City, Innovation, and Arts: The Case of BangkokDr. Pun-Arj ChairatanaDr. Apiwat RatanawarahaCISASIA Projectwww.cisasia.net
Converging City, Foresight, andInnovation: Thailand Experience2006: Coining City Foresight 2009: Developing City 2010: Merging City Foresightframework Innovation Concept and City to City Innovation Innovation System:•Location: The 1400 Years old town: •Scenario building: Six Mega cities in Two municipalities along River Ping. •Locations: Six Mega cities in SE SE including , Bangkok,, Singapore, Lampoon., Northern Thailand including , Bangkok,, Singapore, Ho Ho Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur, Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Jakarta, and Manila. (Project and Manila. (Project supported by supported by IDRC) IDRC)
2006 * Lampoon City ForesightThe First City Foresight in Thailand Scenario 1: A Bitter Prosperity Scenario 2: Global Village Lampoon Scenario 3: International Lampoon Scenario 4: Lampoon Green Knowledge Town
2009 Defining City Innovation and SystemsFigure 2: City Innovation and City Innovation Systems (CISs) A new or improved Conventional Alternative solution innovation systems City innovation innovation systems that (Institutions) (Spaces) contributes Research and Product innovation Technology Organization (RTOs) Physical space towards Process innovation enhanced Position innovation Private firms Paradigm innovation Information space liveability, Institutional innovation prosperity, Government Service innovation Cognitive space and equity of the city.”
2010 Bangkok City Innovation System Foresight Towards Liveable, Prosperity, and Equity 2030 ProductServices Process City innovationInstitution Position City innovator Paradigm
Bangkok and City Innovation Bangkok City Macro Innovation System Meso Aesthetic innovation Creative Economy Art led Creative Micro Temporal Intervention Community Revitalization industry mapping
Rirkrit Triravanich’s Padthai, 2004 Spider Shack, 2008Case 1: Temporal Intervention,The City Innovation for Public Arts in BangkokLed by Dr. Khaisri PaksukcharernChulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Introduction Based on a research paper on The city innovation of public arts in Bangkok. Main Findings: - ‘Temporality’, ‘Transience’, ‘Fun’ are the innovative concepts recently employed in the contemporary public art intervention in the city. - New forms of ‘Participative Art’ and ‘Community Art’ - In relation to the latest urban policies of ‘inner city regeneration especially at the scale of ‘community revitalization’. - An increasing support of public and private sector in partnership. - The city innovation for public arts in Bangkok is evidenced in two types of inner urban areas; * contemporary public spaces in the city such as shopping malls and transit spaces * local community and neighborhoods
PUBLIC ART:varied and ambiguous definitions - public art is the art outside conventional art spaces such as museums or galleries. ‘site-specific’, an art created and installed in a given site or the design of a site as an art itself ‘site-general’, an already created art object is chosen to be placed in a site. - the concept of ‘public’ can be difficult and makes the status of public art become more ambiguous in the case that the definition of public is not necessarily bounded by space. - ‘Art in public sites’ brings about encounters and coexistence of people and subsequently leads to urban livability. - In this research, as art in public spaces has had a long history from being in art institutions in relation to public open spaces of the city, it will trace public art related to both inside and outside conventional art spaces.
