a specific issue, feedback will be confined to what has been learned about that issue. Reviewers will often use the feedback to check that the teacher has assessed the success or otherwise of the lesson. Reviewers will not report their observations of individual lessons to the principal or other senior managers except in exceptional circumstances, such as when issues of safety are involved. Reviewers will try to minimize disruption to lessons, but if the opportunity arises to talk with students about their work they are likely to do so. Reviewers will approach kindergarten children sensitively and ensure that they do not feel threatened or alarmed by the presence of a stranger in the room. They will not intervene in a lesson in any way. If there is a plan for the lesson, it is helpful if it can be made available to the reviewer. Normally, reviewers will sit towards the back of a class, but if a teacher would prefer him/her to sit elsewhere, they should indicate where. Discussions Discussions with key staff are likely to occupy a good proportion of review time. Reviewers will also hold discussions with students, parents and, perhaps others. The lead reviewer will wish to have at least one discussion with the proprietor of the school/kindergarten (or representative) and/or one or more members of the governing body, board of directors or advisory group. The principal will be asked to set up a programme of interviews with those staff who can offer the most information on the issues being pursued in the review. Discussions might focus on:  How particular self-evaluation judgements in the SEF were made;  How processes in the school/kindergarten, such as self-evaluation, induction or tracking students’ progress, occur;  What has been done about particular concerns;  Priorities for the school/kindergarten and how they are identified;  Recent developments and how they were implemented, and plans for the future;  Perceptions of strengths and weaknesses;  How the views of staff, students/children and parents are handled.22
  22. 22. Invariably, reviewers will pursue enquiries from a number of angles, including discussions anddirect observations, to get a clear view of issues. They will want to trace issues through the school/kindergarten to see how they affect the achievement and personal development of students.Discussions with staff should not, except by prior arrangement, exceed 45 minutes.Examination of students’/children’s workIn schools, reviewers will see students’ work as they visit lessons, and the school will be asked togather all the written work of a sample of students for reviewers to look at. Normally this will bea sample of six students, representing different abilities, from each of, for example, Grades 3, 6, 9and 12.Analysis of samples of work like this allows reviewers to assess the standards of students’ workand the progress they have made over time; whether students of different abilities are beingproperly challenged, how the nature of work varies or is similar across subjects; and the quality ofassessment, in particular, marking of students’ work.In kindergartens, reviewers will evaluate the outcomes of children’s learning, including any writtenwork as they visit lessons and observe children in different activities. The kindergarten will be askedto gather appropriate samples of work for reviewers to look at. Normally these will be samplesfrom across different areas of learning which represent different abilities.Obtaining the views of parents and studentsThe SEF should provide evidence about the way the school/kindergarten seeks and acts on theviews of its students/children and their parents. It might also give insights into parents’ andstudents’/children’s views of the school/kindergarten – what they are pleased about and whatconcerns them.ParentsThe school/kindergarten will be asked to send a questionnaire to parents to seek their viewsabout the school/kindergarten. Responses should be returned to the lead reviewer in confidence.Reviewers will analyze the responses and identify any patterns in the strengths parents see in theschool/kindergarten and any concerns.If possible, reviewers will want to meet groups of parents and the school/kindergarten will be askedto arrange this. Meetings with parents give opportunities to talk with them about their views ofthe school/kindergarten and to follow up any particularly positive features or concerns that mightemerge from their responses to the parents’ questionnaire (PQ).Students/ChildrenReviewers will take opportunities to talk with students/children. Opportunities will arise in lessons,while students/children are involved in extra-curricular activities, and in social areas aroundthe school. If there are meetings of students, such as a students’ council, reviewers are likely toattend. 23
  23. 23. In addition to these occasions, in schools, all reviewers will interview small groups of students to get their views of how effectively the school supports their academic and personal development. The kindergarten may be asked to arrange a time when one of the review team can meet and talk to a representative group of children. Completing evidence forms Reviewers will complete evidence forms (EFs) for all review activities – lesson observations; discussions; examination of students’/children’s work; the analysis of data or documentation; and incidental observations around the school/kindergarten. EFs will also be used to record the progress of the review, for example, the outcomes of team meetings and observations made by the school/kindergarten at the oral feedback. Three types of EF (combined in one EF) will be completed in the review of the schools/kindergarten to record information and evidence from:  The observation of lessons;  The analysis of students’/children’s work;  From all other review activities. Storing evidence The SRU will keep a record of all review evidence. The evidence base will be retained for at least a year following the review. Team meetings Meetings of the review team are essential to develop a common sense of purpose, to agree on the issues to be pursued and to arrive at collective judgements. The pattern of meetings is likely to be: Review team meets at the end of the day to discuss the major issues Day 1 seen during the day and to amend the review plan if necessary. Review team meets at the end of the day to discuss the results of the day, and begin forming the recommendations, checking the standards Subsequent days of performance when recording the judgements, and amending the review plan if necessary. The review team meets to finalize the recommendations, complete Final Day the Record of Review Judgements (RRJ) and discuss the final feedback. In preparation for the final team meeting, reviewers will formulate a list of the main strengths and weaknesses in the areas for which they have been responsible. When these are agreed or modified after discussion among the team, they become part of the record of evidence and judgements from the review. The main strengths and weaknesses and overall judgements are recorded in the RRJ.24
  24. 24. At the final meeting, the team will come to a collective view on the main questions in the ReviewFramework, including the overall effectiveness of the school.The main judgements are not made by averaging or aggregating the grades for each criterion,nor is the overall effectiveness judgement arrived at from averaging the grades for the other mainquestions. These are professional judgements, made on the basis of weighing all the evidence andtaking into account the particular circumstances of the school/kindergarten.The judgements reached by the team will be considered alongside those offered by the school/kindergarten in its completed SEF. Where there are differences, the team must be able to explainwhy.FeedbackEffective reviews are not possible unless reviewers engage in professional dialogue. Throughoutthe review, they will share observations and hypotheses with the school/kindergarten in a way thatallows the school to respond. They should be open to additional evidence.The following will occur:  Reviewers will, whenever possible, offer brief feedback to teachers following or soon after lesson observations;  The lead reviewer will discuss the progress of the review and the emerging hypotheses and issues with the principal each day;  The review team will feedback its main findings at the end of the review. This is likely to be at the end of the final day.The oral feedback is not the report. The findings, particularly in relation to criteria, may changeas a result of reflection, and phrasing of the oral feedback will not be the same as the phrasing ofthe report. The main judgements offered at the oral feedback are provisional. If they do change asresult of the QA process, the principal will be informed before the written report is issued.The Review ReportThe review report will consist of a brief overview of the effectiveness of the school/kindergarten,including an evaluation of the capacity of the school/kindergarten to improve, and the factors thataccount for it, followed by the main strengths and areas for improvements in each of the aspects ofthe school/kindergarten covered by the review framework. It will also include recommendations ofwhat the school/kindergarten should do to improve.The first draft will be sent to the school for a factual accuracy check five to six weeks after thereview. The school then has five days to check the report for inaccuracies and propose reasons foramendments. The judgements in the report made by the review team are unlikely to change unlessfurther compelling evidence is offered, or the quality assurance procedures suggest that change isnecessary.The final report will be sent to the school/kindergarten after approval of the QAAET Board andthe endorsement of the Cabinet. Meanwhile, the school/kindergarten will have the draft versionof the report. 25
  25. 25. Quality assurance Schools/kindergartens will be invited to give their views on the review, its conduct and its likely effect in helping the school/kindergarten to improve. They will also be invited to suggest any changes to the review model, the review criteria or guidance as part of a process of review development. Schools/kindergartens will be asked to complete a post-review questionnaire and return it to the SRU. This will inform the SRUof how it may improve its practices. Child protection protocol The review team will gather information about the school/kindergarten from different sources, and the team may get information or claims that could relate to harassment or threatening the safety of the students/children. The review team will deal with these claims seriously and sensitively. Should the review team hear about these claims from the PQs, the interview with parents or the students/children, the issue will be taken very seriously, and the SRU procedures will be followed. Key actions include:  Recording the information on an EF;  Checking that the school’s/kindergarten’s principal is taking the necessary and appropriate measures on this issue;  The relevant authority will be notified. The SRU is not responsible for dealing with these cases but will highlight them and check whether the school/kindergarten is taking effective measures. Complaints The SRU expects reviews to be