COTE Presentation. 26th Feb 2013 By Punita V. Solanki. Brief & Final

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A Continuing Occupational Therapy Education on "Translating Research into Publication and its Application to Occupational Therapy Practice." presented on 26th February 2013 at Trivandrum, Kerala, India, during the 50th Annual National Conference of All India Occupational Therapist's Association - OTICON 2013 by Punita V. Solanki a Consultant Occupational Therapist in Orthopaedic Rehabilitation & a Youth Fitness Trainer in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. (Ex - Assistant Professor & Ex - IRB Member of Seth G. S. Medical College & King Edward VII Memorial Hospital at Mumbai, since the past 14 & 1/2 years)

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COTE Presentation. 26th Feb 2013 By Punita V. Solanki. Brief & Final

  1. 1. 26th February 2013, Tuesday OTICON 2013 at Trivandrum, Kerala, India Continuing Occupational Therapy Education on“Translating Research into Publication & its Application in Occupational Therapy Practice”Ms. Punita V. Solanki, MSc (O.T.), YFT-ISSA, Level I PIAConsultant Occupational Therapist, MumbaiEx-Assistant Professor & Ex-CARE Member(Seth G. S. Medical College & K. E. M Hospital, Mumbai)Editorial Board Member of IJOTEmail id: therapistindia@gmail.com
  2. 2. Table of Contents: 1. Clinical Research and Evidence Based Occupational Therapy. 2. Retrieving Evidence Based Literature from various Databases.Punita V. Solanki © 3. Essential Components of Publication: IMRaD structure overview. 4. Guidelines/Statements for Reporting Research. 5. About Occupational Therapy Journals. 6. Application of Research Findings in Occupational Therapy Clinical Practice. 7. Take Home Message.
  3. 3. What is Research?Punita V. Solanki ©
  4. 4. What is Research? “Research means: • a systematic investigation,Punita V. Solanki © • including research development, testing and evaluation, • designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” Definition By Department of Health & Human Services Regulations, USA.
  5. 5. What is Clinical Research? National Institutes of Health defines human clinical research as:Punita V. Solanki © (1)Patient - oriented research (2)Epidemiologic and behavioral studies. (3)Outcomes research and health services research.
  6. 6. Clinical Research:Punita V. Solanki ©
  7. 7. Evidence Based Practice in Occupational Therapy It is not enough to do your best; you first have to know what to do and then do your best.Punita V. Solanki © ~ W. Edwards Deming Evidence Based Practice is most widely defined as: “The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” Sackett DL, Richardson WS, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB: Evidence based Medicine: How to Practise and Teach Evidence-based Medicine. London, Churchill Livingstone, 1997.
  8. 8. Evidence Based Practice in Occupational Therapy Evidence-based practice is the integration of: Environmental and Organizational Practice ContextPunita V. Solanki © Jacobs JA, Jones E, Gabella BA, Spring B, Brownson RC. Tools for Implementing an Evidence-Based Approach in Public Health Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110324. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110324
  9. 9. Single Hierarchy Model of Levels of EvidencePunita V. Solanki © George Tomlin, Bernhard Borgetto: Research Pyramid: A New Evidence Based Practice Model for Occupational Therapy. Am J Occup Ther. Mar/Apr 2011; 65(2):189-196
  10. 10. The Research Pyramid of Borgetto et. al. 2007 & Clinical ReasoningPunita V. Solanki © Procedural Interactive Reasoning Reasoning Conditional Reasoning George Tomlin, Bernhard Borgetto: Research Pyramid: A New Evidence Based Practice Model for Occupational Therapy. Am J Occup Ther. Mar/Apr 2011; 65(2):189-196
  11. 11. The Evidence Based Practice in Occupational Therapy consists of five steps: ANALYZE & ASK ADJUST/REFLECTPunita V. Solanki © ACQUIRE APPLY APPRAISE Evidence-Based Medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. Evidence-based Medicine Working Group. JAMA. 1992;268:2420-2425.
