Classical vs Operant Conditioning
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Classical vs Operant Conditioning



This file accompanies a YouTube clip that identifies distinguishing feat

This file accompanies a YouTube clip that identifies distinguishing feat



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    Classical vs Operant Conditioning Classical vs Operant Conditioning Presentation Transcript

    • Classical vs Operant conditioningElements that CC & Elements of CC & OC OC have in common that are clearly different Extinction Role of learner Spontaneous recovery Timing of stimulus Stimulus discrimination Timing of response Stimulus generalisation Nature response Acquisition
    • Classical vs Operant conditioning Classical Operant conditioning conditioning Nature of Involuntary Voluntary (usually) but response (reflexive) can be both – Vol & Involuntary Timing of Precedes the After the desired Stimulus response response Timing of After the Before the Response stimulus stimulusRole of learner Passive Active
    • Nature of response• In C.C response is usually reflexive or involuntary eg. Salivating or blinking• O.C the response is more active & voluntary eg. Pressing a leaver or putting up an umbrella• In C.C the response often involves the action of the autonomic nervous system & the association of 2 stimuli (which is not conscious)• In O.C, the response is more likely to involve the Central nervous system (brain) and is conscious, intentional & often goal directed• i.e. the individual is more likely to produce the desired response if the consequence is good and less likely if the consequence is punishment
    • Timing of Stimulus/ Response• CC; the response (eg. Salivation) depends on the presentation of the UCS (meat powder) occurring first• OC; the presentation of the reinforcer (eg. Food) depends on the response (pressing lever) occurring first. The reinforcement strengthens (food) strengthens the stimulus-response association• CC; the timing of the 2 stimuli (CS then UCS) needs to very close (ideally 0.5 second), but the CS must come before the UCS so that the animal/person can learn to associate the stimuli eg. Ring the bell, just before presenting the food to build the association• OC; the learning occurs faster when reinforcement or punishment occurs soon after the behaviour. But there can be a considerable time difference between them (for humans in particular)
    • Role of the Learner• CC, the learner is relatively passive when the CS or UCS is presented, i.e. the response elicited by the learner occurs automatically without any effort (i.e. a reflex)• OC, the learner must actively operate on the environment to obtain the reinforcement or punishment. The learner is not reinforced or punished without performing the behaviour that produces that consequence
    • Other differences between Classical & Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning 1 stimulus substitutes for No substitution another takes place 1 reinforcer elicits only 1 type 1 reinforcer can be used to of response – i.e. food leads strengthen a variety of responses eg. to salivation money for lawnmowing, running laps Emotions such as fear are Reponses associated with goal- associated with the seeking behaviour are primarily autonomic N.S (for humans) involved