Personality TheoryShura Steven WhitakerPSY 230May 26, 2012Linda Grant
Understand Personality and TheoryFreud consideredpersonality to be like aniceberg; most of theimportant personalityprocesses exists andoccur below our level ofconsciousawareness, just as themassive part of aniceberg is beneath thesurface of the water("Essortment", 2011).Personality is what makes oneperson different from othersor unique.Which areindividual differences.A theory is a model of realitywhich allows one topredict, explain, understand, and control that reality.Key concepts of personality arebehaviorism and Bandura’ssocial-learning theory.
BehaviorismMcAdams, (2009), stated “behaviorism is abrand of psychologythat explores the waysin which observablebehavior is learnedand shaped by theenvironment” (p.68). Basically a theory of learning. Environment shapes behaviorthrough learning. One’s environment shapestheir behavior. Environment shapes one’spersonality. One’s personality is not inborn.
Key Concepts of Behaviorism Classical Conditioning. Operant Conditioning. Reinforcement.
Classical ConditioningMcAdams (2009), “inPavlov’s well-knownexamples of classicalconditioning, a hungrydog learns to salivate inresponse to a neutralstimulus (a tone)because that neutralstimulus has becomeassociated with astimulus (meat) thattypically elicitssalivation naturally” (p.70). Traditionally, simple, low-level of learning Now, complicated, high-levellearning process. A cornerstone of humanlearning. Implicated in certaindevelopments. Enables forming accurateworldly representations.
Operant ConditioningNaik (n.d.), “althoughevidence of classicalconditioning wasthere, E. L.Thorndike didnot believe that it wascomprehensive becausemost behavior in thenatural environment wasnot simple enough to beexplained by Pavlovstheory” (para. 11). Behaviors are modified byconsequences. Positive and negativeconsequences. Affected by reinforcementand punishment. Importance of learningaffects behaviors.
Key Concepts of OperantConditioning Positive and negative reinforcer. Positive and negative punishment. Extinction. Shaping. Continuous and partial reinforcement.Positive andNegativeReinforcerPositive andNegativePunishmentExtinction ShapingContinuous/PartialReinforcement
Bandura’s Social-Learning TheoryIsom (1998), “AlbertBandura believed thataggression is learnedthrough a processcalled behaviormodeling” (para. 1). Bridges behaviorist andcognitive learning theories. People learn from otherpeople. Throughobservation, imitation, andmodeling. Will encompassmotivation, attention, andmemory.
Key Concepts of Bandura’s Social-Learning Theory Observational learning. Self-efficacy.KeyConceptsObservationalLearningSelf-Efficacy
Observational LearningMcAdams (2009), “Thetraditional principles oflearning that arederived frombehaviorism—such asthe laws ofreinforcement andpunishment—havemore to do withperformance than withlearning per se” (p. 76) Based on traditionalprinciples of learning. Derived from behaviorism. Learning withoutreinforcement orsatisfaction.
Four Steps of ObservationalLearning Attentional processes. Retention processes. Motor reproduction processes. Motivational processes.
Self-EfficacyBandura and Schunkassert “self-efficacy isa person’s belief thathe or she cansuccessfully carry out‘‘courses of actionrequired to deal withprospective situationscontaining manyambiguous, unpredictable, and oftenstressful elements’’(as cited in McAdams(2009). Belief in one’s behavioralcompetence. High self-efficacy is strongbeliefs. Low self-efficacy is non-beliefs. Distinguished from outcomeexpectancies.
Four Sources of Self-Efficacy Performance accomplishments. Vicarious experience. Verbal persuasion. Emotional arousal.PerformanceAccomplishmentsVicariousexperienceVerbal Persuasion EmotionalArousal
ConclusionBehaviorism focuses on how environmentsshape the observed behaviors of organisms(McAdams 2009). Behaviorism is composedof key concepts such as classicalconditioning, operant conditioning, andreinforcement.Albert Bandura’s sociallearning theory is a pervasive phenomenon inhuman life. It bridges the gap betweenbehaviorist and cognitive learning theories.Composed of key concepts such asobservational learning and self-efficacy.
Why Citing Sources inPsychology is ImportantCiting sources in psychology is key for psychological terminology tokeep it’s meaning. Rewording of said terminology affects it’sunderstanding and meaning. Psychology is also a complexscience that has scientific terminology that cannot be replacedby non-scientific terms, words, or phrases.As well as clearpresentation of arguments and evidence in a manner that clearlydifferentiates between the students own ideas and argumentsand those derived from published authors either as directquotations or as summary or précis ("University OfHuddersfield", n.d.). Another reason citation and referencing areimportant is the presentation of material allows the reader tofollow and find the original source (whether the reader is themarker of a students work or a fellow psychologist as a reviewer)("University Of Huddersfield", n.d.).
ReferenceEssortment. (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://www.essortment.com/freuds-personality-theory-21639.htmlBoeree, C.G. (1997, 2006). PersonalityTheories. Retrievedfrom http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.htmlMcAdams, D. P. (2009). The person: A new introduction topersonality psychology. (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ:Wiley.Isom, M.D. (1998).The Social LearningTheory. Retrievedfromhttps://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htmUniversity of Huddersfield. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www2.hud.ac.uk/hhs/ref_psyte/04guide.php