  12. 12. Step 1 : ASK Formulating a Research Question: P : A patient, population or problem being consideredPunita V. Solanki © I : An intervention, prognostic factor, assessment etc C : A comparison intervention (if relevant) O : An outcome or outcomes of interest. (Sackett et al, 2000)
  13. 13. Step 1 : ASK Formulating a Research Question: PICO E.g. Does Pre Operative (TJR) Exercise (I) improve function and reduce stiffness (O)Punita V. Solanki © for people with osteoarthritis (P) compared with patients without pre operative (TJR) Exercise (C)? Study Design: Experimental, Prospective, Comparative NRCT/RCT with or without blinding. Clinical Reasoning: Procedural Reasoning
  14. 14. Step 2 : AQUIRE Finding Research Evidence to Answer Question What: Search for the Best Evidence Why: it helps conducting the best research and answers thePunita V. Solanki © unanswered questions. Where: Electronic Databases, Hand Search in Books & Journal Articles (Primary Research & Systematic Reviews +/- Meta- analysis), Grey Literature When: Beginning, During and End of the Research. How: Follow Search Tips and Guidelines provided in each Databases. Who: Principal Investigator , Co-Investigator, Librarian, Trial Search Co-ordinator David Sharp. Kipling’s Guide to Writing a Scientific Paper. Croat Med J. 2002;43: 262-267
  15. 15. Search Strategies: Use of Boolean Operators: ANDPunita V. Solanki © OR NOT
  16. 16. Search Strategies: Quotation marks e.g. ‘treatment of ‘…’ osteoarthritis’Punita V. Solanki © Parenthesis (Nesting) e.g. () ‘(diabetes or hyperglycaemia)’ AND ‘inhalers’ Truncation/Stemming at the end of ?, *, + a word e.g. ‘Cardio*’ ‘Therapy?’ ‘Exercise+’
  17. 17. Search Strategies: Wild Card e.g. ‘wom#n’ will return #, ? ‘woman’ and ‘women’Punita V. Solanki © MeSH Thesaurus Many more methods for effective searching developed by NLM are: e.g. Synonyms, Plus (+) symbol etc.
  18. 18. Knowledge Databases A Knowledge Database: classified according to types of content:  Bibliographic: EBSCO, EMBASE, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, ISIPunita V. Solanki © Web of Knowledge, ISI JCR, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, APA PsycNET, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe etc  Full-text: BioOne, ProQuest, OvidSP, BioMedCentral, PubMedCentral, IOS Press, Multi- Science, Bandolier, Clinical Key, Directory of Open Access Journals etc  Reference Work: Cochrane Library, COS Funding Opportunities, ISI Web of Science, DARE, Clinical Evidence, NHS Economic Evaluation Database etc
  19. 19. Knowledge Databases  Images/Illustration: Primal Pictures 3DAnatomy  Monographs/Books: OECD Health Data, PsycBooks, Springer eBooks, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Books and e-Books, OverDrive DigitalPunita V. Solanki © Library, etc  Internet Sources: UpToDate, Medi-Span, ProVation Medical, Facts & Comparisons, Lexicomp, Clin-e-guide, GALE Health Reference Centre, Science Direct, etc  Factual/Statistical Files: COS Papers Invited, Marquis Who is Who, etc  Newspapers: Press Display  Search Engines: Google Scholar
  20. 20. Evidence Based Databases for Occupational Therapy Literature  OT Search – American Occupational Therapy Association  OT Education Finder - Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists  OTCATs - Occupational Therapy Critically Appraised TopicsPunita V. Solanki ©  OTseeker: Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence  OTDBASE  University of Ottawa School of Rehabilitation - EBP Website  PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database)  DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects)  Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP)  Effective Health Care  ACP Journal Club  Evidence Based Medicine Reviews
  21. 21. Database of Online Resources: Indian Scenario 1. NML: National Medical Library - ERMED Consortium: http://www.nmlermed.in 2. INFLIBNET: Information and Library NetworkPunita V. Solanki © Centre: An Inter University Centre of University Grants Commission (UGC): www.inflibnet.ac.in 3. INDEST: Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology: http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest/ 4. ICMR Union Catalog: http://www.icmr.nic.in/
  22. 22. Reporting of Literature Search: For Systematic Reviews S Sampling Strategy T Types of StudiesPunita V. Solanki © A Approaches R Range of Years L Limits I Inclusions & Exclusions T Terms Used Electronic Sources. E ‘‘Brimful of STARLITE’’: toward standards for reporting literature searches by Andrew Booth. J Med Libr Assoc 94(4) October 2006
  23. 23. Step 3 : APRRAISE Critical appraisal is the process of carefully and systematically examining research to judge itsPunita V. Solanki © trustworthiness, and its value and relevance in a particular context. (Burls 2009). Critical appraisal assesses the validity of the research and statistical techniques employed in studies and generates clinically useful information from them. The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal by Dr. Narinder Kaur Gosall & Dr. Gurpal Singh Gosall. 3rd Edition, 2012 PasTest Ltd.
