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Globelics presentation apiwat


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Concept of city innovation sytsem

Concept of city innovation sytsem

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  • 1. City Innovation Systems:The Next Horizon in Innovation Studies for Southeast Asia Apiwat Ratanawaraha Pun-Arj Chairatana Presented at the 8th GLOBELICS International Conference 1-3 November 2010 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2. Background “Towards Innovative, Liveable, and Prosperous Asian Megacities” Project – a three-year project funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) – 6 countries, 6 megacities in Southeast Asia 2
  • 3. Background Current perspectives on innovation as studied and practiced in Southeast Asia are not sufficient – Imported models of national innovation systems from the rich West where contexts and conditions are different • Existing S&T agencies set up the standard Triple-Helix structure – Focus on industrial and business innovations, not addressing current developmental problems • Enterprise development and little on human development • Development of NIS has little to do with infrastructure and urban development – Focus on the supply side, but not much on how they are demanded and consumed
  • 4. Cities continue to be the centers of developmentalproblems that need innovative solutions – Megacities continue to become bigger even with changing demographic changes • ageing, smaller household sizes – But urban planning and development practices still rely on the comprehensive/master plan model • Focus on existing problems, little on the future • Little discussion on systemic learning, risks, future scenarios – Tend to ignore production structure and technological and innovation dimensions 4
  • 5. Project goals • Future innovation policies – more comprehensive and inclusive, paying attention to developmental challenges that affect the urban quality of life, particularly for the poor • Future urban policies – integrate the dynamism of city innovation systems into the urban planning processes Integration of Future + Urban + Innovation Studies and Policies
  • 6. Methodology 3-phase research process 1. Disentangle ASEAN innovation systems - National and sectoral innovation systems in 6 countries 2. Define city innovations and their systems - Case studies of city innovations in Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, and Singapore (focus of our presentations today) 3. Design future city innovation systems - Foresight and scenario building - Innovations that address future city scenarios
  • 7. Methodology How do we conduct our research? • Questions for building conceptual framework – What is a city innovation? – What is a city innovation system? • What makes it different from national/sectoral /regional systems? • What are the components in such a system? 7
  • 8. In defining a city innovation… – People have to be at the center of a city innovation: innovation as if people matter – Commercial innovations as well as social innovations – Focus on innovations that address urban challenges – Individual and community of innovators, not just formal organizations (firms, gov’t agencies, universities, etc) 8
  • 9. In analyzing city innovation systems, we start from using the existing framework used widely in the literature: 1. Key actors/agencies 2. Interactions and linkages among actors 3. Systemic learning 4. Policies and implementation processesPlus what we already know about the six dimensions of innovation… 9
  • 10. Six dimensions of city innovations Paradigm Position Process Institution City Product Service Innovation
  • 11. In addition, we propose…Human-space ecology as a way to analyze city innovation systems – Cognitive space – Information/communication space – Physical space 11
  • 12. Working definitions a CITY INNOVATION “A new or improved solution that contributes towards enhanced liveability, prosperity, and equity of the city.” a CITY INNOVATION SYSTEM “The human-space ecology that promotes the creation, adoption, and diffusion of city innovations” 12
  • 13. Criteria • Novelty: A solution that is relatively new to the megacity in question. • Impacts: A solution that has already had noticeable impacts on prosperity and liveability in your megacity OR exhibits potential to effect substantial changes to prosperity and liveability • Equity: A solution that does not worsen the income distribution and social inequality in the megacity. A city innovation should reach a broader base in the urban population, rather than benefitting only the rich. • Environmental sustainability: A solution that is aligned with the principle of environmental sustainability. 13
  • 14. • Economic and financial feasibility: A solution that is economically and financially feasible. As we think ahead about how to diffuse a city innovation from one megacity to another and/or to replicate it on a mass scale, the costs of creating, adopting, and diffusing an innovation becomes critical.• Transferability: A solution that is socially, culturally, or geographically neutral is more likely to diffuse quickly and widely. However, successful implementation of an innovative idea may rely heavily on social and cultural contexts.• Political acceptability: Any solution that is to be adoption in a mass scale need political acceptance, which means people whose lives are affected participate directly in the decision-making process. 14
