The Queen’s early lifeThe Queen was born at 2.40am on 21 April 1926 at 17 BrutonStreet in Mayfair, London.She was the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York, wholater became King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.At the time she stood third in line of succession to the throneafter Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), andher father, The Duke of York. But it was not expected thather father would become King, or that she would becomeQueen.
The Duke and Duchess of York with Princess Elizabeth
The Queen’s early lifeThe Princess was christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in theprivate chapel at Buckingham Palace. She was named after hermother, while her two middle names are those of her paternalgreat-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and paternal grandmother,Queen Mary.The Princesss early years were spent at 145 Piccadilly, the Londonhouse taken by her parents shortly after her birth, and at WhiteLodge in Richmond Park.She also spent time at the country homes of her paternalgrandparents, King George V and Queen Mary, and her mothersparents, the Earl and Countess of Strathmore.In 1930, Princess Elizabeth gained a sister, with the birth ofPrincess Margaret Rose. The family of four was very close.
The Queen’s early lifeWhen she was six years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge inWindsor Great Park as their own country home.Princess Elizabeths quiet family life cameto an end in 1936, when her grandfather,King George V, died. His eldest son came tothe throne as King Edward VIII, but,before the end of the year, King EdwardVIII had decided to give up the throne inorder to marry the woman he loved, MrsWallis Simpson.
King Edward VIII abdication speech 1939 http://youtu.be/re6G1hTlrEo
The Queen’s early lifeUpon his abdication, Princess Elizabeths father acceded to thethrone as King George VI, and in 1937 the two Princessesattended their parents coronation in Westminster Abbey.Princess Elizabeth was now first in line to the throne, and afigure of even more intense public interest.
EducationPrincess Elizabeth was educated at home with Princess Margaret,her younger sister.After her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 and shebecame heir presumptive, she started to study constitutionalhistory and law as preparation for her future role.Princess Elizabeth also studied art and music, learned to ride, andbecame a strong swimmer. She won the Childrens ChallengeShield at Londons Bath Club when she was thirteen.Princess Elizabeth enrolled as a Girl Guide when she was eleven,and later became a Sea Ranger.
EducationIn 1940, at the height of the Blitz, the young Princesses were movedfor their safety to Windsor Castle, where they spent most of thewar years.It was a time of austerity and anxiety for the whole country,including the Royal Family. But at Christmas time there was a periodof light relief when the young Princesses put on pantomimes with thechildren of members of staff for the enjoyment of her family andemployees of the Royal Household.
Wedding DayIn November 1947, she marriedPhilip Mountbatten (formerly PrincePhilip of Greece and Denmark), whowas created duke of Edinburgh.
The Queen’s FamilyPrince Charles, Princess Anne born in 1950born in 1948.
The Queen’s FamilyPrince Andrew born in 1960 Prince Edward born in 1964
Coronation Day 1947In 1952, King George VIs illness forcedhim to abandon his proposed visit toAustralia and New Zealand. ThePrincess, accompanied by Prince Philip,took his place.On Wednesday, 6 February 1952,Princess Elizabeth received the news ofher fathers death and her ownaccession to the throne, while staying ina remote part of Kenya.
The tour had to be abandoned, and the young Princess flew back to Britainas Queen. She was greeted by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and otherofficials at the airport.The Coronation took place in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953. It was asolemn ceremony conducted by Dr Geoffrey Fisher, Archbishop ofCanterbury.Television brought home to hundreds of thousands of people around theCommonwealth the splendour and significance of the Coronation in a waynever before possible.
Present Day The Queen is now 83 years.The Queen hasnow reigned for57 years and10 months.
The Queens RoleAlthough the Queen is no longer responsible for governing the country,she carries out a great many important tasks on behalf of the nation.Head of StateAs Head of State, the Queen goes on official State visits abroad. Shealso invites other world leaders to come to the United Kingdom. Duringtheir visit, Heads of State usually stay at Buckingham Palace, orsometimes at Windsor Castle or Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh.Head of the Armed ForcesThe Queen is also the Head of the Armed Forces. She is the onlyperson who can declare when the country is at war and when war isover, although she must take advice from her government first.Head of the Church of EnglandThe Queen is Head of the Church of England - a position that allBritish monarchs have held since it was founded by Henry VIII in the1530s. The Queen appoints archbishops and bishops on the advice ofthe Prime Minister. The spiritual leader of the Church of England isthe Archbishop of Canterbury.
The Queen’s RoleGovernment DutiesEvery day red boxes are delivered to the Queens desk full ofdocuments and reports from the government ministers andCommonwealth officials. They must all be read and, if necessary,signed by the Queen.Represents the NationThe Queen represents the nation at times of great celebration orsorrow. One example of this is Remembrance Day ceremony at theCenotaph monument in Whitehall. The Queen lays a wreath there eachyear to honour the members of the armed forces who have diedfighting for their country.Royal Garden PartiesAt least three Royal Garden Parties are held at Buckingham Palaceeach year and about 8,000 guests attend each one.VisitsAlongside her other duties the Queen spends a huge amount of timetravelling around the country visiting hospitals, schools, factories andother places and organisations.
Why does Queen Elizabeth have two birthdays?The Queen is very lucky because she has two birthdays, one in Apriland one in June.When is the Queens real birthday?The Queens actual birthday is on 21 April.When does the Queen have her public and official birthday?It has long been customary to celebrate the Sovereign’s birthdaypublicly on a day during the summer, when better weather is morelikely.Since 1805, the Sovereign’s official summer birthday has beenmarked by the Trooping the Colour ceremony, normally held on thesecond Saturday in June. It is also marked by theflying of the Union flag on government buildings, a 42-gun salute andthe publication of the birthday honours list.No particular ceremony is held on The Queens true birthday,although the Union Flag is flown on public buildings.