does women’sempowerment program is more effective than otherphilanthropic program?
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Empowerment Empowerment means that people -both women and men – can take control over their lives: set their ownagendas ,gain skills (or have their own skills and knowledge recognized), increase self-confidence, solve problems, and develop self-reliance. It is both a process and an outcome.
WOMEN’S EQUALITY EMPOWERMENT MEANS BUSINESS PRINCIPLES :1. Establish high-level corporate leadership for gender equality2. Treat all women & men fairly at work – respect & support human rights & nondiscrimination.3. Ensure health, safety, & well-being of all women & men worker.4. Promote education, training, & professional development for women.5. Implement enterprise development, supply chain, & marketing practices that empower women.6. Promote equality through community initiatives & advocacy.7. Measure & publicly report on progress to achieve gender equality.Source : United Nation | The Global Compact
Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors andthroughout all levels of economic activity is essential to: ■ Build strong economies; ■ Establish more stable and just societies; ■ Achieve internationally agreed goals for development, sustainability and human rights; ■ Improve quality of life for women, men, families and communities; ■ Propel businesses’ operations and goals.
“ The Women’s Empowerment Principles are subtitled Equality Means Business because the full participation of women benefits business, and indeed, all of us. Informed by leadingbusinesses’ policies and different sectors and around the world, the Principles offer a practical approach to advance women, and point the way to a future that is both more prosperous and more fair for everyone.”Georg Kell, Executive Di rector of the UN Global Compact Office
5 important dimensions of female empowerment and opportunity have been chosen for examination,based mainly on the findings of UNIFEM, concerningglobal patterns of inequality between men & women: 1. Economic participation 2. Economic opportunity 3. Political empowerment 4. Educational attainment 5. Health and well-being
The economic participation of women— their presence in the workforce inquantitative terms—is important not only for lowering the levels of poverty among women, butalso as an important step toward raising household income and encouraging economicdevelopment in countries as a whole. Economic opportunity concerns the quality of women’s economic involvement, beyond their mere presence as workers. This is most commonly the result of negative or obstructive attitudes, and of legal and social systems which use maternity laws and benefits to penalize women economically for childbirth and child care responsibilities, and discourage—or actively prevent— men from sharing family responsibilities. Political empowerment refers to the equitable representation of women in decision-making structures, both formal and informal, and their voice in the formulation of policiesaffecting their societies. In order for spending and development priorities to change, there mustbe at least a critical mass of women represented, who are learning the rules, using the rules andhanging the rules of the decision-making “game,” and thus having an impact on discourse anddecisions at all levels, from the family, to the nation, to the international community.
Educational attainment is, without doubt, the most fundamental prerequisite for empowering women in all spheres of society, for without education of comparable quality and content to that given to boys and men, and relevant to existing knowledge and real needs, women are unable to access well-paid, formal sector jobs, advance within them, participate in, and be represented in government and gain political influence. Moreover, the risk increases for society as a whole that the next generation of children will be similarly ill-prepared. Health and well-being is a concept related to the substantial differences between women and men in their access to sufficient nutrition, healthcare and reproductive facilities, and to issues of fundamental safety and integrity of person.Source : World Economic Forum
“Gender equality: empowering women so that development is effective” WHY? • Of the 113 countries that failed to achieve gender parity in both primary and secondary school enrolment by the target date of 2005, only 18 are likely to achieve the goal by 2015. • More than 500 000 prospective mothers in developing countries die annually in childbirth or of complications from pregnancy ¹.Source : 1. Millenium Development Goal Report 2008, UN
In some African countries, children of mothers who have spent five • years in primary education are 40% more likely to live beyond the age of five. • In India, if the ratio of female to male workers were increased by 10%, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) would rise by 8%. • In sub-Saharan Africa it has been calculated that agricultural productivity could increase by up to 20% if women’s access to resources such as land, seed and fertilizer were equal that of men². • Women reinvest 90% of their income in their families and communities, compared to men who reinvest only 30% to 40% of their income³.Source 2 : Gender equality at the heart of development – Why the role of women is crucial to ending world poverty, Department for International Development, 2007.Source 3 : Phil Borges (2007), Women Empowered: Inspiring Change in the Emerging World. New York.
Spotlight on Women and ProductivityWhen women are afforded the equality of opportunity that is their basic human right, the resultsare striking. In 2006, estimated that over the past decade, women’s work more to global growththan China. Source : The Economist. 2006. The importance of sex (April 15) -‐ 6 February 2009 from Academy Search Premier database. If Japan raised its share of working women to American levels, it would boost annual growth by0.3%over 20 years, according to The Economist. Source : Ibid In 2007, Goldman Sachs reported that different countries and regions of the world coulddramatically increase GDP simply by reducing in employment rates between men and women:the Euro zone could increase GDP by 13%; Japan by 16%; the US by 9%. Source : Goldman SachsGroup, Inc. 2007. ‘Gender Inequality, Growth and Global Ageing.