Urban Models (For the exam)Presentation Transcript
2. URBAN MODELS IN MEDCS AND LEDCS
In the 20 th century we have witnessed a constant growth of cities, which has been especially intensive during the second half of the century.
The number of people living in cities has increased up to 50% of the world population. Therefore, cities are larger and more populated every year.
RIO DE JANEIRO Impressive! Isn’t it? Now let’s analyse some statistics to explain this better.
2.A POPULATION EXPLOSION IN CITIES
In 1975 there were 11 cities across the world with more than 8 millions citizens. Most of them were in developed countries.
In the year 2000 there already were 24. Of them only 6 were in developed countries.
UN population broadcast estimates that by 2015 24 of the 30 largest cities in the world will be in developing countries.
What are the factors and consequences of this?
TRY TO FIND OUT THE ANSWER IN THIS TEXT Why do people migrate to cities and what are the consequences of this according to the text?
POPULATION EXPLOSION IN CITIES
We have seen that the number of cities increase faster in developing countries. Countries that have more difficulties to provide the basic needs (jobs, housing, drinking water, etc.) to their population.
Therefore, the chaotic urban sprawl that takes place in many developing countries comes to be another world inequality between MEDCs and LEDCs.
Moreover in developed countries the urban growth rate tends to decrease, and in some developed countries the number of population living in cities has even decreased. On the contrary, in developing countries this rate is increasing constantly.
As a result of this, nowadays urban population keeps increasing around the world but is growing twice as fast as in developed countries.
AN UNEVEN GROWTH
Finally, we have seen that the urban population has rapidly grown during the 20 th century but in an uneven way.
Indeed, nowadays developed countries only hold 35% of the world urban population while the other 65% is in developing countries.
Therefore, is in developing countries where we can really talk of a population explosion since the 1970s. For example the African urban population which was only of 22 millions in 1950, has grown up to 350 millions by 2005.
In conclusion we can say that developing countries have taken over from developed countries in urban growth. However, this growth have brought poor conditions and low standards of living in LEDCs cities.
2.B URBAN MODELS IN MEDCs The burgess or concentric model
THE HOYT MODEL
CBD: CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
The Central Business District (CBD) in the city centre is where most business and commerce is located.
Bullring Shopping Centre, Birmingham
THE INNER CITY:
The inner city is also known as the 'twilight zone'. It is typically found next to the CBD and has mainly terraced houses in a grid like pattern. These were originally built to house factory workers who worked in the inner city factories.
Terraced houses in Brighton, East Sussex
Suburban houses are usually larger than inner city terraces and most have a garden. Typically, they are detached or semi detached and the roads around them are arranged in cul de sacs and wide avenues.
Semi-detached house in Standish, Lancashire
URBAN RURAL FRINGE:
This is found at the edge of a town or city and is where town meets country. It is common for this area to have a mixture of land uses such as some housing, golf courses, allotments, business parks and airports.
Allotments in Ripon, North Yorkshire
2.C URBAN MODELS IN LEDCs LEDCs have similar land-use needs to MEDCs , but the pattern of land use in urban areas is different.
THE CBD AND HIGH-CLASS SECTOR
The CBD in an LEDC looks very similar to a CBD in an MEDC. However, there is likely to be a more dramatic difference between the height of the buildings in the CBD and the height of the buildings in other zones.
High-class housing can be found around the edge of the CBD and in a spine radiating out towards the edge of the urban area .
SAO PAULO CBD.
The fact that cities in LEDCs are growing rapidly means that conditions can be poor . There are often great inequalities within LEDC urban areas and they are even more pronounced in LEDCs.
Some of the worst conditions are found in the shanty towns on the edge of the city, near the CBD or along main transport routes.
SAO PAULO SHANTY TOWN
MAIN PROBLEMS IN SHANTY TOWNS
Overcrowding - the settlement has a high population density.
Fires - fires can spread quickly.
Overpopulation - the area does not have enough resources to support the growing population.
Competition for jobs - jobs are in short supply.
Disease - poor sanitation and limited health care can lead to the spread of disease.
Lack of space - the newest and poorest arrivals may be forced to live on the worst quality land.
Infrastructure - services are poor, public transport is limited and connections to the electricity supply can be limited and sometimes dangerous.
IMPROVING SHANTY TOWNS
Site and service schemes
These give people the chance to rent or buy a piece of land. The land is connected to the city by transport links and has access to essential services (eg water). People build their own homes using money from a low-interest loan.
These give people the tools and training to improve their homes. Low-interest loans may be used to help people fund these changes. People may be given legal ownership of the land.
Improving the quality of life and creating greater opportunities in rural areas may prevent people from migrating to urban areas. Investment in rural areas may therefore help to improve conditions in the city as well.