completed efficiently, but in some exceptional cases the school/ kindergarten may not be satisfied with an aspect of the review process. In this case the school/ kindergarten principal should discuss this aspect with the lead reviewer. If the matter is not resolved with the school/kindergarten, there are procedures for the school/kindergarten to follow with the SRU, and the Principal can file a formal complaint as per the QAAET policy and procedure. Complaints might concern:  The reviewers’ conduct;  The review judgements;  The feedback or the quality of the report (communication and interaction). Appeals Schools/kindergartens have a right of appeal as per the QAAET policy and procedure. The appeals policy will be provided to all schools and kindergartens. Post review action plans Schools/kindergartens must produce an action plan for the SRU ten weeks after the end of the review. The SRU will check and keep a record of all action plans.26
  26. 26. Guidance on Using the Review Framework for Schools andKindergartensThis guidance sets out advice to schools and kindergartens on interpreting the Review Frameworkfor Schools and Kindergartens (KGs) and forming judgements. It is split into two sections: 1. A section of guidance specifically for schools. 2. A section of guidance specifically for KGs.Section 1 – SchoolsJudgements in the review frameworkThe Review Framework sets out the judgements that are made in the review of schools, who areasked to follow the same framework in their self-evaluation.The framework focuses on the outcomes for students - their academic achievement and personaldevelopment - and the factors that most contribute to them: the quality of teaching; the effectivenessof leadership and management; the curriculum delivery; and the support and guidance to students.The overarching questions that the framework seeks to answer are ‘How effective is the school,and why?’Some factors have a more immediate impact on achievement than others. Teaching has a directimpact on students – the way they approach their work, how much they learn and how they developas young people. The quality of leadership also bears strongly on the success of the school.The framework requires judgements at three levels: 1. Judgements which answer the main questions. These are shown by ‘’ in the framework. They include questions such as ‘How effective is the school in meeting the needs of students and their parents?’ and ‘How effective are the teaching and learning?’ 2. Judgements relating to the criteria which contribute to the main questions. These are shown by ‘’ in the framework. The criteria are expressed as the standards expected and reviewers judge the extent to which they are met. These judgements help towards answering the main questions. 3. Judgements about how far particular practices and procedures are in place. These are shown by ‘’ in the framework and provide an audit of the school’s practices.Judgement scalesJudgements relating both to the main questions and to the criteria that contribute to them aremade on a four-point scale. This guidance is about how to pitch the judgements on this scale. Itshould not be interpreted as a set of rules. For example, where there are minor weaknesses inotherwise ‘good’ or ‘outstanding’ provision, reviewers must judge how much weight is tobe given to those weaknesses in the particular circumstances.In general, the scale should be interpreted as: 27
  27. 27. Grade description Interpretation Outcomes or provision are at least good in all areas and outstanding Outstanding (1) in the majority. Outcomes or provision are at least satisfactory in all areas and good Good (2) in the majority. A basic level of adequacy. There are no major weaknesses, or the Satisfactory (3) majority of areas are satisfactory. Some areas may be good. There are major weaknesses or the majority of areas are Inadequate (4) inadequate. Judgements relating to the audit of procedures are made on a four-point scale. Grade description Interpretation Practices and procedures are always carried out and they are the Always (1) norm in the school. Often (2) Practices and procedures are frequently carried out in the school. Elements of the practice are missing, or procedures are variable and Sometimes (3) cannot be taken as the norm. This describes situations where there is a significant gap in practice; Never (4) procedures may be carried out occasionally but they are not normal practice. Schools are asked to use the same judgement scale in their self-evaluations. Reviewers will use the school’s judgements alongside the evidence they consider, derived from what they see in practice during the review visit. Making judgements in relation to the main questions and the criteria This guidance describes, for each of the main areas of the review framework, features that illustrate judgements ranging from ‘outstanding’ to ‘inadequate’ and briefly indicates matters to consider in relation to each of the criteria.28
