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Schizophrenia

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  • Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities (Comer, 2011). Schizophrenia affects approximately 1 of every 100 people worldwide during one’s lifetime, and it is estimated that 24 million people worldwide are afflicted with 2.5 million residing in the United States (Comer, 2011). Inappropriate affect is described emotions that are unsuited to the situation (Comer, 2011).
  • One is diagnosed by symptoms oneexperiences, which are based on psychological tests and interviews. A formal diagnosis of schizophrenia will point to one of these types disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, or residual.One is also diagnosed as having either positive symptoms, negative symptoms, or psychomotor symptoms. Positive symptoms, such as delusions, certain formal thought disorders, hallucinations and other disturbances in perception and attention, and inappropriate affect (Comer, 2011). Negative symptoms, such as poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal (Comer, 2011). Psychomotor symptoms, are collectively called catatonia in their extreme form (Comer, 2011).
  • Genetic factors are thought of as where one has inherited a biological predisposition to schizophrenia and develop the disorder later when one faces extreme stress, normally during late adolescence or early adulthood (Comer, 2011). Biochemical abnormalities are where certain neurons that use the neurotransmitter dopamine fire too often and transmit too many messages (Comer, 2011). Abnormal brain structure such as the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and enlarged ventricles, which are the brain cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid; seen in several people with schizophrenia (Comer, 2011). Viral problems (exposure to viruses before birth) are thought to cause the biochemical and structural abnormalities in one who has schizophrenia (Comer, 2011).
  • When one’s world is extremelyharsh or withholdingfor example, when one’s parents are cold or unnurturing; one who has developed schizophrenia regressto the earliest point in their development (pre-egostate of primary narcissism) where one recognizes and meets only their own needs(Comer, 2011). Once one regress to such an infantile state, one then tries to reestablish ego control and contact with reality, and the efforts give rise to other schizophrenic symptoms (Comer, 2011). Symptoms such as auditory hallucinations. Agrees with the biological view where as during hallucinations and related perceptual difficulties the brain of one with schizophrenia is actually producing strange and unreal sensations (Comer, 2011). One takes a rational path to madness, after friends and relatives deny the reality of the sensations; therefore, eventually one will conclude that friends and relatives are trying to hide the truth (Comer, 2011). One rejects all feedback, and may develop beliefs (delusions) that they are being persecuted (Comer, 2011). Cognitive notion is not supported at this point and time with clear or direct support by researchers; which is that misinterpretations of such sensory problems actually produce a syndrome of schizophrenia (Comer, 2011).
  • Comer, (2011)“as many as 2.1 percent of African Americans receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia, compared with 1.4 percent of white Americans” (p. 371). As for diagnosis African Americans have a higher likelihood than White Americans (Comer, 2011). Vahia and Vahia, (2008); Jablensky, (2000) “according to a 10-country study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the 25 million schizophrenic patients who live in developing countries have better recovery rates than schizophrenic patients in Western and other developed countries” (p. 372). Social labeling is seen through society assigning the label “schizophrenic” to people who fail to conform to certain norms of behavior; which becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy that leads to the development of many schizophrenic symptoms (Comer, 2011). Schizophrenia, is often linked to family stress; just as such with some other mental disorders (Comer, 2011). The parents of those with schizophrenia often display more conflict, have greater difficulty communicating with one another, and are more critical of and overinvolved with their children than other parents (Comer, 2011). Families that are high in expressed emotion, members who frequently express criticism, disapproval, and hostilitytoward each other and intrude on one another’s privacy affect those who are recovering from schizophrenia (Comer, 2011). Which are almost four times more likely to relapse if one is living with such a family, rather than if they live with one low in expressed emotion (Comer, 2011).Sociocultural causes of schizophrenia, are not yet to be fully understood (Comer, 2011).
  • Institutional care consist of one’s placement in a institution for treatment through the means of milieu therapy or token economy. The milieu therapy principle is that institutionscan help individuals by creating a social climate, or milieu, thatbuilds productive activity, self-respect, and a sense ofresponsibility (Comer, 2011). A patient is rewarded when one behaves acceptably and is not rewarded when one behaves unacceptably, in token economies (Comer, 2011). Antipsychotic drug include Aripiprazole (Abilify), Risperidone (Risperdal), Olanzapine (Zyprexa), Quetiapine (Seroquel), Ziprasidone (Geodon), and Clozapine (Clozaril). Antipsychotic drug are used for treating the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics include Abilify (aripiprazole), Risperdal (risperidone),Zyprexa (olanzapine),Seroquel (quetiapine),Cloazril (clozapine),Symbyax (olanzapine/fluoxetine), and Geodon (ziprasidone).Psychotherapy along with antipsychotic drugs, which help to relieve thought and perceptual disturbances, enables one with schizophrenia to learn about their disorder, participate actively in therapy, think more clearly, and make changes in their behavior (Comer, 2011). Community approach, the broadest approach for treatment, is where one is treated within one’s one community (Comer, 2011). One going through the community approach may receive medications, psychotherapy, help with daily responsibilities, guidance in making decisions, training in social skills, residential supervision, and vocational counseling; which is a combination of services often referred to as “assertive community treatment” (Comer, 2011).
  • Atypical antipsychotics (newer antipsychotics ), affect the dopamine receptors in the brain, and are more effective in treating a broader range of symptoms of schizophrenia, and some have less side effects seen with traditional antipsychotics(Grohol, 2011). 

Transcript

  • 1. Shura Steven WhitakerPSY 270Oct 24, 2012Stacie FlynnSchizophrenia Presentation
  • 2. Negative Symptoms Poverty of speech Blunted and flataffect Loss of volition Social withdrawalPositive Symptoms Delusions Disorganizedthinking andspeech Heightenedperceptions andhallucinations Inappropriate affect
  • 3. DSM-IV-TR identifiesfive patterns Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Residual
  • 4.  Genetic factors Biochemicalabnormalities Abnormal brainstructure Viral problems
  • 5. The PsychodynamicExplanation Developed fromtwo psychologicalprocesses Regression to apre-ego stage Efforts toreestablish egocontrol.The CognitiveExplanation Agrees with thebiological view Biological factorstrigger sensation Rational path tomadness Cognitive notion isnot supported
  • 6.  Multicultural factors Social labeling Familydysfunctioning
  • 7.  Institutional care Antipsychotic drugs Atypicalantipsychotics Psychotherapy Community approach
  • 8. Atypical Antipsychotics Work significantlydifferent thanantipsychotics Hallucinations/delusionswill significantlydecrease Helpful mood stabilizingproperties Moods swings becomeless frequent/intense
  • 9.  Schizophrenia, a psychotic disorder that affectspersonal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as aresult of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motorabnormalities (Comer, 2011). Symptoms of schizophrenia canbecome frightening for one experiencing them, as well as forfamily and friends who observing the symptoms. Through theDSM-IV-TR one is identified as having one of five typesof symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is explainedthrough the biological, psychological, and sociocultural views.Treatments range from and could be a combination ofInstitutional care antipsychotic and atypicalantipsychotics, psychotherapy, the community approach.However, atypical antipsychotics seems to be the moreeffective treatment of schizophrenia.
  • 10.  Comer, R. J. (2011). Fundamentals ofabnormal psychology (6th ed.). New York,NY: Worth. Schizophrenia.com. Images (2004). Retrievedfromhttp://www.schizophrenia.com/szbrainimage.htm Grohol, J.M. (2011). PsychCentral. Retrievedfromhttp://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm