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What Happens If The Brain Gets Damaged
 

What Happens If The Brain Gets Damaged

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    What Happens If The Brain Gets Damaged What Happens If The Brain Gets Damaged Presentation Transcript

    • What Happens if the Brain Gets Damaged?
    • Phineas Gage
      • September 13, 1848
      • Cavendish, Vermont
      • Gage was a foreman for a railway construction gang
      • An explosion sent a 3’ 7” tamping iron through his skull, landing 25 yards behind him
    •  
    • Phineas Gage
    • Phineas Gage
      • Went back to work several months later, but his personality had changed
      • He worked taking care of horses and working on a farm for the next 11 years
      • In February, 1860, he began to have epileptic seizures and died May 21, 1860
      • His body was exhumed in 1867 so scientists could study his skull
    •  
    • Cerebral Cortex Lobes
      • Frontal lobe – motor movement
      • Temporal lobe – speech and language
      • Parietal lobe - touch
      • Occipital lobe - vision
    • Cerebral Cortex Halves
      • Right half (emotion)
      • Left half (language, logic, problem solving)
      • Two halves connected by the corpus callosum
      • Split brain research
    • Cerebral Cortex Important Structures
      • Cerebellum
      • Reticular formation
      • Medulla
      • Pons
      • Thalamus
      • Hypothalamus
      • Limbic System
        • Hippocampus
        • Amygdala
    •  
    • How Do We Know If the Brain is Damaged?
      • Brain imaging
        • Problems with brain structure
          • Computerized tomography (CT) – least expensive
          • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – high quality, expensive
        • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measures problems with brain activity
      • Neurological testing
      • Behavior problems
    • Physiological Influences Brain Abnormalities
    • Neurological Damage and Violence
    • Charles Whitman
      • August 1, 1966
      • University of Texas
      • 96 minutes from a 307-foot tower
      • Tumor pressing against his amygdala
    • The Amygdala and Violence
      • Thought to be the “aggression center”
      • Is involved with associating stimuli with reward and punishment
      • Removal of amygdala reduces antisocial behavior
        • 39% marked reduction
        • 35% some reduction
        • 21% no reduction
        • 5% increase
    • Brain Abnormalities and Violence ___________________________________ Violent Non-Violent Study Inmates Inmates _____________ ______ _________ Lewis et al (1985) 88% 27% Bryant et al. (1984) 73% 28% Pincus et al. (1979) 96% 22% Williams (1969) 65% 24% ________________________________________
    • Case Studies of Serial Killers and Head Injuries
    • Arthur Shawcross Genesee River Killer
      • Killed 2 children, 11 prostitutes
      • Head injuries
        • 09 Hit in head with stone
        • 10 Hit head jumping into lake
        • 16 Hit in head with discuss
        • 17 Hit in head with sledge
        • hammer
        • 23 Fell 40’ from ladder and hit
        • his head, was unconscious
    • David Berkowitz “Son of Sam”
      • Killed 6, started over a thousand fires
      • Head injuries
        • 7 Hit by a car, suffered
        • head injuries
        • 7 Ran into a wall and
        • suffered head injuries
        • 8 Hit in the head with a pipe,
        • 4-inch gash in forehead
    • Richard Ramirez “The Night Stalker”
      • Killed 14
      • Head injuries
        • 02 Dresser fell on his head,
        • received 30 stitches,
        • almost died
        • 06 Hit by a swing, knocked
        • unconscious, caused a
        • deep gash
        • 11 Diagnosed with epilepsy
    • There are several clients in the Shady Pines Nursing Home that have suffered neurological damage. Given the information on the following slides, determine the part of the brain that has been damaged Exercise
      • Ann is very placid and easy to get along with, but she seems to live only in the moment, with no ability to think ahead or make plans that she can then follow
      • Lucia displays considerable paralysis on the right side of her body
      • Although not on life support systems, Deena has been in a coma for years and shows no signs of waking up
      • Since a very serious automobile accident, Juan has been on life support systems to keep himself alive
      • Leon has difficult walking and performing other routine and daily tasks because he experiences jerks and spasms and a lack of coordination in his arms and legs. He also has trouble maintaining his balance
      • Ben shows extremely confused thinking and disordered attention of the sort that characterizes schizophrenia
      • Lucretia is unable to carry out organized sequences of actions to satisfy basic needs such as hunger
      • Luke is able to comprehend others when they speak to him, but cannot express himself in words or sentences
      • Thurgood cannot understand others when they speak to him, and speaks gibberish himself when he tries to talk
      • Ann is very placid and easy to get along with, but she seems to live only in the moment, with no ability to think ahead or make plans that she can then follow (frontal lobe)
      • Lucia displays considerable paralysis on the right side of her body (left motor cortex)
      • Although not on life support systems, Deena has been in a coma for years and shows no signs of waking up (reticular formation)
      • Since a very serious automobile accident, Juan has been on life support systems to keep himself alive (medulla and/or pons)
      • Leon has difficult walking and performing other routine and daily tasks because he experiences jerks and spasms and a lack of coordination in his arms and legs. He also has trouble maintaining his balance (cerebellum)
      • Ben shows extremely confused thinking and disordered attention of the sort that characterizes schizophrenia (thalamus)
      • Lucretia is unable to carry out organized sequences of actions to satisfy basic needs such as hunger (limbic system)
      • Luke is able to comprehend others when they speak to him, but cannot express himself in words or sentences (Broca’s area of the frontal lobe)
      • Thurgood cannot understand others when they speak to him, and speaks gibberish himself when he tries to talk ( Wernicke’s area of the temporal lobe)