  28. 28. Overall Effectiveness How effective is the school in meeting the needs of students and their parents?This is the last judgement to be made and sums up the school as a whole. It must take accountof the characteristics and particular circumstances of the school, but at the heart of it must liethe question of how well students achieve academically and in their personal development andwhether the school does all it can to help them to achieve as well as they can.Making the judgement about a school’s overall effectiveness requires a synthesis of the evaluationsmade in response to the other main questions in the framework. This is not an arithmeticalcalculation of the grades but involves bringing the various judgements together and weighingtheir relative importance to form a coherent overall assessment.Every review team will develop a ‘narrative’ to explain why the outcomes achieved by the students inthis school are as they are. To do this, they will consider carefully how the teaching, the curriculumand the support and guidance provided to students affect the outcomes those students achieve.And they will arrive at a view of the nature of the impact of the school’s leadership and managementon the quality of the education it provides and, consequently, on the academic achievement andpersonal development the students achieve. The team will establish how these links work, andarrive at a corporate view of what accounts for this particular school’s performance.In most schools there will be a strong correlation between the ratings the team gives in responseto each of the main questions. If the outcomes are good, then it is likely that they will have beenproduced by good provision, supported by leadership and management whose effectiveness is alsogood.But the ‘narrative’ in individual schools can produce exceptions, and in such cases review teams willincorporate them and explain them clearly in their review reports. For example: • A new leadership team, supported by an energetic and effective governing body, might have made a strong start, but there has been insufficient time for the impact of its work to register in improved teaching and higher achievement by students. In these circumstances, the review team might rate leadership, management and governance as ‘Good’ while assessing academic achievement and teaching as only ‘Satisfactory’ • A school whose students come from highly advantaged backgrounds might register good academic achievement, but the review team might nevertheless consider that the teaching is of only satisfactory quality. The narrative in that school would suggest that outcomes – particularly progress – could be higher; and that this significant under-achievement is explained by unambitious teaching, which fails to inspire and challenge sufficiently.Examples like these are not anomalies. They are reflections of the complexity frequently involvedin arriving at a coherent, substantiated answer to the key question, ‘How effective is the school,and why?’ 29
  29. 29. Evaluating overall effectiveness All aspects of the school’s work are at least good and the majority are outstanding. There are exceptional features that other schools could learn from. The school delivers fully on an ambitious set of promises to parents expressed through its mission statement. In Outstanding (1) almost all cases, a school cannot be graded outstanding unless the students’ academic achievement and the quality of teaching and learning are both outstanding. This is unlikely to be the case when leadership and management are less than outstanding. This is likely to be the judgement when there is strong performance across the school and the school has demonstrably good capacity for further improvement. There will be no major weaknesses, and the school may have pockets of excellence. In almost all cases, a school cannot be graded good unless the Good (2) students’ academic achievement and the quality of teaching and learning are at least good. The school delivers well on all the key aspects of its promise to parents, expressed through its mission statement. This is unlikely to be the case when leadership and management are less than good. The school will be achieving a basic level of effectiveness in many aspects, but could have pockets of good or better provision. The school fulfils most aspects of its promise to parents, expressed through its mission statement. In almost all cases, a school Satisfactory (3) cannot be graded satisfactory unless the students’ academic achievement and personal development and the quality of teaching and learning are at least satisfactory. This is likely to be the case when leadership and management are satisfactory. This is likely to be the judgement if the academic achievement and the quality of teaching and learning are judged to be inadequate. The school does not deliver adequately on key Inadequate (4 aspects of its promise to parents, expressed through its mission statement. This is likely to be the case when leadership and management are inadequate. In addition to considering the achievement of students, the quality of provision and the effectiveness of leadership, management and governance, the following questions should help to form a view about the effectiveness of the school  How satisfied are students with the school? Evidence for this will come from students’ general demeanor, what they say about the school and their involvement in activities. Discussions with students should focus on: - What they like about school; - How well they are treated; - Whether they feel they are well supported and guided; - Whether and how their views are taken into account; - Whether they feel they are helped to do as well as they can.30