  24. 24. Step 3 : APRRAISE Critical Appraisal seeks to answer two major questions:Punita V. Solanki © 1. Does the research have Internal Validity? 2. Does the research have External Validity? The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal by Dr. Narinder Kaur Gosall & Dr. Gurpal Singh Gosall. 3rd Edition, 2012 PasTest Ltd.
  25. 25. Efficacy and Effectiveness Quantitative Research Qualitative Research  Internal Validity  AuthenticityPunita V. Solanki © (Efficacy) (Efficacy)  External Validity  Transferability (Effectiveness) (Effectiveness) Efficacy: Impact of Interventions under optimal trial conditions. (Schwartz and Lellouch, 1967) Effectiveness: Interventions expected to have intended effect under ordinary clinical circumstances. (Schwartz and Lellouch, 1967) The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal by Dr. Narinder Kaur Gosall & Dr. Gurpal Singh Gosall. 3rd Edition, 2012 PasTest Ltd.
  26. 26. Critical Appraisal : Steps in EBP Define SearchPunita V. Solanki © Clinical Problem the the Appraise Decide Evaluate Question Evidence PICOS Tool Critical Appraisal
  27. 27. Critical Appraisal Resources: To critically appraise a journal article, you would have to start by assessing the research methods used in the study. This is done using checklists which are specific to the study design.Punita V. Solanki © The following checklists are commonly used: 1. CASP: The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme: www.sph.nhs.uk/what-we-do/public-health- workforce/resources. 2. SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) guideline developer’s handbook: http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/50/annexc.html. 3. CEBMH: Centre for Evidence-Based Mental Health: http://cebmh.warne.ox.ac.uk/cebmh/education_critical_appr aisal.htm.
  28. 28. Critical Appraisal Resources: 4. CATwalk: Critically Appraised Topic http://www.library.ualberta.ca/subject/healthsciences/catw alk/index.cfm 5. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine : http://www.cebm.netPunita V. Solanki © 6. CLIST Resources for Critical Appraisal: http://www.londonlinks.nhs.uk/groups/clinical-librarians- informationskills-trainers-group/trainers-toolkit/resources- for-critical-appraisal 7. SCHARR: The School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield: http://www.shef.ac.uk/scharr/sections/ir/links Reference: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ich/services/library/services_and_faci lities/training/critical-appraisal
  29. 29. Step 4 : APPLY  Implement the Evidence Based Material.  If not familiar to the material, thenPunita V. Solanki © familiarize by reading various resources, practicing and then implement.  Integrating Evaluation-Informed and Evidence Based Practice: The PRAISES Model (5 major Phases & 18 different steps)
  30. 30. Step 4 : APPLY The PRAISES Model (5 major Phases & 18 different steps):Punita V. Solanki © PHASE I. PRe-Intervention PHASE II. Assessment PHASE III. Intervention PHASE IV. Systematic Evaluation PHASE V. Stabilize From Bloom, M, Fischer, J. & Orme, J. (2009), Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional (6th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Chapter 21: Evidence Based Practice. Pg: 451-468]
  31. 31. Step 5 : ANALYZE & ADJUST/REFLECT  Once implemented, do a thorough, systematic and careful monitoring and evaluation of that application.Punita V. Solanki © From Bloom, M, Fischer, J. & Orme, J. (2009), Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional (6th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Chapter 21: Evidence Based Practice. Pg: 451-468]
  32. 32. Scientific Paper “Without publication, science is dead.” ~ Gerard Piel A scientific paper is a written and published report describing originalPunita V. Solanki © research results. Council of Biology Editors defined Primary Publication as: 1. The first publication of original research results. 2. In a form whereby peers can repeat the experiments and test the conclusions, & 3. In a journal (peer-reviewed) or other source document readily available within the scientific community.
