2. BTG started at the University Twente (NL) as a group of reactor engineering (1979 - 1986) BTG is an independent, private firm specialized in the process of biomass conversion into fuels and energy (25 years) BTG is a world-wide development and implementation of economic and environmentally sound bio-energy systems. Field-experience in more than 80 countries. BTG biomass technology In North America Representing:
3. What is Fast Pyrolysis? Process that converts biomass into a liquid product: bio-oil organic material is rapidly heated to 450 – 600 o C in absence of air. Breaks down material into a large number of relatively small molecules End products are 75wt% liquid oil, 12% char and 13% gas.
4. <ul><li>Main purpose is to produce liquid bio-oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to transport liquid than solids or gasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant doesn’t have to be located near end-use point of the bio-oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No oxygen present in process therefore significant decrease CO 2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>No SOx Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Testing reveals that NOx emissions are half that from diesel fuel </li></ul>Why Use Fast Pyrolysis?
7. The Feed stock must be dry < 10%wt moisture content Particle size should be < 6mm Thermal degradation in absence of oxygen occurs in the fast pyrolysis reactor The char must be removed from pyrolysis vapors The vapors are quenched and the liquids collected Fast Pyrolysis Process
8. Pyrolysis process
9. Bio-Oil is a liquid mixture of oxygenated compounds containing various chemical functional groups, such as carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic groups. Typically a dark brown free flowing liquid. The density is very high: 1.2 kg/liter, (light fuel oil at around 0.85 kg/ liter) The bio-liquid has about 42% of the energy content of fuel oil on a weight basis, but 61% on a volumetric basis. The liquid is chemically unstable and must be stored at room temperature Water miscible Not miscible with hydrocarbons “ Ages” - viscosity increases with time Bio-Oil
10. Capacity: 2 ton/hr Modular construction Detailed design & construction of pyrolysis unit in NL (2004) Shipped to Malaysia in January 2005. Bio-oil Production Plant
11. Module Plant Assembly
12. 2 t/hr pyrolysis plant in Malaysia
13. <ul><li>Magellan Aerospace Corp. Developed a Unique Gas Turbine. </li></ul>OGT 2500 Industrial Gas Turbine Package The compact, dependable OGT2500 is an ideal choice for efficient, small-scale, 50 or 60 Hz power requirements. Its single shaft design, integral epicyclic gearbox, two silo combustion system, and rotatable exhaust manifold enable the OGT2500 to easily adapt to a wide range of simple cycle, combined cycle, or cogeneration applications. The OGT2500 delivers an ISO rating of 2.85MW at the output shaft with 28.5% efficiency. The OGT2500 is designed to suit the requirements of utilities, industrial power generation, oil and gas applications, including paper mills, hospitals, petrochemical facilities and other cogeneration applications.
14. Process Flow Chart
15. • Cold end drive simplifies waste heat configurations and allows ready access to gearbox drive auxiliaries. • Common lube system for generator, engine and gearbox simplifies design and maintenance. • Ample borescope points allow easy, in package, condition monitoring of critical engine areas. • Twin silo combustors are easily accessed in the package for inspection and service. • In line gearbox output shaft provides a high power to size ratio. • Uncomplicated, industrial design reduces maintenance and allows the unit to burn a wide range of fuels. • Ample enclosure access complete with integral engine removal system . Typical Site Performance Power, kW at generator terminals 2720 Efficiency, % 27.3 Dimensions Length 30 ft./9.15 m Width 10 ft./3.05 m Height: Main Enclosure 10 ft./3.05 m Typical Exhaust 25 ft./7.65m Weight 80,000 lbs./36,300 kg OGT2500 Features:
16. Simultaneous production of two or more types of usable energy from a single energy source (also called “Cogeneration”) Use of waste heat from power generation equipment Cogeneration
17. <ul><li>Reliable, long-term supply of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Capital costs must be kept under control </li></ul><ul><li>Need “customer” for both heat and power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate sale of electricity onto grid if not all consumed on-site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically plant is sized for heating base load (i.e. minimum heating load under normal operating conditions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat output typically equal to 100% to 200% of the electricity output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat can be used for cooling through absorption chillers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk associated with uncertainty of future electricity / natural gas / Market price spread ( spot ) </li></ul>Project Considerations