Personality disorders assessment & treatment

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An overview of personality disorder assessment and treatment

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  • FRUSTRATION Trauma Spoiled Punitive or demanding parent values
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • How Trauma Affects Children in Care Adopted children have already experienced trauma due to the loss of their birth parents. Additional losses and traumas experienced reopen previous traumas. Children who have lost their birth parents may be exposed to common childhood traumas, but because of their early experience, will often have more intense or “bigger” reactions to those new traumas than peers who are still with their birth families. (Discuss how multiple car accidents can lead to increased vulnerability. Same is true of multiple emotional injuries. End result is hypervigilance and inability to trust. Many learn to inappropriately self-soothe.) Children communicate through their behavior. When they react emotionally, their behavior is not willful. Children in care are also easily reminded of their earlier traumas, and events that would otherwise be neutral or even positive to healthy children become traumatic to hurt children. We call these events “triggers.” Explain that we will now look at some common trauma “triggers” for children in care.
  • Personality disorders assessment & treatment

    1. 1. Robert Rhoton PsyD Psychological Health and Wellness [email_address]
    2. 2. <ul><li>In the past mental health professionals have attributed personality disorders to some internal deficit (hole in the head theory) and not attributes of the situation or biological reactions. This made diagnosing and adequately treating people who suffer from personality disorders very difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the short falls or problems with this thought process? </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The causes of personality disorders are controversial. </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe that personality disorders are caused by early experiences that prevented the development of normal thought and behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Others believe that biological or genetic influences are the root cause of personality disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>The truth is likely a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental variables contributing to the development of personality disorders. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Since we can not change genetics or impact it much with our current science, it is of little practical value when looking at helpful intervention to even consider genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>We can focus on environmental factors and the resulting behaviors and patterned actions that create problems in the lives of individual and those that they are relating to </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Paranoid </li></ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul><ul><li>Hypomanic </li></ul><ul><li>Depressive </li></ul><ul><li>Schizoid </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Historonic </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-social </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant </li></ul><ul><li>Borderline </li></ul><ul><li>Passive-aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>*Sadistic </li></ul><ul><li>**Anankastic </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Prenatally, those things that interrupt or interfere with the development of the child, for instance parental drug addiction, high levels of stress being experienced by the mother, poor prenatal care, over-activity during pregnancy, and emotional instability of the mother. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>The mind/brain is assumed to be multifaceted, with semi-autonomous specialized subsystems operating in parallel. The component subsystems highlight their own parts of the representational tableau, which includes the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phenomenological experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the memories of the person. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>A number of component systems have been identified each with its distinctive functions </li></ul><ul><li>The mind can be likened to a chamber orchestra: Each subsystem or instrument contributes its own special qualities to the melody and harmonies, providing an unparalleled complexity and richness. The music maybe altered when individual instruments are either muted or amplified . </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Reasoning and logic as a “COOL” system </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Emotions, instinct and survival behavior as a “HOT” system </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>The “cool” hippocampal memory system records, in an unemotional manner, well-elaborated autobiographical events, complete with their spatial-temporal context. </li></ul><ul><li>The cool system is cognitive and complex, informationally neutral, subject to control processes, and integrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool-system memories are narrative, recollective, and episodic. The person knows that the events occurred in his personal past, and there is no sense of reliving or of mistaking the memory for a current percept. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>The “hot” amygdala system responds to unintegrated fragmentary fear-provoking features of events, which become hooked directly to fear responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The hot system is direct, quick, highly emotional, inflexible, and fragmentary. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-system memories are stimulus-driven and entail a sense of reliving rather than like recollections. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>The two systems should operate in parallel, with the cool system encoding the contextual panorama and the hot system contributing a “highlighting” of emotional aspects of the experience. </li></ul><ul><li>When the systems are not working in parallel then the visual, auditory, kinesthetic, emotional and recognition of environmental feedback is skewed. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>At traumatic levels of stress, the cool system becomes dysfunctional, while the hot system becomes hyper-responsive. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the encoding under such conditions should be fragmentary rather than replete, and coherent. </li></ul><ul><li>At high levels of stress the individual will focus selectively and, at traumatic levels, exclusively , on the survival/instinctual evoking features that are peculiar to the hot system. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Highly stressed children oft experience irrational fears, fragmented memories, and dissociated experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Children that experience high levels of stress fail to integrate traumatic experiences into the narrative of their lives. Children initially perceive such experiences differently than do normal children under non-traumatic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Children process the stress at a somatosensory level rather than autobiographically. Van der Kolk (1994) </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Executive functioning is a term psychologists have chosen to use over the last decade to identify some of the highest levels of functioning of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive functioning, involves a combination of interrelated functions that produce purposeful, goal-directed, problem-solving initiating: </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Executive functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working memory </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>There are five general environmental factors that contribute to the Personality Disorders besides, poor care, poor nutrition, prolonged hospitalization, separation from caregiver, serious accidents and all forms of abuse. These are factors that interrupt and interfere with normal social-emotional development: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the work of Jeffery E. Young Schema Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide   </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>  ABANDONMENT /  INSTABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>MISTRUST / ABUSE </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL DEPRIVATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation of Nurturance:  Absence of attention, affection, warmth, or companionship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation of Empathy:  Absence of understanding, listening, self-disclosure, or mutual sharing of feelings from   others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation of Protection:  Absence of strength, direction, or guidance from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEFECTIVENESS / SHAME  </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ISOLATION / ALIENATION </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Childhood trauma can grow when the child’s expectation for needed security, safety, stability, nurturance, empathy, sharing of feelings, acceptance, and respect are not be met in a predictable </li></ul><ul><li>It can be damaging to the personality formation when there is a lack of predictability and security, safety, stability, nurturance, acceptance, and respect . </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>DEPENDENCE / INCOMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY TO HARM OR ILLNESS  </li></ul><ul><li>ENMESHMENT  /  UNDEVELOPED SELF   </li></ul><ul><li>FAILURE - The belief that one has failed,  will inevitably fail, or is fundamentally inadequate . Often involves beliefs that one is stupid, inept, untalented, ignorant, lower in status, less successful than others, etc. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Trauma can occur when the child has expectations about themselves and the environment that interfere with their perceived ability to separate, survive, function independently, or perform successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical family origin is enmeshed, undermining of confidence, overprotective, or failing to reinforce child for performing competently outside the family </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Deficiency in internal limits, responsibility to others, or long-term goal-orientation. Leads to difficulty respecting the rights of others, cooperating with others, making commitments, or setting and meeting realistic personal goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical family origin is characterized by permissiveness, overindulgence, lack of direction, or a sense of superiority -- rather than appropriate confrontation, discipline,  and  limits in relation to taking responsibility, cooperating in a reciprocal manner, and setting goals . </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>An excessive focus on the desires, feelings, and responses of others, at the expense of the child’s own needs -- in order to gain love and approval, maintain one's sense of connection, or avoid retaliation.  Usually involves suppression and lack of awareness regarding one's own emotions and natural inclinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical family origin is based on conditional acceptance: children must suppress important aspects of themselves in order to gain love, attention, and approval.   </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>An excessive emphasis on suppressing the child's spontaneous feelings, impulses, and choices OR on meeting rigid, internalized rules and expectations about performance and ethical behavior -- often at the expense of happiness, self-expression, relaxation, close relationships, or health. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical family origin is grim, demanding, and punitive: performance oriented, duty and perfectionism are highly prized values, following rules, hiding emotions, and avoiding mistakes dominate over warm relationships, pleasure, joy, and relaxation .   </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Pervasive themes or patterns that have their origins in early adverse experiences, are elaborated over the course of a lifetime, and are dysfunctional to a significant degree </li></ul><ul><li>EMS’s are comprised of cognitions, emotions, and memories; they drive maladaptive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>EMS’s distort one’s perception of the self, others, and the world. They are self-perpetuating and self-defeating . </li></ul><ul><li>EMS form a set of dynamic injunctions that have a compelling or inhibiting quality to them. </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust & Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Defectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Social Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Enmeshment </li></ul><ul><li>Approval-Seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Subjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Unrelenting Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Negativity </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlement </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Self-Control </li></ul><ul><li>Overcontrol </li></ul><ul><li>Punitiveness </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Toxic frustration of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatization, victimization, mistreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Over-indulgence </li></ul><ul><li>Selective internalization or identification </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament or neurobiology </li></ul><ul><li>can play a role </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>When patterned and habituated family behavior and interactions interrupt or interfere with the normal developmental (emotional, psychological, cognitive and social) processes --- this can be designated a traumagenic family structure </li></ul><ul><li>Traumagenic families are generally transmitting an intergenerational family culture that distorts, interferes with or interrupts normal human developmental processes </li></ul>
    30. 30. Psychological trauma in early childhood can have a tremendous negative impact as it can distort the infant, toddler or young child’s social, emotional, neurological, physical and sensory development. This is especially true of young children who have experienced multiple and/or chronic, adverse interpersonal events through the child’s care giving system. The symptoms and behavioral characteristics can be categorized into seven domains
    31. 31. Domain One Attachment - Uncertainty about the reliability and predictability of the world, problems with boundaries, distrust and suspiciousness, social isolation, difficulty attuning to other people's emotional states and points of view, difficulty with perspective taking and difficulty enlisting other people as allies.
    32. 32. Domain Two Biology - Sensorimotor developmental problems, problems with coordination, balance, body tone, difficulties localizing skin contact, hypersensitivity to physical contact, analgesia, somatization, increased medical problems
    33. 33. Domain Three Affect or emotional regulation - easily-aroused high-intensity emotions, difficulty with emotional self-regulation, difficulty describing feelings and internal experience, chronic and pervasive depressed mood or sense of emptiness or deadness, chronic suicidal preoccupation, over-inhibition or excessive expression of anger and difficulty communicating wishes and desires.
    34. 34. Domain Four Dissociation - distinct alterations in states of consciousness, amnesia, depersonalization and derealization and two or more distinct states of consciousness, with impaired memory for state based events.
    35. 35. Domain Five Behavioral control - poor modulation of impulses, self-destructive behavior, aggressive behavior, sleep disturbances, eating disorders, substance abuse, oppositional behavior, excessive compliance, pathological self-soothing behaviors, difficulty understanding and complying with rules and communication of traumatic past by reenactment in day-to-day behavior or play (sexual, aggressive, etc.).
    36. 36. Domain Six Cognition - difficulties in attention regulation and executive functioning, problems focusing on and completing tasks, difficulty planning and anticipating, learning difficulties, problems with language development, lack of sustained curiosity, problems with processing novel information, constancy, problems understanding own contribution to what happens to them, problems with orientation in time and space, acoustic and visual perceptual problems, impaired comprehension of complex visual-spatial patterns
    37. 37. Domain Seven Self-concept - lack of a continuous and predictable sense of self, low self-esteem, feelings of shame and guilt, generalized sense of being ineffective in dealing with one's environment, belief that one has been permanently damaged by the trauma, poor sense of separateness, disturbances of body image and shame and guilt