  33. 33. Scientific Paper A scientific paper is organized with distinctive and clearly evident component parts such as IMRaD.Punita V. Solanki © IMRaD system was prescribed as a standard by American National Standards Institute, 1st in 1972. Jianguo Wu. Improving the writing of research papers: IMRAD and beyond. Landscape Ecol (2011) 26:1345–1349. DOI 10.1007/s10980- 011-9674-3
  34. 34. Essential Components of Publication: Basic IMRaD I Introduction Why did you start? AssertionPunita V. Solanki © M Materials & What & How did Methods you do? Evidence R Results What did you find? a D Discussion So What does it mean? Affirmation
  35. 35. Essential Components of Publication: Elaborated IMRaD Structure: Professional Paper 1. Abstract 2. TitlePunita V. Solanki © 3. Introduction 4. Materials & Methods 5. Results 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion 8. Acknowledgements 9. References 10. Appendices
  36. 36. Essential Components of Publication: IMRAD-based Proposal Structure: Varies greatly with different proposal requirements. Read all guidelines carefully. 1. AbstractPunita V. Solanki © 2. Title 3. Introduction 4. Materials & Methods 5. Timeline & Budget 6. Cooperation & Regulatory Approval 7. References 8. Appendices
  37. 37. Title What is a good title? © First impression of a scientific article. Fewest possible words.Punita V. Solanki Informative: Adequately describes the contents of the paper. Do NOT sacrifice clarity in an attempt to be witty. Should be attractive. Short but specific. How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  38. 38. Title What is a good title? (….continued) Be especially careful of Syntax. [WordPunita V. Solanki © Order] NO abbreviations and jargon. Numbered Series titles are NOT allowed. The title is a label and NOT a sentence. e. g. Effectiveness of MRT in Mechanical Stress Induced LBP. e. g. Efficacy of Myofascial Release Therapy in Stress Induced Mechanical Low Back Pain.
  39. 39. How to List Authors & Addresses “The list of authors establishes accountability as well as credit.” ~ National Academies Committee on Science, Engineering & Public Policy.Punita V. Solanki © 1. Substantial Contribution to the conception & design, acquisition, analysis & interpretation of data. 2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content. ICMJE: http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html
  40. 40. How to List Authors & Addresses 3. Final approval of the version to be published. 4. Sufficient participation & DirectPunita V. Solanki © responsibility for the manuscript. 5. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.  Authorder: http://www.authorder.com/ ICMJE: http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html
  41. 41. Abstract An abstract is a summary of the information in a document.Punita V. Solanki © A well prepared abstract enables readers to: a. View the basic contents of a document quickly & accurately. b. Determines its relevance to their interests and thus helps in deciding to read the document in its entirety. ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  42. 42. Abstract An abstract should: a. State the principal objectives & the scope ofPunita V. Solanki © the research study. [Concise] b. Describe the methods employed in brief. [Avoid details] c. Summarize the results [Only the 1° & Important] d. State the principal conclusions. ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  43. 43. Introduction What problem was studied ? The answer to this question should be in your Introduction A good beginning makes a good endingPunita V. Solanki © Introduction = Beginning – Assertion – ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’ Body = Middle – Evidence – ‘tell them,’ Conclusion = End – Affirmation – ‘tell them again what you told them’.