  30. 30.  How successfully does the school fulfil its mission and its promise to parents? All schools make an informal or formal promise or contract with the parents who enroll their children. The school – in the case of private schools in return for a fee – offers a certain type of educational experience, often expressed through a statement of mission or vision, in which it makes a commitment to parents and to the society in which it is located. This question asks how well the school delivers on these promises. Evidence will come from the questionnaire, which the school is asked to send to parents. The school may also have evidence of its own about parents’ satisfaction, which may come from its engagement with an accrediting agency. If there is an opportunity to talk with parents, it will be useful to explore: - Their feelings about the school, its strengths and features that need to be improved; - Whether their views are taken into account and how; - How the school responds to any concerns that they have; - Whether, in the case of private schools, they consider the school provides good value for money. What is the school’s capacity to improve? This is another judgement which is made at the end of the review. It should take into account the school’s performance in recent years and whether the processes of evaluation and strategic planning are sufficient, together with appropriate school management structures, to give confidence that the school can sustain and enhance high standards or improve itself.Evaluating capacity to improve The school has a history of sustained high performance or strongOutstanding (1) improvement. Strong leadership and management contribute to improvement that could be exceptional in some cases. The school has shown in the past that it has the capacity to improve, and its leadership and management processes give confidence to the school that it can continue to improve. TheGood (2) leadership share their vision with the whole staff and know the school’s strengths and weaknesses. The school has a strategic plan focused on improvement, and middle management have clear responsibilities to implement improvement. There are no major weaknesses in the school’s processes forSatisfactory (3) assuring and improving quality, and the school’s planning refers to having a sense of direction based on self-evaluation. This judgement is likely in the absence of strategic planning, and if self-evaluation is only beginning or is weak. Staff responsibilitiesInadequate (4) may be confusing and unclear in a way that a person responsible doesn’t know how to implement or carry out some actions required for improvement.In addition to considering things that might occur in schools as a result of strategic planning andself-evaluation, the judgement taken about the school’s capacity to improve can be supported byconsidering this following question: 31
  31. 31.  Has the school enhanced its high level of effectiveness or improved important aspects of its performance in recent years? The school should be able to provide clear evidence of sustained high performance or cite examples of the extent of its improvement. Reviewers will consider whether these improvements are significant. They will also assess whether the school has evaluated the effectiveness and the impact of the actions it has taken to improve its performance. Have these changes improved the school’s achievement or are they mainly superficial? Schools whose overall effectiveness is deemed inadequate. Schools whose overall effectiveness is judged to be inadequate might receive one or more monitoring visits as per the QAAET policy and procedure.32
  32. 32. Students’ achievement How well do students achieve in their academic work?Evaluating students’ achievement Successive cohorts of students regularly attain high levels in tests and external examinations, which are significantly higher than the average achieved by students in schools that offer the same curriculum. In lessons and in their recent work, the majority ofOutstanding (1) students demonstrate standards that are significantly above age- related expectations. The majority of students make much better than expected progress in relation to their starting points and abilities. Successive cohorts of students attain levels in tests and external examinations that are above the average achieved by students in schools that offer the same curriculum. In lessons and inGood (2) their recent work, most students demonstrate standards above age-related expectations. The majority of students make better than expected progress in relation to their starting points and abilities. Successive cohorts of students attain levels in tests and external examinations that are broadly in line with the average achieved by students in schools that offer the same curriculum. In lessons andSatisfactory (3) in their recent work, most students demonstrate standards that are in line with age-related expectations. While a few individual students may not do as well as expected, it is unlikely that any significant groups of students under-achieve. Many students attain levels in tests and external examinations that are below the average achieved by students in schools that offer the same curriculum. In lessons and in their recent work, significant numbers of students demonstrate standards that areInadequate (4) below age-related expectations. There are significant gaps in these students’ knowledge and weaknesses in their understanding in key subjects. There is evidence that significant groups of students are not making adequate progress and are not achieving well enough.The following questions are intended to help schools reach a view about how well students achievein their academic work. How well are students of all ages, abilities and backgrounds performing against the standards set by the curriculum in operation in the school? Evidence comes from the analysis of students’ performance in external examinations and other forms of assessment, as well as evaluations of the standards that students demonstrate in lessons. 33
