The Coming Wheat


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Why the need to shift focus from Intergrated Pest Management to Integrated Crop Management & have a holistic approach towards farming ?

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The Coming Wheat

  1. 1. T H E R I G H T P E R S P E C T I V E the Coming wheat and why India needs to change from IPM to ICM …! ICM Principles ü Right soil fertility ü Right seed varietyManaging wheat…. ü Right seeding - the right way ! ü Right fertilizersGlobally, there is a pressure on increasing the yield/acre for allcrops as the land shrinks day by day and the population touches ü Right pesticides7billion by end of 2011, thus the advent of Precision AgricultureWith Indian farmers still being falling prey to IPM, the time hascome to shift focus to ICM (Intensive Cereal Management) as the ü Right growth regulatorstrend is worldwide.ICM is not a “cookbook” as each principle must be assessedindividually and w.r.t. each farmer. The aim is to best producewhat can be with effective use of the Right Resources.In India the Pesticide manufacturers always promote theproducts which bring the most greenbacks to them (obviously).Some companies have now started venturing to the market byexpanding their portfolio with fertilizers/growth regulators, etcas IPM will eventually be replace by a holistic approach likeICM (Integrated Crop Management).
  2. 2. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji Agro-Climatic Zones in India India is divided into 15 agro-climatic regions. These are further divided into more homogenious 72 sub-zones.The 15 agro-climatic zones are:1. Western Himalayan Region: J&K, HP, UP, Uttranchal2. Eastern Himalayan Region: Assam Sikkim, W.Bengal& all North-Eastern states3. Lower Gangetic Plains Region: W.Bengal4. Middle Gangetic Plains Region: UP, Bihar5. Upper Gangetic Plains Region: UP6. Trans-Gangetic Plains Region: Punjab, Haryana, Delhi& Rajasthan7. Eastern Plateau and Hills Region: Maharashtra, UP,Orissa & W.Bengal8. Central Plateau and Hills Region: MP, Rajasthan, UP9. Western Plateau and Hills Region: Maharashtra, MP &Rajasthan10. Southern Plateau and Hills Region: AP, Karnataka,Tamil Nadu11. East Coast Plains and Hills Region: Urissa, AP, TN,&Pondicherry12. West Coast Plains and Ghat Region : TN, Kerala,Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra13. Gujarat Plains and Hills Region: Gujarat14. Western Dry Region: Rajasthan15. The Islands Region: Andaman & Nicobar,Lakshadweep 2
  3. 3. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji WHEAT GROWING ZONES OF INDIA Geographically India has been divided into six Wheat Zones 3
  4. 4. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji WHEAT GROWING ZONES OF INDIA Geographically India has been divided into six Wheat Zones1. Northern Hills Zone (NHZ)The northern hills Zone comprises of western Himalayan regions of J&K (except Jammuand Kathua distt.), Himachal Pradesh (except Una and Paonta valley), Uttaranchal(except Tarai area), Sikkim and hills of West Bengal and N.E.States. This Zone has Wheatgrowing area of 0.8 mha which is predominantly rainfed. Av. productivity of wheat in thiszone is 16.64 q/ha. The major constraints in wheat production in this zone is waterstress, yellow and brown rusts, late sowing and low plant population.2. North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ)This zone comprises of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (except Kota and Udaipurdivisions) and Western U.P.(except Jhansi division),Jammu and Kathua districts fo J&K,Una district and Paonta valley of HP and tarai region of Uttaranchal Pradesh.This zone haswheat growing area of about 9.5 million hectares. The average productivity of wheat inthis zone is 39.4 q/ha. The major wheat production constraints of this zone are weedinfestation particularly Phalaris minor and wild oat, Yellow and brown rusts, Karnal bunt,powdery mildew, foliar blight and termites.3. North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ)This zone comprises of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa,Assam, Sikkim and plains of far eastern states under irrigated conditions.This zone haswheat growing area of about 9.5 million hectares and average productivity of wheat inthis zone is 25.1 q.ha. This zone hasthe second highest share in total wheat production ofIndia. Major constraints of this zone are leaf blight & brown rst, delayed sowings, lack ofseeds of improved varieties, weed like bathua; wild oat and phalaris minor, low plantpopulation and zinc deficiency.4. Central Zone (CZ)This zone comprises of Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jhansi division of UP andKota and Udaipur division of Rajasthan. This zone has wheat growing area of about 4.5million hectares and average productivity of wheat in this zone is 24.1 q.ha. This zone isrecognized for growing quality durums for export. Major constraints of this zone are leaf &stem rust, termites, rodents and prevalent drought conditions5. Peninsular Zone (PZ)This zone comprises of Southern