  44. 44. Introduction Beginning: i. Scientific background (General to Specific) Cite publications. Avoid Comprehensive Literature ReviewPunita V. Solanki © Middle: ii. Explanation of rationale (Justify your work) End: iii. Specific objectives or hypotheses (State clearly & explicitly) Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745- 6215-11-32
  45. 45. Materials & Methods Methodology should be written in subheadings and in past tense; should give details of new methods and should cite thePunita V. Solanki © reference for established methods in the literature. Should be reproducible Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745- 6215-11-32
  46. 46. Materials & Methods Subheadings of Methodology can be: 1. Trial/Study Design.Punita V. Solanki © 2. Sample Size. 3. Eligible Participants. 4. Interventions. 5. Outcome measures & Endpoints. 6. Randomization & Blinding. 7. Statistical Methods. 8. IRB Approval & Informed Consent Process. Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745- 6215-11-32
  47. 47. Results  Write Results in subheadings and in past tense, write in present tense whilst referring to tables and figures.Punita V. Solanki ©  Do not explain the results  Do not duplicate data among figures, tables and text  Write what did you find?  Findings should answer all Q’s raised in Methodology  There should be NO new parameters  NO mismatch in numbers between text and tables or figures. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/120820-india - Presentation by Dr. Warren Raye, Senior Editor at Edanz
  48. 48. Results Subheadings: 1. Participant flow (A diagram is stronglyPunita V. Solanki © recommended. 2. Recruitment: Period and Follow up. Reasons for ending the trial/study. 3. Baseline Data: Demographic details and Clinical Characteristics of each groups. 4. Number of Participants analyzed in each groups at study completion. Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-32
  49. 49. Results Subheadings: (…….continued) 5. Primary & Secondary Outcomes, results forPunita V. Solanki © each group, and the estimated effect size and its precision (such as 95% confidence interval) 6. Ancillary analyses. (subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses). 7. Harms: All important harms or unintended effects in each group. Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-32
  50. 50. Discussion Beginning:  Answer the research question(s) posedPunita V. Solanki ©  Emphasize the major finding(s) first  What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented?  Avoid just restating results Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/120820-india - Presentation by Dr. Warren Raye, Senior Editor at Edanz
  51. 51. Discussion Middle:  Interpret your results  Compare with other studiesPunita V. Solanki ©  Same or different?  Unexpected results  Briefly describe limitations (Trial limitations, addressing sources of potential bias, imprecision, and if relevant, multiplicity of analyses)  How could experiments be improved? Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/120820-india - Presentation by Dr. Warren Raye, Senior Editor at Edanz
  52. 52. Discussion & Conclusion End:  Restate major conclusion(s)Punita V. Solanki © – In summary … or In conclusion …  Possible applications and implications Generalisability (external validity, applicability) of the trial/study findings)  Suggestions for future work Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-32 Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/120820-india - Presentation by Dr. Warren Raye, Senior Editor at Edanz
  53. 53. Acknowledgements to Contributors “Life is not so short but that there is always time enough for courtesy.” ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1st. Thank any significant technical help.Punita V. Solanki © 2nd. Acknowledge any outside financial assistance.  A simple courtesy; there isn’t anything really scientific about it. Obtain permission from the concerned person, to include in Acknowledgement.  Be simple, short and specific. e.g. “I thank John Jones for his help in statistical analysis.”  Acknowledgements does not denote endorsement. ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  54. 54. References A good reference list will:  Provides relevant information to the readersPunita V. Solanki ©  Avoid Self-citations  Avoid Old references  75% of references from last 5 years  Accurate & Complete reference details.  Follow the citation style as suggested by the journal. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/120820-india - Presentation by Dr. Warren Raye, Senior Editor at Edanz
  55. 55. Citation Styles  AAA - American Anthropological Association  ACS - American Chemical Society  AIP - American Institute of Physics  ALWD - Association of Legal Writing Directors  AMA - American Medical Association  AMS - American Mathematical Society  AP - Associated PressPunita V. Solanki ©  APA - American Psychological Association  APSA - American Political Science Association  ASA - American Sociological Association  Bluebook  Chicago Manual of Style  CSE - Council of Science Editors  Harvard Business School  LSA - Linguistic Society of America  Maroonbook Cite it Right  MLA - Modern Language Association  NLM - National Library of Medicine: (Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by ICMJE. Originally Vancouver Citation Style)  Turabian
  56. 56. Appendices  Case Record Forms.  Scores/Scales/Questionnaires if designed & validated by you as an original author.Punita V. Solanki ©  Original Scores/Scales/Questionnaires should be cited in the reference and should NOT be included in the appendices without permission.  New Treatment Protocol/Method if designed by you as an original author.  Sample Case Study.  Do NOT include the raw data chart in the manuscript but produce it, if demanded by Editorial Review Board and the Editor for Review.
