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Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
Middle ages
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Middle ages

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  • Christian Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe
    Leading officials of Church were the bishops of Rome (Pope) and Constantinople (Patriarch)
    As influence grew, laws were passed to forced people to become Christians and banned heresy (holding beliefs that contradict the official religion)
    Fines were given against heretics, then harsher penalties and even death
    Eventually, conversion by force
    Eventually in 11th Century, Church split into two independent branches Eastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome
  • Rule of St. Benedict- years probation, solemn vows of obedience, chastity, poverty and silence, strict rules, 5-6 hours of prayer, 4 hours of spiritual reading, 5 hours of labour
  • Merovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Franks
    First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years
    Leader in 481 CE was Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes and made a large fighting force in Northern Gaul, drastically expanding his territory
    His conversion to Christianity won him support from the Church
    Clovis I wrote Salic Law which assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything and in the case of a crime, the guilty had to pay the victim for losses; as well trial options (trial by oath and trial by ordeal)
    Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe
    Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracy
    He wrote Salic Law which assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything and in the case of a crime, the guilty had to pay the victim for losses; as well trial options such as (trial by oath= people of status will swear in defence of accused) and trial by ordeal (accused to perform a physical test to show innonnce (believed that God would protect and help the innocent)
  • Rise of aristocratic Charles Martel who dominated Frankish kingdom in 8th century
    Solidified claim with military victories in pushing Muslims south and establishing Frankish control of southern Gaul
    He confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical life
    His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throne
    Established the Carolingian dynasty, named to protect thepapacy and establish the popeand bishops are the makers of kings
    Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne
  • Iberbia- (present day Spain) had privileged class of estate owners called seniores; strong ties to Church; southern Spain conquered by Moors (Islamic people from North Africa) and clashes between Christians and Muslims, who were called infidels (Latin meaning unfaithful)
  • (standoff between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in War of Investitures)
  • Transcript

    • 1. The MiddleThe Middle AgesAges
    • 2. The beginning…Early MiddleThe beginning…Early Middle AgesAges Decline of Roman EmpireDecline of Roman Empire  Rise of Northern EuropeRise of Northern Europe  New forms of governmentNew forms of government  Heavy “Heavy “RomanizationRomanization”” (religion, language, laws,(religion, language, laws, architecture, government)architecture, government)  LatinLatin- “medium aevum”- “medium aevum” means “middle age” and ismeans “middle age” and is source of English wordsource of English word “medieval”“medieval”
    • 3. Early MiddleEarly Middle AgesAges  Dark AgesDark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named(500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darknessthis as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light(barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans)(Romans)  Rise of influence ofRise of influence of barbariansbarbarians as Romanas Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenariesEmperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for militaryland with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians whoservice and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulerseventually became the new rulers
    • 4. Warriors and Warbands in the WestWarriors and Warbands in the West  Period of change in Western Europe asPeriod of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given upbarbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romansby Romans  As more barbarians moved westward, otherAs more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to movetribes were forced to move  Groups categorized by languages and little elseGroups categorized by languages and little else  CelticCeltic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons: Gauls, Britons, Bretons  GermanicGermanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons  SlavicSlavic: Wends: Wends
    • 5. From Rome to ConstantinopleFrom Rome to Constantinople ConstantinopleConstantinople  (former city of Byzantium) became new capital and(former city of Byzantium) became new capital and control centre for Roman Empirecontrol centre for Roman Empire  Was largest city by population in the world west of ChinaWas largest city by population in the world west of China  Strategic location on trade routesStrategic location on trade routes  One of largest natural harbours in the world linked theOne of largest natural harbours in the world linked the east and westeast and west  Byzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main currency ofByzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main currency of international tradeinternational trade  Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors,Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors, bureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation andbureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation and favouring of royal family and priests in trade and taxesfavouring of royal family and priests in trade and taxes
    • 6. Expanding Influence of the ChurchExpanding Influence of the Church  Christian ChurchChristian Church has become an importanthas become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force inpolitical, economic, spiritual and cultural force in EuropeEurope  Leading officials of Church were theLeading officials of Church were the PopePope andand PatriarchPatriarch  Banning ofBanning of heresyheresy (holding beliefs that contradict(holding beliefs that contradict the official religion)the official religion)  conversion by forceconversion by force  Eventually in 11Eventually in 11thth Century, Church split into twoCentury, Church split into two independent branchesindependent branches Eastern OrthodoxEastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and(Greek) based in Constantinople and RomanRoman CatholicCatholic in Romein Rome