  33. 33. Reviewers will assess how thoroughly and well the school records and analyses students’ performance in external and internal examinations and tests. This provides a good indication of how well the school evaluates its performance, which is important in assessing the effectiveness of leadership and management. In arriving at judgements, reviewers consider the results of examinations and tests, the outcomes of the scrutiny of a sample of students’ current work and the observation of work being done in lessons. Although examination and test results may indicate high success rates, it is important to ascertain whether the pass rates accurately reflect the levels of knowledge and understanding seen in lessons. By looking at students’ work and talking to them, reviewers assess whether their knowledge and understanding are as high as they should be. Reviewers use their professional knowledge and experience to reach an understanding of the students’ performance in general and especially in key subjects such as Arabic, English, mathematics and science in relation to that of their peers in similar schools that offer the same curriculum.  Are students making the progress expected of them in relation to their starting points and their abilities? Direct evidence for this comes from looking at students’ work and the school’s records of the levels they have reached at different points in time. Does the school assess the students’ ability on entry to the school? Does the level of their work progress as it should? If the information is available, how does the progress of the students compare with those in other similar schools? Does the evidence collected from lesson observation show students attaining as well as they can? Is there evidence of student’s progress from internal and external assessments, and how is it used by students, teachers and management to improve student performance? Reviewers will gauge the progress students are making and how well they are learning in lessons. Are they acquiring skills and understanding, as well as knowledge? Are they developing higher order thinking skills and the capacity to work well in groups and on their own? Evidence of progress in learning will come from the observation of lessons in a wide range of subjects, not solely the ‘core’ subjects.  How good is the students’ personal development? Evaluating students’ personal development Students’ personal development will be at least good in all criteria and the majority of criteria will be outstanding or exemplary, Outstanding (1) including students’ willingness and capacity to take responsibility and show leadership skills. Students behave maturely and are committed and enthusiastic learners. Good personal development will be seen in a mature and eager approach to school. Students develop a sense of worth, show respect and care for each other and contribute fully to the life of the school. These qualities will be reflected in good attendance Good (2) and punctuality. A strong sense of purpose is likely to pervade lessons and the school. Students develop the capacity to work independently and co-operatively. There is a strong sense of community in the school. No element of personal development will be unsatisfactory.34
  34. 34. Students’ personal development will not be inadequate in anySatisfactory (3) major criteria and it may be good in some and satisfactory in most. Where personal development is inadequate, it is likely that significant groups of students will not be enjoying their education and this may be reflected in poor behaviour, attendanceInadequate (4) and attitudes in class. Students are not likely to want to be involved in activities in the school and may be unwilling to take responsibility.The following questions are intended to help schools reach a view about the standard of thestudents’ personal development. Do students attend school regularly and punctually? The school, in its SEF, may support its view of attendance by comparisons with appropriate available averages. To be good, the school’s attendance rate should be higher than average. Attendance should be regular to enable students to make good progress in their learning. Reviewers will explore whether the school monitors attendance and punctuality, whether it keeps records and what it does to encourage good attendance. Do attendance rates vary across different age groups? If so, why? What does the school do about it? Similar questions might be asked about punctuality. Do students participate fully and enthusiastically in school life? Students’ attitudes to school will be evident in lessons, in extra-curricular activities and around the school. In effective schools, students are enthusiastic about and absorbed by what the school provides, and are keen to participate. In lessons, the extent of enthusiasm will be seen in students’ willingness to ask and respond to questions and volunteer ideas. The extent of involvement in extra-curricular activities and in events the school organizes also gives first- hand indications about students’ attitudes. Do students develop self-confidence and the capacity to work independently, and take responsibility? Different styles of learning require students to work in different ways. Observation will give first-hand evidence of how adaptable students are and whether they have developed confidence in working independently. Do they pursue problems as far as they can, or do they give up easily? Taking responsibility not only relates to leadership roles in, for example, extra-curricular activities, but to students advancing their learning. This might be seen in how maturely they respond to new tasks and the extent to which they show initiative. Are leadership roles offered to just a few students or more? If the school has a school council or has monitoring or other responsible roles, these give direct opportunities to see pupils taking leadership roles. Are older students in any way responsible for younger ones? Discussions with students allow reviewers to explore many of these aspects. 35
