Health place nature

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  • From Barton and Grant, 2006 [adapted from Whitehead and Dahlgren, 1991]
  • Areas covered in the knowledge base and presentation.
  • Challenges to health Healthy life expectancy Although life expectancy in the UK is increasing, healthy life expectancy is increasing at a slower rate. Between 1981 and 2002, life expectancy at birth rose for both males (by 5.1 years to 76.0) and females (by 3.7 years to 80.5). However, during this period healthy life expectancy rose by only 2.8 and 3.2 years for males and females respectively. So while people are living for longer, they are also suffering poor health for longer – and this is particularly apparent in males Health inequalities are increasing Since the 1995-97 baseline, the relative gap in life expectancy between England and the fifth of areas with the worst health and deprivation indicators has increased by two per cent for males and by eleven per cent for females.
  • Challenges to health Incidence of certain diseases are increasing: - Mental illness: In Great Britain, mental health disorders affect about 1 in 6 of the adult population - Obesity related ill health: In England in 2005 nearly a quarter of men and women were obese - Diabetes: Between 1994-2003 in England the prevalence of diabetes in men has increased by nearly two-thirds and in women has almost doubled
  • Table shows costs of some health problems in England
  • From Securing the Future – delivering UK sustainable development strategy [UK Government, 2005]
  • Natural spaces Exposure to natural spaces has been found to have positive benefits for mental and physical health: - A Dutch study found that, when assuming a causal relationship between greenspace and health, a 10 per cent increase in greenspace in the living environment can lead to a decrease in health complaints equivalent to a reduction of in age of five years. [de Vries et al, 2003] - An Australian review of the empirical, theoretical and anecdotal evidence concluded that contact with nature specifically impacts positively on blood pressure, cholesterol, outlook on life and stress reduction [Maller et al, 2005] - The natural environment has also been found to benefit well-being; a literature review concluded that the human response to nature includes feelings of pleasure and interest and a reduction in anger and anxiety [Rohde and Kendle, 1994]
  • Urban public housing residents in Chicago -Residents living in the building without trees and grass reported more procrastination in facing their problems and assessed their issues as more severe, less soluble and more long standing than the residents living in greener surroundings [Kuo 2001]
  • Air pollution - from road transport has decreased by about 50% in the last decade [Defra 2007] - in 2005 was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 7-8 months and cost an estimated £8.5-20.2 billion/annum [Defra 2007] - adverse health effects include: mortality, asthma, rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and lowering of male fertility [WHO, 2005] Road traffic - in 2006, 258,404 people were killed or injured in road accidents in the UK. Of these 3,172 people were killed [Defra 2007/DfT 2007] - increasing the number of people cycling and walking improves road safety, as a motorist is less likely to be involved in a collision [Jacobsen 2003]
  • Noise - In addition to annoyance and sleep disturbance, persistent environmental noise can have negative impacts on health, such as heart disease, hearing impairment and impacts on mental health [Stansfeld et al. 2000] - In residents living around four European airports (including Heathrow), blood pressure levels rose with higher noise levels [Haralabidis, 2008]
  • Floods - The number of people at high risk from future coastal and river flooding in England and Wales could double from 1.6 million today, to over 3 million by 2080 [Foresight 2004] - Health impacts of flooding include respiratory illnesses, reduced resistance to infections, stomach upsets, high blood pressure and psychological distress [Environment Agency, 2005]
  • Physical activity can reduce the risk of developing: -heart disease, cancers, type II diabetes, osteoporosis; and -promote psychological well-being. [WHO] In England in 2006, 60% of men and 72% of women failed to achieve 30 minutes of moderate activity five times a week. [Information Centre for Health and Social Care, 2008] Inactivity costs approximately £8.2 billion/year. [Department of Health, 2004] The health impact of this inactivity in terms of coronary heart disease is comparable to that of smoking. [Killoran et al, 2006]
  • Social capital Getting out and meeting people ( social contact and social capital ) has been shown to help people live longer and be healthier physically (e.g. lower risk of stroke) and mentally (e.g. less depression). [Berkman, 2000; Kawachi, 1996; Diener and Seligman, 2002] Conversely, people with fewer social networks and emotional support may be more likely to be obese, experience less well-being and more mental health problems and be at a greater risk of pregnancy complications. [Wilkinson and Marmot, 2003] A study in Finland found that men with fewer social connections were at higher risk of all-cause mortality and heart disease. [Kaplan, 1998]
  • Accessibility - Local facilities create opportunities for social interaction [RCEP, 2007] - Because of transport difficulties: 1 in 4 young people have not attended a job interview; 1.4 million people missed, turned down or chose not to seek medical help [Social Exclusion Unit, 2003] - The location and accessibility of shops and services may influence the obesogenic environment i.e. the role environmental factors may play in determining both energy intake and expenditure [NICE, 2008] - Between 1995 and 2000, Britain lost approximately one-fifth of its local services, including corner shops, post offices and banks and it predicted that we will lose a further third over the next decade. This social and economic decline can result in car dependency in more isolated communities, hitting the most vulnerable in society, who are less likely to have access to a car, the hardest. [Nef, 2002; ONS, 2007]
  • Mixed land-use - A study in Galway found that people living in mixed use, walkable neighbourhoods had higher levels of social capital compared to those in more suburban car-oriented neighbourhoods. [Leyden, 2003] - A Canadian study found that in neighbourhoods of mixed income, the less affluent had better health and quality of life compared to those living in less affluent neighbourhoods. [Hou and Myles, 2004] Street design - The design and layout of towns and cities can encourage or discourage physical activity. [NICE, 2008] - An American study found that residents of highly walkable neighbourhoods engage in 70 minutes more physical activity a week, than those in less walkable neighbourhoods. This equates to walking three miles more per week; over the course of one year this could result in 1.8kg of weight loss. [Saelens et al., 2003]