  • 15. 1. Analysis of city innovations• Case studies of innovative solutions – Select areas of urban challenges for comparative studies – Select innovative solutions that create value for liveablity, prosperity, and equity in the city in question – Data collection: ask experts, documentary research, etc.• Analyze them using the city innovation-system framework – Creation, adoption, and diffusion processes – The value(s) the city innovation creates • Liveability , prosperity, equity, security, etc 15
  • 16. Items for case studies • Goal achievement – Prosperity, equity, liveability • Dimensions of innovation – Product, process, position, paradigm, service, institution • Innovators – individual and communities of innovators • Human-space ecology of the innovation 16
  • 17. 2. Analysis of a city innovation system• The framework to analyze city innovation systems: • key actors/agencies • Interactions and linkages among actors • Systemic learning • policies and implementation procedures 17
  • 18. Meso-level analysis • Investment-related policies and institutions – Are there investment policies and intermediaries at the city level that support the innovation? • particularly those on urban infrastructure for knowledge creation, adoption & diffusion – How are city innovations supported financially? • Institutional arrangements – Those that support the innovation itself – Those that link innovation policies w/ other development policies • Policy implementation processes – that integrate innovation and urban policies at the national and local levels 18
  • 19. Micro-level analysis • Innovators – Who are they? What do they do? • Individual, community, and institutional – Are they the original owners of ideas? Or the ones who implement and diffuse them? – Who else are involved in the process? • Leadership • Which actors are crucial to determining policy directions and implementation? How so? 19
  • 20. Case Studies Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam 1.Maisonette 1. Low-cost 1. Gawad 1. Medical 1. Creative 1. Innovation housing Housing Kalinga tourism industries in housing project Community housing Project for the low 2. Creative 2. City income 2.Information 1. Redevelop- 2. UP-Ayala precincts and Innovation of -sharing ment of KL Technology art policies Public Arts 2. Innovation practice in City Centre Park in Solid government 2. Art-led Waste 3. Innovation 3. Medical Community Collection 3. “Waste Initiative in Tourism Revitalization Service Bank” project City Governance
  • 21. Preliminary results Overall lessons from the case studies • By expanding the analytical scope, we are able to capture the dynamic process that may be more innovative than traditionally considered (e.g., stand-alone product, process, service innovations) • We find co-evolution of various aspects of innovation • Clearer pictures about the links between “city innovations” and “traditional” innovations – Identification of actors and types of institutions beyond the existing innovation literature 21
  • 22. – Never just about a new product, process, service, or organization– Always a combination of different aspects of innovation for an innovative idea to materialize– Participation of key stakeholders, esp. users, is key– Change of perceptions/mindsets is fundamental– Acceptance of diversity and differences is important 22
  • 23. Actors – Beyond triple helix: • Local government • Non-governmental organizations • Consultants/donors • Lobbyists • Community and social groups – Beyond open innovation: • Never without partnerships and cooperation • Various forms of, and mechanisms for, negotiation and deliberation are required institutions 23
  • 24. Investment • Some innovations require very large investment • Infrastructure: large initial costs, public goods and externalities, low margins, long lifespan • Irreversibility of investment • The “Valley of Death” before implementation – Inherent problems in financing, funding, and delivery of innovative urban solutions • Structure for investment decisions are highly complex • Multi-party, multi-purpose, multi-modal, multi-strategy… 24
  • 25. Incentives • Reward • Market (monetary) incentives • Voluntarism/passion • Distribution of rewards/benefits from the innovation • Punishments • Punishments on free riders • Partial exclusion from future rewards • Forced exit 25
  • 26. Institutions – Features of national innovation systems exist • Gov’t agencies, firms, universities, R&D institutes • But, still mostly function-based innovation systems – Accumulation and adaptation of institutions as the system grows – Learning • Trials & errors not uncommon at the beginning • DUI – Doing, Using, and Interacting • Actors’ learning through deliberation and negotiation 26
  • 27. • Political factors are unavoidable – Institutional and political barriers to implementation and diffusion of innovation are major factors – Capturing an appropriate political window of opportunity is key to implementation of innovative ideas 27
  • 28. • In terms of institutions, city innovation systems face two levels of dilemma – 1st order: provision of a city innovation itself – 2nd order: free rider of the mechanisms/institutions that govern such provision • We may know what appropriate institutions we need, but we face a tough hurdle, i.e., how to “supply” them • For a city innovation to be long lasting and widely adopted, it has to overcome these dilemma. 28
  • 29. Refined definitions • A city innovation is a dynamic, deliberative, co- evolutionary process that creates a new location and context-specific solution to an existing urban problem • A city innovation system is a set of institutions that govern the ecology for human-space interactions that promotes the creation, adoption, and diffusion of city innovations 29
  • 30. Case-study presentations1. Manila – Dr. Aida Velasco2. Kuala Lumpur – Dr. K. Thiruchelvam3. Bangkok – Dr. Pun-arj Chairatana 30