Mary Whiton Calkins, philosopher,psychologist, student, teacher, and pioneer in psychology. Calkins fought the notion that women were believed to be intellectually inferior to men, and held fast her passion for psychology. By contributing to her student, colleagues, and to the future of psychology Calkins proved that women were just as intellectual as men, and held a place in psychology.
Calkins’ theoretical perspective was the concept of self-psychology. Self-psychology was defined by Calkins as the study of conscious persons or selves ("Articlesbase", 2013). William James was the influence of this concept.Jamesasserted in Principles of Psychology in order for the observation of self one has to rely on introspective observation first,foremost, and always ("Articlesbase", 2013).Articlesbase, (2013) “the basal forms of this concept are the subject, the object, and the relation between the object and subject” (p. 1). Articlesbase, (2013) “Calkins contended that all consciousness is personal, and further, it was impossible to define the "self" because these qualities or associations are always in flux and unique to every individual” (p. 1). To Calkins the conscious self component was the distinguishing factor between self-psychology andother forms of psychology. Calkins’ belief was that the main function of the mind was one’s constant scrutiny of the self through perception and association (Articlesbase, 2013).
Developed by Mary Whiton Calkins, where methods consisted of showing individualsseries of colors andnumeral pairs, directly followed by testing for recall of the numbers when the colors with which they were previously paired are shown again (Articlesbase, 2013). Through several experiments Calkins used variations of colors and numbers to investigate the effects of vividness, frequency, and primacyon associative memory (Goodwin, 2008). Calkinsrevealed that numbers andbright color pairs were retained more successfully than numbers paired with neutral colors. Therefore, Calkins concluded that the frequency was themost important factor in effective memory association(Goodwin, 2008).
Based on philosophy and psychology
Women in Psychology
Shura Steven WhitakerPSY 310January 26, 2013Dr. Tara Stabile
The Principles of Psychology waswarm from the press; and myabsorbed study of thosebrilliant, erudite, and provocativevolumes, as interpreted by theirwriter, was my introduction topsychology. What I gained from thewritten page, and even more fromtête-à-tête discussion was, it seems tome as I look back upon it, beyond allelse, a vivid sense of the concretenessof psychology and of the immediatereality of “finite individual minds”with their “thoughts and feelings.”--Mary Whiton Calkins
1884 - Graduated from Smith College 1887 - Began teaching at Wellesley College 1892 – “Guest” Admittance to Harvard 1905 - 14th President of APA First woman President of APA
PsychologicalLaboratory Dream Research Paired-AssociateTechnique Books and Writings
BOOKS ARTICLES The Persistent Problemsin Philosophy The Good Man and TheGood Autobiography of MaryWhiton Calkins Hi You Hu Ji
Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A history of modern psychology (3rded.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.American Psychological Association. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/about/archives/presidents/bio-mary-whiton-calkins.aspxAmerican Psychological Association. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/pi/women/resources/newsletter/2011/03/mary-calkins.aspxGoogle. (2013). Retrieved fromhttps://www.google.com/search?q=Mary+Whiton+Calkins+images&hl=en&tbo=u&rlz=1C1GGGE_enUS472US472&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=kAUHUdqlKsiy0AHx-oDQBw&ved=0CDMQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=653Articlesbase. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.articlesbase.com/history-articles/mary-whiton-calkins-great-women-in-american-psychology-2345463.html