CHAPTER 1: The Art of ThinkingQuotes from the text which I feel areimportant enough to learn.
Be Aware• To enlarge your understanding of the thinkingprocess; clarify the important and frequentlymisunderstood concepts of truth, knowledgeand opinion; identify the habits that corruptthinking; and show you how to become amore critical reader.
Developing Your Thinking: AnOverview• Thinking is something more than aimlessdaydreaming.
The Importance of Thinking• To be a successful problem solver, you will needboth factual knowledge and proficiency inthinking.• Skill in problem solving, issue analysis anddecisionmaking is increasingly expected ofemployees.• 3 developments in recent years: 1) the knowledgeexplosion, the communications technologyrevolution and the rise of the global economy.
Cont. The Importance of Thinking• Individuals who possess problem-solving anddecision-making skills are more flexible thanothers and are therefore 1) less likely to becomevictims of downsizing and 2) more likely to findsatisfactory employment if they are laid off.• Meeting the challenged and seizing theopportunities presented by the global economyrequire skill in creative and critical thinking.• Employees with the above skills enjoy significantadvantages over those who do not have theseskills.
Brain and Mind at Work• Thinking occurs in patterns that we can study andcompare to determine their relative objectivity, validityand effectiveness.• The very structure of the brain implies profoundintegration of the two hemispheres, the corpuscallosum connecting them and facilitating arousal.• In a normal state (the brain’s) two hemispheres appearto work closely together as a unit, rather that onebeing turned on while the other sides idles.• The mind has two distinct phases – the productionphase and the judgment phase.
The Production Phase• Phase most associated with creative thinking, the mindproduces various conceptions of the problem orissue, various ways of dealing with it and possiblesolutions or responses to it.• Poor thinkers tend to see problem(s) from a limitednumber of perspectives, to take the first approach thatoccurs to them, to judge each other immediately, andto settle for only a few ideas.• The poor thinker is overly cautious in theirthinking, unconsciously making their ideas conform tocommon, the familiar and the expected.
The Judgment Phase• Phase most associated with critical thinking, the mindexamines and evaluated what it has produced, makesits judgments and where appropriate, adds refinement.• Good thinkers test their first impressions, makeimportant distinctions, and base their conclusion onevidence rather than on feelings.• They double-check the logic of their thinking and theworkability of their solutions, identifying imperfectionsand complications, anticipating negative responses andgenerally refining their ideas.
Cont. The Judgment Phase• Poor thinkers judge too quickly anduncritically, ignoring the need for evidenceand letting their feelings shape theirconclusions.• Poor thinkers trust their judgmentimplicitly, ignoring the possibility of flaws intheir thinking.
Good Thinking Is A Habit• Effective thinking is mostly a matter of habit.• 70 % of all creative people score below 135 onIQ tests.• Important ingredients: The desire to improveand the willingness to apply what you learn.• The unfamiliar often seems daunting.