Reinforcement• Reinforcement strengthens/ increases likelihood of a particular response.• Positive reinforcer is a stimulus - strengthens the frequency/ likelihood of desired response by providing pleasant/ satisfying consequence.• E.g.. Money (for turning up to work)• Thus Positive Reinforcement involves the delivery of a positive reinforcer after the operant response in order to strengthen the behaviour.
Negative Reinforcement• Negative reinforcement – is a process which involves the removal (or avoidance) of an aversive stimulus which consequently strengthens the behaviour (the operant response)• E.g. putting up an umbrella to avoid getting wet hair, if it works, then the use of the umbrella has been reinforced by taking away the aversive stimulus (wet/messy hair)
Punishment• Involves delivery of an unpleasant stimulus done in order to weaken the response or decrease the probability of the undesirable behaviour occurring again over timePositive Punishment:• An unpleasant stimulus is presented in response to a behaviour in order to weaken the behaviour.E.g. a fine for speeding in a school (40km/h) zone during school
Response Cost (Negative Punishment)• Response cost (negative punishment): A valued stimulus is removed in order to decrease the targeted targeted behaviourE.g. Year 12’s locked out of their centre due to lunch time mess, in order to reduce littering