states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goaand plains of Tamil Nadu.This zone has wheat growing area of about 1.5 million hectaresand average productivity of wheat in this zone is 29.8 q.ha. Besides bread and durumwheat, dicoccum wheat is also popularly grown in this zone. Major constraints of this zoneare leaf and brown rust, attack of aphid, grain discoloration and water stress.6. Southern Hills Zone (SHZ)This zone comprises of hills of Tamil Nadu and Kerala comprising the Nilgiri and Palni hillsof southern plateau. This zone has wheat growing area of about 0.2 million hectares andaverage productivity of wheat in this zone is 10 q.ha. Major constraints of this zone areattack of termites followed by lodging, attack of birds, delayed sowing and black rust. 4
  5. 5. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji The principles of ICM are from being a holistic is just use of common sense being applied to the field using available historic data Right soil fertility • Soil Testing must be a religion to be followed so that accurate nutrient data can be tabulated • Plotting a field for different nutrients application thereby making a conscious effort to increase crop yield must be a routine • Base fertilizers like Urea is generally over- used causes antagonism of other Micronutrients hence provision must be made for effective spraying of liquid Right seed varietyIn the Indian Context, it would be worth to look at :HD-2894 (2008) - High yielding variety for NCR Delhi,with an average yield of 5.2 t/ha having a proteincontent of 12.9%, high gluten score, and good chapatimaking. It is developed by IARI New Delhi Right seeding Optimum Sowing Time : 10-25 November Amount of Seed : 125-130 Kg/ha Late Sowing Time : 1-20 December Amount of Seed : 130-150 Kg/ha 5
  6. 6. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish DiwanjiRight fertilizersAdequate soil fertility is one of the requirements for profitablewinter wheat production : Some Tips :1. Nitrogen (N) is the most yield-limiting nutrient.2. Phosphorus (P) is the next most limiting nutrient3. Sulfur (S) may be limiting on some soils.4. Potassium (K) is generally are sufficient for wheat production5. Using Humic Acid to increase the organic content of soil would bea advantageous for N absorption Right pesticides Common Wheat Diseases & Insects which need to be looked into : 1. Leaf Rust /Brown Rust 2. Stripe Rust /Yellow Rust 3. Stem Rust /Black Rust 4. Karnal Bunt 5. Foliar Blights 6. Powdery Mildew 7. Cereal Cyst Nematode 8. Brown Wheat Mite 9. Army Worm 10. TermiteRight micronutrientsEDTA Chelated or the even betterLignosulphonates should be given by Foliar spray : 1. EDTA/Ligno Iron 2. EDTA/Ligno Manganese 3. EDTA/Ligno Zinc 4. Ligno Complexed with Boron 6
  7. 7. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji THE RIGHT MICRONUTRIENTS Why LignoSulphonate MicroNutrients…..? Stronger binding sites = chelate structure 7
  8. 8. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji THE RIGHT MICRONUTRIENTS Why LignoSulphonate MicroNutrients…..? 8
  9. 9. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji THE RIGHT MICRONUTRIENTS Why PolyCarb™ - LignoSulphonate MicroNutrients…..??Active chelate sitesPolyCarb™ is able to chelate metal ions due to the presence of hydroxyl,carboxyl & sulphonyl groupsCECPolyCarb™ has a very high Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) due to a higheravailability of binding sites in its moleculeOriginPolyCarb™ being of plant origin, its chelated micronutrients are more naturalthan synthetic chelates 9
  10. 10. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish Diwanji THE RIGHT MICRONUTRIENTS Why PolyCarb™ - LignoSulphonate MicroNutrients…..?? PolyCarb™ provides a good distribution of micronutrients on leaf surface & therebysubstituting the need of additional adjuvants when used with other foliar formulations PolyCarb™ minimizes the risk of leaf scorching and so higher metal concentrations could be used favoring the diffusion to the phloemPolyCarb™ has a lower point of deliquescence (POD) than inorganic salts & complexes used in foliar nutrition which means it can hold moisture longer & rehydrate morerapidly even in a dry environment. Low POD helps foliar uptake rate of micronutrients 10
  11. 11. THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE Purvish DiwanjiBy 2050 there would be 9billion people to be fed and if the Rightsteps are not taken today the next war will not be for Oil, Gas,Gold, Land, Water but surely for FOOD !Though we have talked about ICM as a holistic approach, moreneeds to be talked and even more needs to be done on fronts likeWater Conservation, better Irrigation Models, Adapting toClimate Change, using better Fertilizer Technology, Liquidfertilizer, Control Release Fertilizer, the shifting seasons and lastbut not the least more yield/acre since the arable land is shrinkingby the minute – probably a few hectares have already beenconverted to Skyscrapers or Express-Ways or Airports by the timeyou have finished reading this article……! 11