Hand-Out Kuliah Budidaya Tanaman Pangan D3-PSL Unsoed Bab 1 pendahuluan budidaya tanaman pangan

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Hand-Out Kuliah Budidaya Tanaman Pangan
Bab 1. Pendahuluan
Purwandaru Widyasunu & Bambang Siswo Susilo
D3-PSL FAPERTA UNSOED 2014

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Hand-Out Kuliah Budidaya Tanaman Pangan D3-PSL Unsoed Bab 1 pendahuluan budidaya tanaman pangan

  1. 1. HAND-OUT BUDIDAYA TANAMAN PANGAN D3-PSL FAPERTA UNSOED BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN DOSEN: PURWANDARU WIDYASUNU & BAMBANG SISWO SUSILO 1.1. Pengantar 1.2. Tujuan dan Manfaat Mempelajari Budidaya Tanaman Pangan 1.3. Overview Budidaya Pertanian (Agronomi) 1.4. Kedudukan Strategis Tanaman Pangan 1.5. Komoditas Tanaman Pangan.
  2. 2. 1.2. Pengantar FAO: Agriculture helps to meet the basic needs of human and their civilization by providing food, clothing, shelters, medicine and recreation. Hence, agriculture is the most important enterprise in the world. It is a productive unit where the free gifts of nature namely land, light, air, temperature and rain water etc., are integrated into single primary unit indispensable for human beings. Secondary productive units namely animals including livestock, birds and insects, feed on these primary units and provide concentrated products such as meat, milk, wool, eggs, honey, silk and lac. Agriculture provides food, feed, fibre, fuel, furniture, raw materials and materials for and from factories; provides a free fare and fresh environment, abundant food for driving out famine; favours friendship by eliminating fights. Satisfactory agricultural production brings peace, prosperity, harmony,
  3. 3. FAO: Terminology Agriculture is derived from Latin words Ager and Cultura. Ager means land or field and Cultura means cultivation. Therefore the term agriculture means cultivation of land. i.e., the science and art of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes. It is also referred as the science of producing crops and livestock from the natural resources of the earth. The primary aim of agriculture is to cause the land to produce more abundantly, and at the same time, to protect it from deterioration and misuse (=use wrongly/treat badly). It is synonymous with farming–the production of food, fodder and other industrial material.
  4. 4. Definitions (FAO): Agriculture is defined in the Agriculture Act 1947, as including ‘horticulture, fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding and keeping, the use of land as grazing land, meadow land, osier land, market gardens and nursery rounds, and the use of land for woodlands where that use ancillary to the farming of land for Agricultural purposes”. It is also defined as ‘purposeful work through which elements in nature are harnessed to produce plants and animals to meet the human needs. It is a biological production process, which depends on the growth and development of selected plants and animals within the local environment.
  5. 5. Agriculture as art, science and business of crop production Agriculture is defined as the art, the science and the business of producing crops and the livestock for economic purposes. As an art, it embraces knowledge of the way to perform the operations of the farm in a skillful manner. The skill is categorized as; Physical skill: It involves the ability and capacity to carry out the operation in an efficient way for e.g., handling of farm implements, animals etc., sowing of seeds, fertilizer and pesticides application etc. Mental skill: The farmer is able to take a decision based on experience, such as (i) time and method of ploughing, (ii) selection of crop and cropping system to suit soil and climate, (iii) adopting improved farm practices etc.
  6. 6. As a science : It utilizes all modern technologies developed on scientific principles such as crop improvement/breeding, crop production, crop protection, economics etc., to maximize the yield and profit. For example, new crops and varieties developed by hybridization, transgenic crop varieties resistant to pests and diseases, hybrids in each crop, high fertilizer responsive varieties, water management, herbicides to control weeds, use of bio-control agents to combat pest and diseases etc.
  7. 7. As the business : As long as agriculture is the way of life of the rural population, production is ultimately bound to consumption. But agriculture as a business aims at maximum net return through the management of land, labour, water and capital, employing the knowledge of various sciences for production of food, feed, fibre and fuel. In recent years, agriculture is commercialized to run as a business through mechanization.
