Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and drugs


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  • Sleep deprivation occurs when one sleeps substantially less than one are used to; therefore the next day one will feel out of sorts and unableto function as well as one usually does (Pinel, 2011). Sleep deprivation willproduce physiological and behavioral disturbances (Pinel, 2011). Sleep deprivation effects one’s mood, behavior, cognitive and motor skills. As for sleep disorders they fall into one of two complementary categories: insomnia and hypersomnia (Pinel, 2011). There are drugs such as Melatonin and other treatments that combat sleep disorders.
  • Pinel, (2011), “sleep deprivation has been found to have a variety of physiological consequences such as reduced body temperature, increases in blood pressure, decreases in some aspects of immune function, hormonal changes, and metabolic changes” (p. 363). Performance on tests of executive function has proven much more susceptible; which are cognitive abilities that appear to depend on the prefrontal cortex (Pinel, 2012)
  • Several cases of insomnia are iatrogenic orphysician-created; which is because of sleeping pills usually prescribed by physicians (Pinel, 2011). Insomnia is often a problem of too little undisturbed sleep (Pinel, 2011). One who has sleep apnea stops breathing many times each night (Pinel, 2011). Pinel, (2011) “periodic limb movement disorder is disorder characterized by periodic, involuntary movements of the limbs, often involving twitches of the legs during sleep” (p. 376). Ones who suffering from this disorder complain of poor sleep and daytime sleepiness but are unaware of the nature of their problem (Pinel, 2011). Unlike those who suffer from restless legs syndrome, because they are all too aware of their problem (Pinel, 2011).
  • Narcolepsy affects about 1 out of 2,000 individuals and has two prominent symptoms (Pinel, 2011). Symptoms are severe daytime sleepiness and repeated, brief (10- to 15-minute) daytime sleep episodes and cataplexy (Pinel, 2011). Pinel, (2011) “cataplexy is characterized by recurring losses of muscle tone during wakefulness, often triggered by an emotional experience” (p. 376). Idiopathic Hypersomnia is excessive amounts of sleep.
  • REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is the paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is incomplete or absent, allowing the person to "act out" his or her dreams ("Emedicinehealth", 2012)."Emedicinehealth" (2012), “Dream-enacting behaviors include talking, yelling, punching, kicking, sitting, jumping from bed, arm flailing, and grabbing” (para. 2). Fantini  (2005), “the idiopathic form accounts for up to 60% of the cases reported in the three largest series of patients with RBD” (para. 1). Dementia of Lewy bodies type (Fantini  2005).
  • Riemann and Perlis assert “although benzodiazepines can be effective therapeutic hypnotic agents in the short term, their prescription for the treatment of chronic sleep difficulties, though common, is ill-advised” (as cited in Pinel, 2011). The three classes are cocaine-derived stimulants, amphetamine-derived stimulants, and tricyclic antidepressants (Pinel, 2011). Pinel, (2011) “the drugs in these three classes seem to promote wakefulness by boosting the activity of catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) by increasing their release into synapses, by blocking their reuptake from synapses, or both” (p. 374). These types of drugs tend to produce a variety of adverse side effects, such as loss of appetite, anxiety, tremor, addiction, and disturbance of normal sleep patterns; also they mask the pathology that is causing the excessive sleepiness (Pinel, 2011).
  • Synthesized from the neurotransmitterserotonin in the pineal gland (Pinel, 2011).“In humans and other mammals, circulating levels of melatonin display circadian rhythms under control of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, with the highest levels being associated with darkness and sleep in humans and other mammals (Pinel, 2011). Researchers have argued that melatonin is better classified as a chronobiotic (a substance that adjusts the timing of internal biological rhythms) than as a soporific (Pinel, 2011). Cline(2009),“sleep restriction was developed by Spielman and his colleagues in the 1980's as a means of limiting time in bed to the actual amount of sleep obtained in order to increase sleep efficiency” (para.3). Based on the assumption that sleep deprivation will increase the drive to sleep and to remain asleep (Cline, 2009). 
  • Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and drugs

    1. 1. Sleep Deprivation,Disorders, and Drugs Shura StevenWhitaker PSY 240 Aug 22, 2012 Tawny Swain Castle SleepDeprivationDrugsDisorders
    2. 2. June 2011, was my last trip back home to Sydney, Australia, whichnormally takes between 23 to 24 hours resulted in jet lag.Jet lag is alsoreferred to as desynchronosis or time zone change syndrome; also classified asa circadian rhythm disorder (Nordqvist, 2009).Therefore it is a physiologicalcondition that occurs when the zeitgebers that control the phases of variouscircadian rhythms are accelerated during east-bound flights (phase advances)or decelerated during west-bound flights (phase delays) (Pinel, 2011).The jetlag I experienced coincided with the effects of sleep deprivation. Myexperience debilitated my cognitive functioning and motor functioning; as wellas affected my mood and behavior.Sleep Deprivation Experience
    3. 3. During the first and part of the second day after I arrived Iexperienced slight fatigue; I suffered from poor physical performance and Ioften felt dizzy. My actions such as walking and standing up were slower andmy responses to other’s actions were slower. I could not think clearly and hadtrouble processing information as quickly an normal. I was somewhat irritable;although I was still friendly and was able to be courteous others. I hadinsomnia, but once I was able to sleep I unfortunately work up after about 3hours. I had a persistent headache for almost a whole day, which was notcured with several Advil.After the jet lag wore off I realized I had been informed aboutMelatonin; which I could not remember while suffering from jet lag. Melatoninis a drug that one can take in the evening (in the new time zone!) that willrapidly reset one’s biological clock and almost totally alleviate (or prevent) thesymptoms of jet-lag (Nordqvist, 2009).Sleep Deprivation Experience
    4. 4. Differences Between SleepDeprivation Effects and LongTerm Sleep Reduction EffectsSleep Deprivation EffectsLongTerm Sleep ReductionEffects Increase in sleepiness. Behavior and mood changes. Diminished performance ofcomplex cognitive tasks. Disruption of motor skills. Variety of physiologicalconsequences. Little or no future healthproblems. May experience daytimesleepiness. Periods of sleepiness occur.
    5. 5. Sleep Disorders: InsomniaWhat it is Disorders Incubuses disorders of initiatingsleep. Incubuses disorders ofmaintaining sleep. Depression symptoms and mooddisorders. Insomnia is often iatrogenic. Too little undisturbed sleep. Sleep apnea. Periodic limb movement disorder. Restless legs syndrome. Depression
    6. 6. Sleep Disorders: HypersomniaWhat it is Disorders Incubuses disorders of excessivesleep. Incubuses disorders of excessivesleepiness. Depression symptoms and mooddisorders. Falls asleep at any time. Narcolepsy Idiopathic Hypersomnia Depression
    7. 7. Sleep Disorders: REM-Sleep–Related DisordersREM sleep behavior disorder(RBD)Idiopathic REM sleepbehavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia. Lacking motor inhibitionduring REM-sleep. Dream-enacting behaviors. Incomplete or absent paralysis. Older men are mainly affected. Patients face two differentdevelopments. Either will develop parkinsoniansyndrome. Or will eventually developdementia.
    8. 8. Drug and Other Treatments forthe DisordersHypnotic drugs Antihypnotic drugs Hypnotic drugs increase sleep. Benzodiazepines are prescribedhypnotic medications. Increases one’s drowsiness. Shortens time to fall asleep. Decreases awakenings duringnight’s sleep. Antihypnotic drugs reduce sleep. Three classes of antihypnoticdrugs. Cocaine-derived andamphetamine-derived stimulants. Tricyclic antidepressants. Seemingly antihypnotic drugspromote wakefulness.
    9. 9. Drug and Other Treatments forthe DisordersMelatonin Sleep restriction therapy Influences circadian rhythmicity. Is a synthesized hormone. Role player in promoting sleep. Or regulates timing in mammals. Chronobiotic is a betterclassification. Insomnia’s most effectivetreatments. May deepen and consolidatesleep. Limits time in bed. Increases sleep efficiency.
    10. 10. Sleep plays a major role in one’s life. I experienced this first handwhen I suffered from jet lag. One’s amount of sleep can and will affect REM-sleep and one’s circadian rhythm . Sleep deprivation causes adverse affectsto endanger one’s health, decrease cognitive and motors skills; andadversely affects one’s mood and behavior. Insomnia, hypersomnia, andREM-sleep–related disorders are all disorders that have adverse affectsderived from sleep deprivation and contribute to further sleep derivation.Although these disorders can be combated by drugs and other treatments tohelp restore one’s circadian rhythm , increase sleep, reduce sleep, andpromotes sleep. Different from sleep deprivation is sleep reduction, which isa means to limit the hours one sleeps. Sleep is essential to a healthily well-being.Conclusion
    11. 11. Pinel,J. P. J. (2011). Biopsychology (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Nordqvist, C. (2009). MNT: Medical NewsToday. Retrieved from (2012). Retrieved from Dictionary. [Photograph of a woman awake in bed] (2012). Retrieved from Dictionary. [Photograph of a woman asleep on a desk] (2012). Retrieved from, M.L. (2005). PubMed. Retrieved from Software. [Image of NREM and REM MRI scan] (2011). Retrieved from, J. (2009). PsychologyToday. Retrieved from Dictionary. [Photograph of a Benzodiazepines molecule] (2012). Retrieved from Dictionary. [Photograph of a Hypnotic molecule] (2012). Retrieved from