  57. 57. Designing Effective Tables “A tabular presentation of data is oftenPunita V. Solanki © the heart or, better, the brain, of a scientific paper” ~ Peter Morgan ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  58. 58. Designing Effective Tables  Do not construct a table unless repetitive data must be presented. (↑ Cost & Not a good science to regurgitate reams of data)Punita V. Solanki ©  A Table: should be well constructed with title, headings, footnotes explaining the abbreviations, be simple, easy to read & understand & small. (↓ Cost)  Data arrangements in Row Vs. Columns  Follow Journal instructions.  Wordings in the Tables should match in the Text.  Mention every Table in the Text.
  59. 59. Designing Effective TablesPunita V. Solanki © Marjon ten Velden, Kinebanian OT: Dutch Children’s Perspectives on the Constructs of the Child Occupational Self-Assessment (COSA). OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. Winter 2013 - Volume 33 · Issue 1: 50-58. DOI: 10.3928/15394492-20120817-01
  60. 60. Preparing Effective Graphs  Graphs are nothing but pictorial tables. Facts related to Tables apply for Graphs as well.  Graphs should be simple, clear, readable, selfPunita V. Solanki © explanatory with letters of readable size in the final draft of publication copy.  Should show only the most important information intended to be conveyed. Keep Graphs to minimum in a manuscript.  Follow Journal instructions.  Should depict your findings fairly and accurately.  NO mismatch between the numbers/wordings in the Text, Tables & Graphs.
  61. 61. Preparing Effective GraphsPunita V. Solanki © http://www.gradschools.com/search-programs/occupational-therapy
  62. 62. Taking Effective Photographs “Life is not about significant details, fixed in a flash, fixed forever. Photographs are.”Punita V. Solanki © ~ Susan Sontag ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  63. 63. Effective Photograph Submissions  Choose a journal with high quality reproduction standards.Punita V. Solanki ©  Submit acceptable formats (JPEG or TIFF) and with optimal resolution.  Crop the photograph to include the important clinical aspect.  Indicate the preferred location.  Colored Vs Black-White photographs.  At times line diagrams are superior to photographs in some instances.
  64. 64. Taking Effective PhotographsPunita V. Solanki © Median Nerve Palsy following Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing of a Monteggia Fracture: An Unusual Case and Review of the Literature. Lidder S, Heidari N, Amerstorfer F, Grechenig S, Weinberg AM - Case Report Med (2011)
  65. 65. Importance of Scientific EnglishPunita V. Solanki ©
  66. 66. Scientific Writing  Keep it simplePunita V. Solanki ©  Use correct tense (past, present or future)  Use nine parts of speech appropriately.  Active Vs Passive voice  Singulars and Plurals  Avoid Jargon  A sentence has no sense without punctuation marks  Do a Grammar and Spell check ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  67. 67. Importance of PunctuationsPunita V. Solanki © “A woman without her man is nothing.” “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” “A woman: without her, man is nothing.” Punctuation is Powerful
  68. 68. Rights & Permissions Copyright Act of 1976:  Legal right to reproduce, publish & sell literary or art work.Punita V. Solanki ©  It protects original forms of expression but not the ideas being expressed.  You can own it for life time + 50 years, if not done for the employer.  It is divisible and can be transferred.  It prevents unauthorized use of published work (plagiarism)  Always reproduce, if need be, with prior written permission. ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  69. 69. How to Submit a Manuscript “Great journals are born in the hands of the editors; they die in the hands of businessmen.”Punita V. Solanki © ~ Bernard De Voto  Follow Journal Instructions & Guidelines for Authors  Electronic Submissions  Conventional Submissions  The Cover Letter (Conventional or Electronic)  Confirmation of Receipt of manuscript ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  70. 70. Peer Review Process “It Usually is a Positive Experience & improves the Manuscript” Editors and Reviewers look for:Punita V. Solanki ©  Novelty and Addition to Existing Knowledge.  High Quality Research as per Reporting Guidelines.  Clear and Concise English.  Of Interest to Journal Readers & within the Scope of the Journal’s Area of Research.  Timely Submissions and Following Journal’s Instructions. Review Decisions: Accept, Modify or Reject. ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  71. 71. Guidelines for Reporting Research “Reporting guidelines are statements that provide advice on how to report research methods and findings.Punita V. Solanki © Usually in the form of a checklist, flow diagram or explicit text. They specify a minimum set of items required for a clear and transparent account of what was done and what was found in a research study, reflecting in particular issues that might introduce bias into the research.” Equator Network: http://www.equator-network.org/resource- centre/library-of-health-research- reporting/reporting-guidelines/#what.