  35. 35.  Do students work effectively together, respecting the views, the feelings and the beliefs of others? Observations in lessons, again, give clues about students’ ability to work collaboratively. In group work, these include how well students listen to each other and build on each other’s contributions and how they divide responsibilities when carrying out practical assignments. This criterion also relates to sensitivity, understanding and respect for others, their values and beliefs. Evidence will come from discussions, especially discussions on moral or spiritual issues, but also from observing interactions in social areas of the school.  Do students behave in a mature and responsible way in lessons and around the school? Reviewers learn much about the personal development of students through direct observation of their behaviour in and out of lessons. Do they behave well? Do they show respect for others, including their teachers? Are students considerate towards each other? Do they form good friendships? Do they care for the fabric of the school? Do they contribute to enhancing the facilities available to them? Reviewers will also pursue with the school what it does to promote good behaviour and how it responds to any poor behaviour. Does the school log incidents of poor behaviour and the action taken? Does the school monitor behaviour and the social development of the students in general?  Do students feel safe and secure in school and are they free from bullying and other kinds of hurtful behaviour? All students should feel safe, valued and respected and the school, in all it does, should be promoting positive values and seeking to combat all forms of intimidating behaviour, harassment and prejudice. Students also need to know that the school takes all reasonable steps to ensure that they work in a safe and healthy environment. Evidence will come mainly from discussions with students, but reviewers will also explore records the school has about incidents of harassment or hurtful behaviour and the action taken.  Do students develop understanding of the heritage and culture of Bahrain, including the values of Islam? Evidence chiefly comes from lesson observation and discussions with students about what it means to them to live in Bahrain and their understanding of its distinctive character. The analysis of curriculum content, and the selection of learning resources in use, will help reviewers to assess the extent to which students have opportunities to develop this kind of understanding. Private schools educate children from a wide range of nationalities and they offer a variety of curricula from different ‘home’ education systems. What they all have in common is their geographical location in Bahrain, and it is important that private schools pay due regard to the character and traditions of the host country.36
  36. 36. The quality of provision How effective are teaching and learning?Evaluating the effectiveness of teaching and learning Teaching and learning is at least good in all criteria and is outstanding or exemplary in the majority. As a result, studentsOutstanding (1) thrive, are committed and enthusiastic learners, and make exceptionally good progress. Teaching and learning cannot be outstanding if the content is inaccurate in any way. A good teaching and learning engages students strongly in their work. Teachers have good subject and course knowledge, which lends confidence to their teaching styles. Students are challenged, but without the demand being so great that they cannot cope. Available resources are used effectively to support learning.Good (2) Teachers are sensitive to and respond effectively when students need help, for example by offering different ways of tackling problems. They cater for the different needs of students well, and regularly and systematically assess students’ progress. Students make good progress and have positive attitudes to learning. Time throughout the lesson is used productively. Teaching and learning will not be inadequate in any major criteria including teachers’ subject knowledge, teaching and learning strategies, supporting students and assessment. There mightSatisfactory (3) be some good features while lesson planning may need some improvement and lacks creativity. The students make progress but they are not attracted to their work. Teaching and learning will be inadequate if students are not making enough progress. The work may be pitched wrongly – too easy or too hard. Inadequacy may also result from teachers not having sufficient knowledge of their subjects or the courses theyInadequate (4) are teaching, or not sufficiently engaging or supporting students, so they are left too much to their own devices and make too little progress. Any more than a few or minor errors in the accuracy of content is likely to lead to a lesson being inadequate. There is no assessment of students’ progress.Judgements about teaching and learning will be based on direct observation by reviewers, evidencefrom any observations carried out by the school and from planning documents.Reviewers judge how well the teaching helps the students to learn effectively. They do not applyany pre-conceived notions of ‘good’ teaching styles but instead concentrate on assessing howsuccessfully the teaching they witness promotes and supports the students’ learning.The following questions are intended to help schools reach a view about how well the teachingpromotes and enables effective learning. 37