    • 7. You scratch myYou scratch my back…back… I’ll scratch yours….I’ll scratch yours….  ChurchChurch was granted favours bywas granted favours by Roman EmperorsRoman Emperors / Kings (land, exemption/ Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in courts, positions infrom taxes, immunity in courts, positions in courts) and in return the Church wouldcourts) and in return the Church would endorse kings to help secure their ruleendorse kings to help secure their rule  KingsKings looked tolooked to ChurchChurch to supply educatedto supply educated administrators to help run kingdoms and inadministrators to help run kingdoms and in return kings would enforce laws thatreturn kings would enforce laws that prohibited other religionsprohibited other religions
    • 8. Monasticism andMonasticism and SaintsSaints  MonksMonks were people who gave up worldlywere people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves topossessions and devote themselves to a religious lifea religious life  Established between 400 -700 communities calledEstablished between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centres of education,monasteries which became centres of education, literacy and learningliteracy and learning  Strict codes of monastic conduct calledStrict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St.Rule of St. BenedictBenedict  Saints- one who performs miracles that areSaints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationshipinterpreted as evidence of a special relationship with Godwith God  St. Augustine-St. Augustine- wrote “Confessions” whichwrote “Confessions” which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and thediscussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic traditionrole of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Churchand the influence of Church
    • 9. Justinian the GreatJustinian the Great (ruled 527-565 CE)(ruled 527-565 CE)  Byzantine EmperorByzantine Emperor  goal to reunite the Roman world as agoal to reunite the Roman world as a Christian Empire and suppressed allChristian Empire and suppressed all paganismpaganism  Ordered the codification of RomanOrdered the codification of Roman laws in thelaws in the Justinian CodeJustinian Code or “Body ofor “Body of Civil Law” that defined civil law in theCivil Law” that defined civil law in the Middle Ages and the modern worldMiddle Ages and the modern world  Crushed theCrushed the Nika RiotNika Riot with the help ofwith the help of his wife Theodorahis wife Theodora  During his reignDuring his reign LatinLatin was the officialwas the official language of the Byzantine Empire,language of the Byzantine Empire, but was later changed to Greekbut was later changed to Greek (another difference between two(another difference between two regions)regions)
    • 10. Byzantine Empire in 6th Century
    • 11. MerovingiansMerovingians  Merovingian is derived from the leader of theMerovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Frankstribe of Franks  First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 yearsFirst dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years  Leader in 481 CE wasLeader in 481 CE was Clovis I-Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes andhe united Frankish tribes and expanded territoryexpanded territory  HisHis conversionconversion to Christianity won him support from the Churchto Christianity won him support from the Church  Clovis I wroteClovis I wrote Salic LawSalic Law - assigned a specific financial value to- assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything; concept ofeveryone and everything; concept of trial optionstrial options (trial by oath(trial by oath and trial by ordeal)and trial by ordeal)  Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churchesMerovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europeand palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe  IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed powerIMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power layand became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracywith the powerful officials and leading aristocracy
    • 12. CarolingiansCarolingians  Rise of aristocraticRise of aristocratic Charles MartelCharles Martel who dominatedwho dominated Frankish kingdom in 8Frankish kingdom in 8thth centurycentury  He confiscated land given to Church and beganHe confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality toChurch reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical lifeclerical life  His sonHis son Pepin the ShortPepin the Short continuedcontinued Church reforms and eventuallyChurch reforms and eventually with the support of reformedwith the support of reformed Church, removed lastChurch, removed last Merovingian king from throneMerovingian king from throne  Established theEstablished the CarolingianCarolingian dynastydynasty, named to protect the, named to protect the papacy and establish the popepapacy and establish the pope and bishops are the makers of kingsand bishops are the makers of kings  Greatest legacy was CharlesGreatest legacy was Charles the Great, orthe Great, or CharlemagneCharlemagne
    • 13. The Holy RomanThe Holy Roman Empire & CharlemagneEmpire & Charlemagne  CharlemagneCharlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a(Charles the Great) who was a military general and restored Pope Leo III who hadmilitary general and restored Pope Leo III who had been exiledbeen exiled  In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne andIn return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him thenamed him the “Emperor of the Romans“Emperor of the Romans” which” which secured the relationship between Frankish kingssecured the relationship between Frankish kings and the papacyand the papacy  Charlemagne became the first ruler of theCharlemagne became the first ruler of the HolyHoly Roman EmpireRoman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more, a dynasty that would last for more than 700 yearsthan 700 years  CharlemagneCharlemagne- imposed order on empire through- imposed order on empire through the Church and statethe Church and state  Ordered theOrdered the standardization of Latinstandardization of Latin, textbooks,, textbooks, manuals for preaching, schools for clergy andmanuals for preaching, schools for clergy and people, new form of handwritingpeople, new form of handwriting  All these promoted education and scholars andAll these promoted education and scholars and produced a precise written language (Latin)produced a precise written language (Latin)
    • 14. Slaves and SerfsSlaves and Serfs  Slaves made up of conquered peoplesSlaves made up of conquered peoples  Some treated harshly, while other wereSome treated harshly, while other were treated fairlytreated fairly  Rural slaves became serfs, who workedRural slaves became serfs, who worked the land and provided labour for owner (inthe land and provided labour for owner (in return from protection)return from protection)  Set up for system of feudalismSet up for system of feudalism