    38. 38. <ul><li>They are often socially isolated, and have little emotional and financial support. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is a common factor in caregivers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are prone to use the same abusive techniques with their own children, that they hated as children. </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>They often show limited insight into the complexity of emotional and psychological needs and have a limited understanding of effective relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>They are at high risk to become overwhelmed and frustrated, and engage in hostile interactions to force compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who do not understand these issues often attribute their child's misbehavior to willfulness on the child's part, a conscious intention to cause the parent aggravation and frustration . </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>They often experience high levels of stress and discord in their lives, often as a result of the chaotic and unhealthy environments in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>May have substance abuse problems and show high levels of marital discord and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse generally exacerbates stress, and stress is more likely to occur after a partner has been using substances. As a result, the children experience high levels of anxiety and become overloaded.&quot; </li></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>The children often feel responsible for the stress, and experience intense feelings of helplessness and powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>There is inconsistent structure, support, and affection for extended and unpredictable periods of time. &quot;Interrupted parenting&quot; or a &quot;wavering commitment&quot; to parenting is most harmful . </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Sometimes children show extreme difficulty bonding with the parent and feeling safe with them </li></ul><ul><li>While there may be no overt negative interactions, there is generally limited positive interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of power control strategies (e.g., threats, demands, disapproval), and fail to respond positively to good behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving decreases with more negative, controlling, and punitive behaviors. </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>Likely to show hostility, be demanding and rigid, and respond critically to the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Family shows poor conflict resolution skills </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Executive functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working memory </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>5 irritable, uncooperative and difficult to redirect. Started counseling for 10 months – no improvement </li></ul><ul><li>9 killed the neighbors dog with a hammer. Struck the dog approximately 70 times. Entered counseling a second time for 2 years and medication– no improvement </li></ul><ul><li>10 expelled for fighting, had 22 fights in the four grade </li></ul><ul><li>11 arrested for possession and consumption of alcohol </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>12 expelled and sent to an alternative school for bring and brandishing a knife at school </li></ul><ul><li>13 ran away from home (gone for 3 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>13 broke his brother’s jaw (10) with a baseball bat for touching a video game. Put on probation and started counseling a third time. </li></ul><ul><li>14 violated probation by destroying property. Took a pipe to a neighbor’s car who had called him a name. Goes to detention for 30 days </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>16 meets a girl (14) at the movies and rapes her in the stairwell theater exit. Punches her several times and kicked her in the stomach because she wouldn’t consent to sodomy. Stole her clothes and left her naked and bruised in the stairwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested detained until 18. </li></ul>
    48. 48. <ul><li>How do you make sense of Jason’s behaviors now? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you need to approach someone with the environmental influences and domain deficits? </li></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Janel ; a 41 female that lived alone save for a cat that had adopted her several years before. She had 2 or 3 friends that she considered close to her, but only talked with or seen them occasionally, about 5 times a year. She enjoyed her family though she lived a great distance (4 hours by plane from them), but would make frequent phone calls, those calls were characterized as being short, under 10 minutes. When she had family coming to see her, she would feel anxious, have trouble eating and felt a good many mystery pains. She would never initiate a conversation when out in public, and when </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>others would engage her, she would be extraordinarily polite and pleasant, and try to withdraw from the conversation as soon as possible. Has a phobia about large public gathering places, avoids malls, and subway stations. Once walked 22 blocks in the snow to avoid using the bus. She feels very lonely, but feels that she has to live the way she does to obtain security and safety. Even when she fantasizes about a different life, all of her fantasies avoid anything that might be upsetting. As a profession, she is a copy editor for large publishing company, and actually has to interact with others at work very seldomly </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>36 year old Hispanic male Veteran with a history of heroin addiction, depression and incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile, belligerent, mistrustful </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent altercations with other clients (e.g. while waiting in line for methadone), fights with strangers (e.g., while working as street vendor, threw a hammer that broke a car window, nearly injuring a child) </li></ul><ul><li>Had some capacity for remorse, but these behaviors were “ego-syntonic” – they felt like justifiable responses to provocations </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Began methadone maintenance, stopped using heroin </li></ul><ul><li>Depression improved after taking antidepressant medication </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in regular group psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>However, his aggressive behavior persisted, even after staff repeatedly enforced consequences for his behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Finally kicked out of program after caught stealing VA property, which he had been selling on the street </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>A