  37. 37.  Do teachers have good knowledge about the subjects and courses they teach and how to teach them? This criterion is concerned with more than simply the teachers’ academic qualifications. Reviewers will judge how well teachers are able to use the knowledge they have to promote good learning among the students. In lessons, good subject and course knowledge is seen in clear explanations, knowledgeable responses to students’ questions, an ability to offer different examples to illustrate points or different ways of tackling problems, and the capacity to extend students in the subject. Good subject knowledge is often seen in the enthusiasm that teachers show in their teaching.  Do the teachers enable students to acquire skills and understanding, as well as knowledge? Analysis of lesson planning will give reviewers insight into the extent to which teachers attempt to do more than transmit facts. Observation of lessons will give even greater insight. Do teachers set problems? Do they encourage discussion? Do they challenge students to frame hypotheses? Are students learning how to learn?  Do teachers enable students to develop higher order thinking skills? This is an important skill and schools should seek to foster it. Does the school provide enough opportunities through teaching the curriculum to allow the students to think critically, justify their views and develop reasoning? How do students respond – do they wait until answers are provided or do they seek answers themselves? Do they ask questions, do they reach solutions, and do they think creatively?  Do teachers manage lessons effectively so that they are orderly and productive? Lessons should not only be well-ordered and calm, but also purposeful and productive, so that they achieve their objectives. The learning and teaching in schools should be well-organised with well-established daily routines in classrooms and elsewhere. Lessons should be based on clear, confident instruction and activities that are worthwhile. There should be no need for teachers to spend a high proportion of their time disciplining students. Where there is any tendency for students to misbehave, incidents should be handled firmly but calmly so that students’ energies are re-focused on the tasks in hand. Part of the management of lessons involves effective use of time. Reviewers will note whether lessons start promptly and in a stimulating way, whether activities are organized efficiently so that tasks are not unnecessarily drawn out, whether productive use is made of all the time available, and whether lessons are effectively rounded off.38
  38. 38.  Do teachers ensure students’ engagement, motivating, encouraging and supporting them? Teachers’ success in engaging students will be seen in their attentiveness and how well they are involved with activities, tackle problems and respond in question and answer sessions. Reviewers will be alert to situations where students are left to get on with their work using ICT or other resources without the judicious interventions of teachers to support, check, encourage and challenge. Do teachers challenge students of all abilities so that they make at least the progress expected of them? Effective teaching and learning extends students intellectually, creatively and physically. Clues to whether challenge is sufficient are seen in the effort which students have to put into their work to complete it. When work is insufficiently challenging, students quickly and easily complete it and become bored. This can arise from mundane or routine tasks. Reviewers will expect to see targeted questioning and intervention by teachers and tasks that provide challenge. Do teachers use teaching and learning methods and the resources which lead to effective learning appropriately? Effective methods will motivate students and promote sound gains in knowledge, understanding and skills. Teachers use an appropriate range of different teaching styles that they choose for the appropriate purposes. Although the school may have adopted a ‘prescribed’ curriculum, teachers should be seeking ways to teach their subjects that make the subject material accessible. Are teachers constrained in their approaches or do they use different approaches to present, explain and consolidate course content? Not all students learn in the same way. It is therefore important to provide a variety of grouping and teaching strategies. Often, whole-class teaching is not the most effective approach; working in pairs or small groups can be more effective. For young children it is much more effective and developmentally appropriate. Learning to work in teams and to acknowledge others’ point of view, moreover, is valuable personal development. Analysis of schemes of work and lesson plans will show whether teachers are aware of these issues, and lesson observation will show whether a variety of activities is offered, and what its impact on learning is. Do the tasks set for students to be undertaken out of lesson time consolidate and extend work done in class? The SEF may indicate that the school has a policy for independent study, including homework, and how this is being monitored. Direct evidence will come from examining students’ work, from talking with them and from noting what happens at the end of lessons that are observed. Are the tasks given to students used only to provide practice or are they used also to extend and consolidate work done in lessons? It is quite possible to set good tasks which involve the students’ working from textbooks: the source is not important; it is the quality of what they are asked to do that matters. 39

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