    • 15. Birth of Modern LanguagesBirth of Modern Languages  Development of Middle AgesDevelopment of Middle Ages  New languages born through migration,New languages born through migration, resettlement, conflict and changesresettlement, conflict and changes  Old English (Anglo Saxon) began toOld English (Anglo Saxon) began to incorporate words borrowed from Latinincorporate words borrowed from Latin and Old French, Old German and Oldand Old French, Old German and Old NorseNorse  Roots of contemporary Spanish, ItalianRoots of contemporary Spanish, Italian and other Romance languagesand other Romance languages
    • 16. High Middle AgesHigh Middle Ages  New royal dynasty called Capetians in FranceNew royal dynasty called Capetians in France  System ofSystem of primogenitureprimogeniture= system where eldest son inherited everything= system where eldest son inherited everything (instead of dividing land / property / wealth)(instead of dividing land / property / wealth)  Lords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing moreLords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing more fiercely for land, power, influence and controlfiercely for land, power, influence and control  Peace of God=Peace of God= a set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealinga set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealing church property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat ofchurch property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat of excommunication from Churchexcommunication from Church  were set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countrysidewere set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countryside  Truce of GodTruce of God= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday morning, on important feast days and during religious daysMonday morning, on important feast days and during religious days  Truce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in theTruce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in the defence of Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war)defence of Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war)  1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the firstfirst CrusadeCrusade in support of Christiansin support of Christians
    • 17. FeudalismFeudalism  Increasing violence and lawlessIncreasing violence and lawless countrysidecountryside  Weak turn to the strong for protection,Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weakstrong want something from the weak  FeudalismFeudalism= relationship between those= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings,ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs)vassals, lords, knights, serfs)  Feudalism worked because of the notionFeudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary co-of mutual obligation, or voluntary co- operation from serf to nobleoperation from serf to noble  A man’s word was the cornerstone ofA man’s word was the cornerstone of social lifesocial life Key termsKey terms  FiefFief = land given by a lord in return for a= land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath ofvassal’s military service and oath of loyaltyloyalty  SerfsSerfs= aka villeins or common peasants= aka villeins or common peasants who worked the lords landwho worked the lords land  TitheTithe = tax that serfs paid (tax or rent)= tax that serfs paid (tax or rent)  CorveeCorvee= condition of unpaid labour by= condition of unpaid labour by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on aserfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)manor)
    • 18. Wars and ConflictsWars and Conflicts  War of InvestituresWar of Investitures (Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman(Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV)Emperor Henry IV)  Norman ConquestsNorman Conquests & William the Conqueror (who was& William the Conqueror (who was crowned King of England and ordered the Doomsday Book)crowned King of England and ordered the Doomsday Book)  Magna CartaMagna Carta (king is subject to the law)(king is subject to the law)  CrusadesCrusades  Effects of Crusades (military failure but many positiveEffects of Crusades (military failure but many positive effects (spreading of culture, goods, scientific knowledge,effects (spreading of culture, goods, scientific knowledge, Arabic language and thought, economic growth in ruralArabic language and thought, economic growth in rural communities, and trade)communities, and trade)
    • 19. New Ideas and CultureNew Ideas and Culture  Effects of CrusadesEffects of Crusades  Guild and communesGuild and communes  Towns, cities and manorsTowns, cities and manors  New thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writersNew thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writers  Creation of universitiesCreation of universities  New art and architecture (gothic, castles)New art and architecture (gothic, castles)  Knighthood and chivalryKnighthood and chivalry  Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)
    • 20. Late Middle AgesLate Middle Ages Black DeathBlack Death a devastatinga devastating worldwideworldwide pandemic thatpandemic that first struckfirst struck Europe in theEurope in the mid 14mid 14thth centurycentury killed about akilled about a third of Europe’sthird of Europe’s population, anpopulation, an estimated 34estimated 34 million people.million people.
    • 21. The Bubonic PlagueThe Bubonic Plague Called “black death” because of striking symptomCalled “black death” because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin wouldof the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skinblacken due to hemorrhages under the skin Spread by fleas and ratsSpread by fleas and rats painful lymph node swellings called buboespainful lymph node swellings called buboes buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pusbuboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood.and blood. damage to the skin and underlying tissue untildamage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotchesthey were covered in dark blotches Most victims died within four to seven days afterMost victims died within four to seven days after infectioninfection EFFECTSEFFECTS Caused massive depopulation and changeCaused massive depopulation and change in social structurein social structure Weakened influence of ChurchWeakened influence of Church Originated in Asia but was blamed onOriginated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepersJews and lepers
    • 22. Illustration of the Black Death from theIllustration of the Black Death from the ToggenburgToggenburg Bible (Bible (14111411).).
    • 23. Ideas, Inventions and Key FiguresIdeas, Inventions and Key Figures Roger Bacon (gunpowder)Roger Bacon (gunpowder) Luca Pacioli (Father of Accounting)Luca Pacioli (Father of Accounting) Johannes Gutenberg (printing press)Johannes Gutenberg (printing press) Christine de Pisan (writer); Geoffrey ChaucerChristine de Pisan (writer); Geoffrey Chaucer (writer)(writer) Joan of Arc (Hundred Year’s War)Joan of Arc (Hundred Year’s War) Pope Urban II (indulgences)Pope Urban II (indulgences) Pope Innocent IV and Bernard Gui (inquisitions)Pope Innocent IV and Bernard Gui (inquisitions) Parliamentary Government in EnglandParliamentary Government in England

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