history of severe physical and emotional abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Beatings by his father occurred nearly every day, often with hard objects, frequently leaving him with bruises or marks. From 3-14 had father inflicted injuries including, broken arm (3 times), concussion, dislocated shoulder, broken hand, 6 broken ribs. </li></ul><ul><li>He was frequently yelled and screamed at, called names, insulted and belittled by both of his parents </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts </li></ul><ul><li>behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>Social information processing skills deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive cognitive responses </li></ul><ul><li>Children who had been physically harmed by an adult during the first five years of life were 4 times more likely to engage in externalizing (acting out) behaviors by the 4th or 5th grade. </li></ul><ul><li>Children raised in Traumagenic homes 2.5 more likely to engage in acting out with high risk behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>What is the likelihood of problem behaviors if one has both physical abuse and traumagenic family structure? </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>These deficits include tendencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to be distracted from relevant social cues, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to presume hostile intent on the part of peers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to choose aggressive responses to situations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to view aggression as leading to successful outcomes . </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Those with personality disorders generate less competent (constructive, problem resolving) and more aggressive responses to negative or aversive behavior and may not be able to generate more competent responses. </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>Patients typically come for therapy with presenting problems other than personality problems </li></ul><ul><li>They require more work within the session </li></ul><ul><li>Longer duration of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Greater strain on the therapist’s skills and patience </li></ul><ul><li>Greater difficulty in treatment compliance </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>A strong relationship exists between the cognitive patterns on the one hand and the affective and behavioral patterns on the other </li></ul>
    60. 60. <ul><li>Victim Stance </li></ul><ul><li>Blame others for not meeting responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Blames others for their inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Always have a ready excuse </li></ul><ul><li>Fight for the right to be a victim </li></ul><ul><li>Resist efforts to appropriately solve problems that are causing them distress </li></ul><ul><li>Focus away from assuming responsibility </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Sense of Injustice </li></ul><ul><li>View normal expectations as unfair </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to follow “unfair” directions </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse to meet “unfair” expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Complain that the consequences for any of their actions that bring negative feed back or correction is unfair </li></ul>
    62. 62. <ul><li>Uniqueness (Grandiosity) </li></ul><ul><li>Claim that they are different or unique and should have a different set of rules and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Demand others understand them </li></ul><ul><li>Accuse others of not understanding them or making adequate efforts to understand them </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how they are not understood rather than resolving problems or conflicts </li></ul>
    63. 63. <ul><li>One way boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Demands respect and privacy in inappropriate ways </li></ul><ul><li>Violates others privacy </li></ul><ul><li>No reciprocity in respecting the rights of person or property </li></ul><ul><li>Behaves suspiciously and then becomes enraged when those behaviors are questioned </li></ul>
    64. 64. <ul><li>Overthrow or defeat rules </li></ul><ul><li>Sees rules, guidelines, and restrictions as obstacles that must be overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate others by being charming or compliant in order to avoid being held accountable to the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one-way rights (seeing their own rights and not the rights of others) </li></ul>
    65. 65. <ul><li>Pride in Negativity </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy showing off their knowledge of negative or inappropriate things </li></ul><ul><li>Gets power from negative behavior or ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Places high value on learning and knowing things that are hurtful, hateful , evil or demeaning to others </li></ul>
    66. 66. <ul><li>Anger that is instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Loses control to get their own way </li></ul><ul><li>Trains others to avoid them when angry or else </li></ul><ul><li>Claim that they “lost control” after and aggresssive, destructive or abusive incident </li></ul><ul><li>Uses anger to have power in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Others become timid and “walk on eggshells” when they have to discuss problems or responsibilities </li></ul>
    67. 67. <ul><li>One way training </li></ul><ul><li>Uses inappropriate behavior to train others to give in to them </li></ul><ul><li>Uses inappropriate behavior when their wishes are opposed or resisted </li></ul><ul><li>Resists attempts to problem-solve and be re-directed </li></ul>
    68. 68. <ul><li>One Way Role Models </li></ul><ul><li>Models self after negative peers, neighbors, the famous “bad” people </li></ul><ul><li>Adopts behaviors of negative role models </li></ul><ul><li>Act non-responsively to or directly reject positive role models </li></ul>