  72. 72. Guidelines for Reporting Research Most medical journals, often require compliance to all or some of the following reporting guidelines:Punita V. Solanki ©  CONSORT Statement (reporting of randomized controlled trials)  STARD (reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies)  STROBE (reporting of observational studies in epidemiology)  PRISMA (reporting of systematic reviews), which replaced QUOROM  MOOSE (reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies) Equator Network: http://www.equator-network.org/resource- centre/library-of-health-research-reporting/reporting-guidelines/#guid.
  73. 73. Ethics in Scientific Publishing  AuthenticityPunita V. Solanki ©  Accuracy  Originality  Credit  Ethical treatment  Disclosure of conflicts of interest ~ How to write and Publish a Scientific Paper – Robert A. Day & Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011, Published by Greenwood, California.
  74. 74. Where to submit Manuscript  Decide Early and Decide Well.  Decide where to publish.  Consider:Punita V. Solanki ©  Prestige.  Access.  Bibliometrics (especially Journal Impact factor)  Speed of publication.  Quality of Printing.  Likelihood of Acceptance.  Choose as regards journal’s subject matter, audience, selectivity.  Manuscripts as per Journals Instructions  Consult an expert in the field or a colleague.
  75. 75. Journal Selection Edanz Journal SelectorPunita V. Solanki © edanz English editing for scientists: http://www.edanzediting.com/journal_selector
  76. 76. Journal Quality Index Copernicus Evaluation Methodology 2013 Detailed Parametrical analysis The following groups of parameters are evaluated:Punita V. Solanki ©  Scientific quality: 580 base points (58.0%)  Editorial quality: 200 base points (20.0%)  International availability: 135 base points (13.5%)  Frequency-Regularity-Stability: 50 base points (5.0%)  Technical quality: 35 base points (3.5%) Total: 1000 base points (100.0%) Index Copernicus International: http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/
  77. 77. Journal Quality Metrics (Bibliometrics) Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature. The term was coined by Alan Pritchard 1969. Some of the Journal Quality Metrics are:Punita V. Solanki © 1. Thomson Reuters: JCR Impact Factor & Immediacy Index 2. Eigenfactor Score. 3. Article Influence Score. 4. H Index or Hirsch number. 5. SCImago Journal Rank. (SJR). 6. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP). Ted Brown. Journal Quality Metrics: Options to Consider other than Impact Factors. Am Jr Occup Ther. May/June 2011, Vol 65, No.3, Page: 346-350.
  78. 78. About Occupational Therapy JournalsPunita V. Solanki © Journal Name (Full & Abbreviations), Editor-in-chief, Publishers, Frequency, Journal Impact Factor (JIF), ERA Ranking, Peer Review Process?, Indexed & Abstracted in which Database?, Access, Authors Instructions: Style Manual & Citation Style, Submission Process & Time taken to Publish, Acceptance Rate, Quality of Printing.
  79. 79. The 6S hierarchical model of pre- appraised evidencePunita V. Solanki © DiCenso A, Bayley L, Haynes RB: Accessing pre-appraised evidence: Fine tuning the 5S model into a 6S model. Evid Based Nurs 2009, 12: 99-101.
  80. 80. Translation ofof Clinical Research Into Practice Translation Clinical Research Into Practice Three Phase Translational Research Model by Westfall et al. T1 is the traditional pathway of National Institutes ofPunita V. Solanki © Health (NIH) - supported academically based discovery and clinical trials (Phase 1 & 2 Trials) T2 is Practice Based Research: Phase 3 & 4 Trials, Systematic Reviews & Meta-analysis, Guidelines development. T3 is dissemination and implementation of research into clinical practice. William Trochim, Cathleen Kane, Mark J. Graham, Harold A. Pincus, Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model. CTS Journal. VOL 4 , ISSUE 3, Page 153 -162. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00291.x
  81. 81. Application of Research Findings in Occupational Therapy Clinical Practice Clinical Scientists: How should they apply and disseminate research findings: 1. Appraise primary research or systematic reviewsPunita V. Solanki © and apply in clinical practice (after a brief period of learning; if the discovery is novel and not a standard of care). 2. Read Critically Appraised Articles or Reviews from clinical summaries, clinical guidelines e.g. Clin-e-guide online resources, Clinical Key Summaries, OvidSP & then apply in clinical practice. (after a brief period of learning; if the discovery is novel and not a standard of care).  Do Not apply findings of individual studies without critical appraisal.