PUBLIC ART AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT:the concept of ‘livable city’ and ‘urban aesthetics’- 1980s: The concept of ‘livable city’ in relation to ‘urban aesthetic’ especially through pedestrian points of view- 1990s: Discussions on public art and its supporting role to reclaim the ‘public-ness’ of open spaces in cities- In the context of urban decay, public art played a significant role to entail a re-visioning of public spaces and how they should be used- and by whom.- There has been a continuous and interrelated development between public arts and urban spaces: the solutions of how both could adapt and make use of each other in order to sustain the right balance of intervention. TALA Exhibition: Central World Plaza, 2009
Location of Art Institutions and Commercial Spaces in Bangkok with urban attraction places - 56 private art galleries - 62 museums on archeology, anthropology, history, science, natural sciences and etc - 2 types of art galleries: - very few number of visitors. * 74% has never visited art galleries - 31% no news 31% - 13.5% exhibition changing too quickly - 41.5% heard the news but never been interested - 11% heard the news and interested but not available - 3% heard the news and interested but not confident - All pure art galleries have less than 10,000 visitors / yearSource: W.Teerachaisuppakit, 2002
Le Fete Bangkok at Gaysorn Plaza, 2007THE FIRST INNOVATION: the concepts of temporality, transience and fun of Participative art in CBD area- An innovative attempt to place public arts with the shopping malls and transport interchange spaces such as BTS skywalks in CBD areasSpider Shack:Siam Discovery Center2008 TALA Exhibition: Central World Plaza, 2009 Overhead Nightclub,Central Shopping, Chang Wattana, 2008 Siam Discovery Center, 2007
Frequencies of public art exhibitions / events in Bangkokcategorized by 2 space types (2006-2010) The record of these contemporary public art event in Bangkok from 2006-2010 on shows that the CBD areas of Rachaprasong and Pathumwan, the commercial and mass transit hub of Bangkok; * attracts most art events in the spaces attached or en-route to shopping malls and transit stations. * exhibits art outdoor or outside the conventional art spaces.
Distribution of public art exhibitions / events in Bangkokcategorized by 4 art types and 2 space types (2006-2010)(cont.)* exhibits art outdoor or outside the conventional art spaces.* attracts the most participative forms of art ie, installation and performance..
In the Nut Shell- The city innovation of public arts in Bangkok involves new forms of art, urban spaces and their development strategies.- A strong potential to reinvigorate Thai traditional artistic-practices as well as to bring art to the public again.- Participative Art in the CBD and Community Art in local neighborhood: the first step to redefine art in Thailand.- Bringing art out of galleries to streets and disrupted the flow of daily life. - To actuallyconnect the urban dwellers as well as the local community to the livable city and urban aesthetic projects through the exploration of how art can be used as an expression of identity in everyday life.- The innovation for public art is to engage with the public not the didactic presentation.- The concept of daily life, common routine, temporal but regular intervention is surely different from the west.- The real challenge is that how public art could be more than a one time event, how to make the community react and the pubic participate and become the norm than the exception.
ART-LED COMMUNITY REVITALIZATION:THE CASE OF KUDEEJEEN NEIGHBORHOOD, BANGKOKLed by Dr. Niramon KulsrisombatDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Chulalongkorn UniversityCIS-ASIA Project
Bangkok, with its long history and diverseculture • Old neighborhoods going through significant changes – Changing social structure – Decay of physical environ – Lack of investment from the private and public sectors – Though still lively, compared to most American cities, they are in the decline
Research Methodology • The Case Study of Kudeejeen Neighborhood and Kudeejeen-Silptamtrok (KS) Art Festival (27-28 March 2010) • Action research • Questionnaire survey • Interview • Participatory observation
Site Context • Long history since late 17C • Cultural diversity from 3 religions and 6 ethnic groups • Wat-Baan urban structure • Cultural Heritage Mapping Project by Association of Siamese Architects (ASA) since 2008 • Problems: - Lack of investment from public and private sectors - Changing community structure - Physical decay - Limited awareness of cultural heritageCultural map of Kudeejeen neighborhood - Limited participation in public issues
Festival preparation by community members and volunteers
Analyzing the systems of city innovations• KS Festival has been successful as community revitalizing tool by: - Increase level community participation through art and cultural activities - Increase awareness of community members towards their cultural heritage - Increase awareness of potential partners towards the value of Kudeejeen Neighborhoods• Key actors: - ASA (core organization) - Community leaders (community mobilizer) - Abbots / Priest / Imam (community mobilizer)• Interaction among actors: - Community level and traditional social structure (Wat-Baan) - Less involvement from city government, local government and Thonburi District Cultural Council
Analyzing the systems of city innovations• Challenges in the sustainability of the project: - Lack of effective institution to merge community-based project into formal planning system - Strong top-down in cultural policy - Different notion on “art and culture”Next step• Interview with community leaders and other stakeholders• Questionnaire survey after the 2nd KS art festival in November, 2010
What will be the Future?• More city innovation case studies and comparative studies• More understanding on the relationship and interface between innovation and the city• What will be the key characteristics among different levels of city innovation?• How city innovator create, develop, diffuse, and learn in the city?