Observational learning• First discussed by Bandurra• Occurs by watching others• Noting the positive and negative consequences of their actions• Then imitating these actions• Eg. Learning to shake hands, dance moves• Classical and operant conditioning can occur (indirectly) through Vicarious Conditioning –• Hence: modelling is not totally separate from O.C or C.C
Observational (vicarious) learning• Vicarious Conditioning• Learning indirectly by observing others• Involves observing the consequences (reinforcement or punishment) of others behaviour and then modifying own behaviour according to those consequences observed.• Hence Modelling is often referred to as a form of Operant conditioning (because the learning is controlled by the consequences)
5 stages of Observational learning• 1: Attention – the observer must actively watch the model when completing the task• Attention is Influenced by1. Motivation & interest of observer2. Personality characteristics of model3. Avoidance of distracters4. Distinctiveness, importance, EtcBandurra felt we are more likely to attend to model if model has/ is1. High status2. Similar in nature to observer3. Is well liked, is known, behavior is visible/ distinctive4. Etc
Stages 2, 3: Retention, Reproduction• 2: Retention – the observer must be able to make a mental representation (step by step) of the model’s behaviour• The more meaningful you can make that image (i.e. mental representation of what you observed) the more accurately you will be able to replicate that behaviour.• 3: Reproduction – the observer must have the ability to perform the action• Reproduction is restricted by physical limitation i.e. I can’t do the splits, no matter how many times you show me!!!!!!!!!
Stages 4 Motivation & 5 & Reinforcement• 4: Motivation– the learner must want to perform behaviour. So if being taught something, then the teacher should encourage the learner to repeat the behaviour just seen• E.g. – Answering questions in a Psych class after observing a student praised for giving the right answer.• 5 Reinforcement• If the model receives positive reinforcement, then this will increase the liklihood that the observer will repeat the behaviour• E.g. Your friend dyes their hair black and everyone compliments her (you look pretty) then you might be inclined to try a similar strategy to you hair color