Numerical Signatures of      AntipatternsAn Approach based on B-SplinesRocco Oliveto*, Foutse Khomh+, Giuliano Antoniol+, ...
Outline•   Context and motivations    •   Antipattern identification•   Limitations of previously approaches•   A novel ap...
Context and Motivations•   Antipatterns: poor solutions to recurring design problems    •   Introduced by developers when ...
Limitations of Previous Approaches•   DECOR: identification based on fixed threshold    •   Yes, it is an antipattern - No...
The Proposed Approach•   ABS (Antipattern identification using B-Splines)    •   ABS builds signatures of classes based on...
ABS: Identification of Antipatterns•   Given a set of classes identified as antipatterns A and a    set of classes classif...
ABS: Distance Computation•   ABS abstracts the signature (i.e., curve) of the antipatterns    and good classes    •   The ...
Why ABS?•   ABS vs. DECOR    •   ABS returns the probability of classes to be an antipattern (not true/false)    •   ABS d...
SIGN-O-METER                   The similarity between the class                     under development and an              ...
Preliminary Evaluation: Design•   ABS was used to identify the Blob antipattern    •   Accuracy of ABS was compared with D...
Preliminary Evaluation: Results•   ABS generally outperforms BBN and DECOR in precision    and recall    •   In few explai...
Conclusion and Future Work•   A novel approach (ABS) is proposed to identify    occurrences of antipatterns    •   The app...
THANK YOU!QUESTIONS  and–orCOMMENTS?
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CSMR10d.ppt

  1. 1. Numerical Signatures of AntipatternsAn Approach based on B-SplinesRocco Oliveto*, Foutse Khomh+, Giuliano Antoniol+, and Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc+ * University of Salerno, Italy, roliveto@unisa.it + Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, QC, Canada, foutsekh@iro.umontreal.ca, {giuliano.antoniol, yann-gael.gueheneuc}@polymtl.ca Presented by Fatemeh Asadi Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, QC, Canada
  2. 2. Outline• Context and motivations • Antipattern identification• Limitations of previously approaches• A novel approach based on numerical analysis• Lessons learned from a preliminary evaluation• Conclusion and future work
  3. 3. Context and Motivations• Antipatterns: poor solutions to recurring design problems • Introduced by developers when designing and implementing classes • Negatively impact the quality of a system• Antipattern identification is a crucial activity in software maintenance • Important for researchers as well as for practitioners• Various approaches have been proposed • Exploit quality metrics • DECOR and Bayesian Beliefs Networks (BBNs)
  4. 4. Limitations of Previous Approaches• DECOR: identification based on fixed threshold • Yes, it is an antipattern - No, it is not an antipattern • Inaccurate information for borderline classes • Submarine effect: several classes may be very close to be identified as antipatterns but remain under the threshold during their evolution• BBN: probabilities of classes to be antipatterns • Expensive (time and knowledge) tuning by experts for accuracy • Incomplete experts’ knowledge cause false positives • Models not generalisable to other contexts
  5. 5. The Proposed Approach• ABS (Antipattern identification using B-Splines) • ABS builds signatures of classes based on quality metrics • A class is modelled using specific interpolation curves (i.e., B- splines) of plots mapping metrics and their values for the class
  6. 6. ABS: Identification of Antipatterns• Given a set of classes identified as antipatterns A and a set of classes classified as good classes G, the godliness of a class ci is based on (i) the similarity between the curves representing the antipatterns and ci; and (ii) the distance between the curves representing the good classes and ci Xp godli ness(ci ; A; G) = wA i ; j ¢si mi l ar i ty(ci ; aj ) ¡ j=1 Xq wG i ; k ¢si mi lar i ty(ci ; gk ) k= 1• The higher the similarity with the antipatterns (the lower the distance with the good classes) the higher is the likelihood that the class is an antipattern too
  7. 7. ABS: Distance Computation• ABS abstracts the signature (i.e., curve) of the antipatterns and good classes • The obtained signature is used to derive the likelihood that a given class is an antipattern too • The likelihood is based on distance between the curves representing the antipatterns (or good classes) and the class, respectively The lower the distance, the higher the similarity-in terms of quality measures- between the compared classes!
  8. 8. Why ABS?• ABS vs. DECOR • ABS returns the probability of classes to be an antipattern (not true/false) • ABS does not suffer of the submarine effect• ABS vs. BBN • ABS requires a training corpus as well as BBS • ABS does not need experts’ knowledge to define a learning structure • ABS reduces the bias introduced in BBNs by the experts’ subjectivity when structuring the BBNs of the antipatterns • ABS is portable: a model build in a context can be used in other contexts
  9. 9. SIGN-O-METER The similarity between the class under development and an antipattern using the godliness metric scaled in [0, 100]A plot of three B-spline curves representing, respectively, the current signature of the class, the signature of the previousversion of the class, and the signature of an ideal antipattern,defined as the average signature of the previously classified antipatterns
  10. 10. Preliminary Evaluation: Design• ABS was used to identify the Blob antipattern • Accuracy of ABS was compared with DECOR and BBN • Case study conducted on two medium size open-source Java systems• Two experimental scenarios • Intra-system identification: where historical data (i.e., correctly identified Blobs) are available for a given system and this data are used to identify other Blobs in the same system • Extra-system identification: where a quality analyst has access to the historical data from one system and uses it to identify Blobs in another system• Accuracy evaluated through recall and precision
  11. 11. Preliminary Evaluation: Results• ABS generally outperforms BBN and DECOR in precision and recall • In few explainable cases, ABS has lower precision or recall than previous approaches, when the training set to build the signature is too small• ABS is more portable than BBN and DECOR• ABS is more attractive in practice thanks to its speed and ease to generate and interpret the signatures.
  12. 12. Conclusion and Future Work• A novel approach (ABS) is proposed to identify occurrences of antipatterns • The approach uses B-splines to abstract the signature of classes • The extracted signature is used to compare a class with classes previously classified as blobs or good classes• ABS outperforms both BBN and DECOR• Future work • Replicating the evaluation of ABS on other antipatterns • Analysing whether the use of “Sign-o-meter” during software development impacts the quality of the produced classes
  13. 13. THANK YOU!QUESTIONS and–orCOMMENTS?
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