  82. 82. Application of Research Findings in Occupational Therapy Clinical Practice Where do Clinicians & Academicians apply evidence based & new findings of research:Punita V. Solanki ©  Choosing interventions in clinical practice.  Printed patient educational materials.  Academic teachings.  Educational meetings.  Educational outreach.  Local opinion leaders. Grimshaw et al.: Knowledge translation of research findings. Implementation Science . 2012 , 7:50. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-50
  83. 83. Take Home Message • Write to express not impress. • Consider your audience - their native language may not be English. • Prepare well & Search enough, before you startPunita V. Solanki © your research. • Select the Journal well before you write your manuscript. • Take opinions & reviews from experts and colleagues. • Strictly Follow & abide by the Journal Instructions, just as you follow the Bible or Bhagwat Gita. • Respect and Politely communicate with your Editors. • Apply research findings in clinical practice with caution and only after critical appraisal.
  84. 84. Acknowledgements I thank my mentors to review my presentation & for their valuable suggestions:  Dr. Sandeep B. Bavdekar (Prof. & HOD - Paediatric Dept. TNMC & BYL Nair Hospital)Punita V. Solanki ©  Dr. Bibhas DasGupta (Prof. & Unit Chief - Orthopaedics Dept. SGSMC & KEM Hospital)  Dr. Nithya Gogtay (Addl. Prof. in Clinical Pharmacology & Editor of JPGM. SGSMC & KEMH) I also would thank:  Dr. Anil K. Srivastava for providing IJOT details, as requested by me.  Last but not the least, I thank Dr. Jyothika N. Bijlani Madam, my teacher for, giving me an opportunity to speak as a faculty for COTE.
  85. 85. References BOOKS: 1. The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal by Dr. Narinder Kaur Gosall, Dr. Gurpal Singh Gosall. 3rd Edition, 2012. Published by PasTest Ltd. Cheshire (UK) 2. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper by Robert A. Day and Barbara Gastel. Seventh Edition, 2011; Published by Greenwood, anPunita V. Solanki © Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, California (USA) 3. Scientific English: A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals by Robert A. Day and Nancy Sakaduski. Third Edition, 2011; Published by Greenwood, an Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, California (USA) 4. Chapter 5: How to Write a Scientific Paper for a Peer-Reviewed Journal by Phil Lange. In Publishing Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed. Page 70 - 81. 5. Sackett DL, Richardson WS, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB: Evidence based Medicine: How to Practise and Teach Evidence-based Medicine. London, Churchill Livingstone, 1997. 6. From Bloom, M, Fischer, J. & Orme, J. (2009), Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional (6th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Chapter 21: Evidence Based Practice. Pg: 451-468]
  86. 86. References JOURNALS: 1. Jacobs JA, Jones E, Gabella BA, Spring B, Brownson RC. Tools for Implementing an Evidence-Based Approach in Public Health Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110324. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110324. 2. George Tomlin, Bernhard Borgetto: Research Pyramid: A NewPunita V. Solanki © Evidence Based Practice Model for Occupational Therapy. Am J Occup Ther. Mar/Apr 2011; 65(2):189-196. 3. Evidence-Based Medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. Evidence-based Medicine Working Group. JAMA. 1992;268:2420-2425. 4. DiCenso A, Bayley L, Haynes RB: Accessing pre-appraised evidence: Fine tuning the 5S model into a 6S model. Evid Based Nurs 2009, 12: 99-101. 5. Andrew Booth ‘‘Brimful of STARLITE’’: toward standards for reporting literature searches. J Med Libr Assoc 94(4) October 2006. 6. Schulz et al.: CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials 2010, 11:32. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-32
  87. 87. Punita V. Solanki ©

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