  8. 8. (i) Plant breeding and genetics (ii) Bio-technology B. Crop Management The sciences Use in Food Crop Agronomy A. Crop Improvement (i) Agronomy (ii) Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (iii) Seed technology (iv) Agricultural Microbiology (v) Crop-Physiology (vi) Agricultural Engineering (vii) Environmental Sciences (viii) Agricultural Meteorology C. Crop Protection (i) Agricultural Entomology (ii) Plant Pathology (iii) Nematology D. Social Sciences (i) Agricultural Extension (ii) Agricultural Economics Allied disciplines (i) Agricultural Statistics (ii) English and Indonesia (iii) Mathematics (iv) Bio-Chemistry etc.
  9. 9. 1.2. Tujuan dan Manfaat Mempelajari Budidaya Tanaman Pangan Tujuan: 1. Mempelajari tatalaksana membudidayakan tanaman pangan utama di Indonesia. 2. Memahami komoditas tanaman pangan utama. 3. Memahami faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap produksi biomassa (hasil tanaman). Manfaat: 1. Memperoleh pengalaman teoritik dan praktikal tatalaksana budidaya tanaman pangan utama di Indonesia. 2. Memperoleh pemahaman adanya faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap produksi biomassa tanaman pangan utama. 3. Manfaat profesional pengelolaan SDA untuk tanaman pangan.
  10. 10. 1.3. Overview Budidaya Pertanian (Agronomi) CO2 + H2O Kloro pil CH2O + O2 + Energi Cahaya matahari      Karbohidrat Protein Lemak Mineral Vitamin  Lahan-lahan pertanian  Tanah  unsur hara, air, O2, mikroba (biota tanah).  Air  dari dalam tanah dan permukaan.  Unsur-unsur iklim  cahaya, CO2, N2, kelembaban udara, angin, evapotranspirasi.  Organisme pengganggu tanaman.  Bencana alam  banjir, kekeringan.  IPTEK, aliran finansial, perdagangan, poleksosbud
  11. 11. TIGA FAKTOR DALAM BUDIDAYA PERTANIAN 1. faktor genetis : harus mengetahui sifat tanaman 2. faktor lingkungan : temperatur, iklim, musim 3. faktor tanah : mengetahui sifat fisik, kimia dan biolois tanah SIFAT TANAMAN : a. Klasifikasi tanaman berdasarkan umur : tanaman setahun (annuals crops) tanaman dwitahun (parenial crops) : wortel, kubis, b. Tanaman tahunan : tanaman keras
  12. 12. b. Perimbangan fase vegetatif dg generatif : Vegetatif > generatif : Karbohidrat banyak dipakai untuk pertumbuhan akar, batang dan daun. Tanaman bersifat sukulen (banyak mengandung air), pembungaan dan pembuahan tidak terjadi/ tertekan, pertumbuhan bagian atas berlebihan, laju fotosintesis cepat. Contoh : kubis, sledri, bawang daun, cesim,anyelir, bayam , dsb Generatif > vegetatif : Pertumbuhan vegetatif kerdil, buruk, karbohidrat banyak dipakai untuk generatif (pembentukan buah), laju fotosintesis rendah, hasil panenan rendah, batangnya berkayu, ruas-ruasnya pendek, daunnya kecil dan berkutikula tebal. Contoh : terong, Lombok, dsb.
  13. 13. Seimbang antara vegetatif dg generatif : banyak buahnya. Tanaman akan sedang pertumbuhan vegetatifnya, Batangnya sedikit sukulen. Contoh : Kedele, kacang hijau, kapri, timun, tanaman berkayu (cengkeh, apel, mangga, duren, rambutan, manggis, dsb).
  14. 14. c. Sifat tanaman berhubungan dengan air tanah : Hidrofit : tumbuh di dalam atau di atas air Mesofit : tumbuh di tempat yang airnya sedang Tropofit : tumbuh berganti antara basah dan kering Xerofit : tanaman yang tahan kekeringan 1. Gol. Ephemera : tanaman yg tumbuh cepat dan berbuah di daerah gurun pada musim hujan. Buahnya mengalami masa dormansi yg panjang. 2. Gol sukelenta : tan berdaun tebal tahan kekeringan Contoh : tanaman kaktus, Alhagi camelorum di gurun sahara, panjang akar mencapai 30 m Saprofit : tumbuh diatas kayu : taliputri, benalu Glicofit : sensitive terhadap kadar garam tinggi Halofit : mampu hidup pada garam yang tinggi
  15. 15. 1.4. Kedudukan Strategis Tanaman Pangan  Tanaman pangan utama strategis internasional, nasional  buffer pangan.  Ekspor, impor.  Ketahanan pangan daerah, nasional  spesifik komoditas.  Bahan industri pangan strategis.  Bahan perdagangan komoditas tanaman pangan dan hasil olahannya.  Aspek finansial dan moneter pembiyaan budidaya dan kredit usaha tani maupun off-farm  bisa ada subsidi dengan APBN.  Produksi input  pupuk, benih, zat pengatur tumbuh, pestisida.  Peraturan pendukung swasembada dan ketahanan pangan nasional/daerah.
  16. 16. 1.5. Komoditas Tanaman Pangan              Padi sawah, padi gogo (lokal, hibrida) Jagung lokal, hibrida Kedelai Kacang tanah Singkong Ketela rambat Garut Ganyong (Jawa) Kentang putih/kuning (sayur/industri) Kentang hitam Kacang merah Gude Tanaman masa depan ....................... ?????
  17. 17. Daftar Pustaka: Agus, F., D. Santoso, dan Wahyunto (Ed.). 2007. Lahan Sawah Bukaan Baru. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Bogor. Agus, F., A. Adimiharja, S. Hardjowigeno, A.M. Fagi, dan W. Hartatik. 2004. Tanah Sawah dan Teknologi Pengelolaannya. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor. Peterson, G.A., P.W. Unger, and W.A. Pane. 2006. Dry Land Agriculture. ASA-CCSA-SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Yoshida, S. Dasar-dasar Pengetahuan Tanaman Padi. Terjemahan oleh: Sigit Yuli Jatmiko. IRRI, Los Banos, Filipina.

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