    69. 69. <ul><li>Wishing </li></ul><ul><li>Has unrealistically high opinion of their own skills and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Talks about how things will be but avoids goal setting or commitments designed to achieve goals </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as if talking about it is the same as doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly put off activities or tasks which are perceived as “responsibilities” </li></ul><ul><li>Respond with anger when pressed to perform in a timely manner </li></ul>
    70. 70. <ul><li>Casing (or) Sizing Up </li></ul><ul><li>Size people up for how much power they have and respond differently based on their view of that power </li></ul><ul><li>Reacts negatively to or dominates those that appear to have less power </li></ul><ul><li>Act charming toward those with more power </li></ul><ul><li>Resist developing relationships with those that might be more powerful than they or threaten their power </li></ul>
    71. 71. <ul><li>Dishonesty and misinformation </li></ul><ul><li>Use omission and vagueness to confuse or avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend to have misunderstood </li></ul><ul><li>Keep secrets for no apparent reason </li></ul><ul><li>Tell others what they think the other wants to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Say yes and agree to avoid further feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Act confused when challenged on an inappropriate comment or behavior </li></ul>
    72. 72. <ul><li>False Apologies </li></ul><ul><li>Apologizes without acknowledging actual wrong doing </li></ul><ul><li>Blame others while apologizing </li></ul><ul><li>Say “I’m sorry” without taking responsibility </li></ul>
    73. 73. <ul><li>Turnaround </li></ul><ul><li>Put others on the defensive when they are clearly wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Put others on the spot so that they wind up explaining themselves rather than focusing on resolving a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Use statements like “you don’t love me” “you don’t trust me” “ you don’t appreciate me” as away to avoid dealing with an issue and deflect away </li></ul>
    74. 74. <ul><li>Partialization </li></ul><ul><li>Do incomplete work and feel like that should be good enough </li></ul><ul><li>Expect full rewards for partial completion </li></ul><ul><li>Acts angry when reminded of full expectations of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Enraged when denied a reward for a minimal efforts or partial completion </li></ul>
    75. 75. <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-processing and Self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Experience integration and reorientation </li></ul><ul><li>Relational engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Positive affect enhancement </li></ul>
    76. 76. <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapeutic Safety </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. <ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective, Behavioral, Somatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-soothing capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy appropriate self-expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation of emotional states </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. <ul><li>Self-processing and Self-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase effective use of executive functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase effective planning and execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a coherent narrative about the self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase future orientation </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. <ul><li>Experience integration and reorientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of triggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containing emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiating the degrees of emotional response needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate experience into history </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. <ul><li>Relational engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relational capacity in significant relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attunement to significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routines, and rituals </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. <ul><li>Positive affect enhancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure and Joy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul></ul>
    82. 82. <ul><li>Schema Therapy   A Practitioner's Guide (2006) Guilford Press . Jeffrey E. Young, Janet S. Klosko, and Marjorie E. Weishaar </li></ul><ul><li>The Abusive Personality: Violence and Control in Intimate Relationships   by  Donald G. Dutton </li></ul><ul><li>  When Your &quot;Perfect Partner&quot; Goes Perfectly Wrong: Loving Or Leaving The Narcissist In Your Life   by Mary Jo Fay </li></ul><ul><li>  Social and Personality Development   by  David R. Shaffer </li></ul><ul><li>  Reinventing Your Life: The Breakthough Program to End Negative Behavior...and Feel Great Again   by  Jeffrey E. Young ,  Janet S. Klosko , and Aaron T. Beck  </li></ul><ul><li>  Treatment Utilization by Patients With Personality Disorders. Am J Psychiatry 158:295-302, February 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>  The disorders of personality. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. Millon, Theodore Pervin, Lawrence A. (Ed). (1990). Handbook of personality: Theory and research. (pp. 339-370). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. xiv, 738 pp. </li></ul>
    83. 83. <ul><li>You are welcome to contact the presenter through e-mail at [email_address] or through the Psychological Health and Wellness website www.psychologicalhealthandwellness.com if you want additional information. </li></ul>

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