  • Safety and incivilities - Perceived neighbourhood disorder is associated with poorer mental health. [Clark et al., 2007] - People are more likely to use outdoor space if it considered safe: - An English study found that people who felt safe in their neighbourhoods were more likely to be physically active. [Harrison et al., 2007] - Residents in areas with high levels of graffiti, litter and dog mess were 50 per cent less likely to be physically active and 50 per cent more likely to be overweight/obese. [Ellaway et al.,2005] - Perceptions of road safety can influence mode of transport and levels of physical activity. [Crombie 2002]
  • Natural spaces Greenspace can facilitate social contact: -A study in Chicago found that 83% more individuals engaged in social activity in green areas than barren spaces. [Sullivan et al., 2004] Local access to safe natural greenspace and attractive scenery is associated with high levels of physical activity within communities. [Bird, 2007] - A European study found that people who live in areas with high levels of greenery were 3 times more likely to be physically active and 40% less likely to be overweight/obese. [Ellaway et al., 2005] - A Norwegian study found children’s play to be more vigorous outdoors than indoors; children who play regularly in natural areas were fitter and had better coordination, balance and agility. [Fjortoft, 2004] - The more attractive parks and urban green spaces become, the more people are likely to use them for physical activity. [CABE, 2007] - ‘Green’ exercise can lead to a significant improvement in self-esteem and mood. [Pretty et al.,2007]
  • Adapted from Claiming the Health Dividend: Unlocking the benefits of NHS spending [King’s Fund, 2002]
  • Health place nature

    1. 1. Health, place and natureHow outdoor environmentsinfluence health and well-being
    2. 2. Health Map Barton & Grant (2006)
    3. 3. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand healthNatural spaces Physical activity DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Social contact Natural Obesity Psychological spaces Air pollution Physical activity well-being General health Cardiovascular Social contact Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Mixed land use Psychological in children Street design Obesity well-being Road Traffic Physical activity Social contact Accidents Obesity Physical activity Deaths Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    4. 4. Challenges to health 80 10.6 70 8.8 10.1 6.5• Healthy life expectancy 69.9 60 67.2 66.7• Health inequalities are 64.4 increasing 50 - Since 1995-97, the gap in life ears 40 Y expectancy between the England 30 average and the poorest areas has increased by 2% for males and 11% 20 for females. 10 Years spent in poor health 0 Healthy Life Expectancy 1981 2002 1981 2002 male male female female
    5. 5. Challenges to health• Incidence of certain diseases are increasing: – Mental illness - In Great Britain, mental health disorders affect about 1 in 6 of the adult population – Obesity related ill health - In England in 2005 nearly a quarter of men and women were obese – Diabetes - Between 1994-2003 in England the prevalence of diabetes in men increased by nearly two- thirds and in women has almost doubled
    6. 6. The cost of ill health Health and Wider Total social care economy Mental ill health £12 £64 £76 billion/annum billion/annum billion/annum Obesity >£1 > £2.3 >£3.7 billion/annum billion/annum billion/annum Diabetes £1.3 Unknown > £1.3 billion/annum billion/annum
    7. 7. Principles ofsustainable development
    8. 8. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Natural Obesity activity Air pollution spaces Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease well-being Blood pressure Mortality Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Psychological Mixed land use in children well-being Street design Obesity Road Traffic Physical activity Social contact Accidents Obesity Physical activity Deaths Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    9. 9. Natural spaces People with access to nearby nature are generally healthier than those without The more greenspace there is in a person’s residential area, the more healthy theyContact with nature are likely to beimpacts positivelyon blood pressure,cholesterol, outlookon life, stressreduction and childdevelopment
    10. 10. Chicago Kuo, 2001
    11. 11. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical Natural DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity activity spaces Air pollution Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality well-being Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Psychological in children Mixed land use well-being Street design Road Traffic Physical activity Obesity Accidents Obesity Social contact Deaths Physical activity Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    12. 12. Air pollution and road trafficIncreasing thenumber of people Perceptions of road safetycycling and walking can influence levels ofimproves road safety physical activity In 2006, over 250,000 Air pollution reduces people were killed or injured life expectancy by in road accidents in the UK 7-8 months and costs up toAdverse health effects of £20.2 billion/annumair pollution include:mortality, asthma, rhinitis,cardiovascular disease,cancer and lowering ofmale fertility
    13. 13. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical Natural DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity activity spaces Air pollution Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality well-being Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Mixed land use Psychological in children Street design Obesity well-being Road Traffic Physical activity Social contact Accidents Obesity Physical activity Deaths Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    14. 14. Noise Adverse health impacts of persistent environmental noise include: - high blood pressure - heart disease - hearing impairment - mental ill health - poorer reading abilities
    15. 15. Floods The number of people at high risk from future coastal and river flooding in England and Wales could double from 1.6 million today, to over 3 million by 2080 Adverse health impacts of flooding include: - respiratory illnesses - stomach upsets - high blood pressure - psychological distress
    16. 16. Physical activityInactivity costsapproximately 60% of men and 72% of£8.2 billion/year women fail to achieve 30 minutes of activity five times a week Physical activity can reduce the risk of: - heart disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis; and - promote psychological well- being
    17. 17. Social capitalGetting out and meeting peoplehas been shown to help people:• live longer;• be healthier physically• and mentally
    18. 18. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical Natural DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity activity Air pollution spaces Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease well-being Blood pressure Mortality Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Mixed land use Psychological in children Obesity well-being Street design Road Traffic Social contact Physical activity Physical activity Accidents Obesity Deaths Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    19. 19. AccessibilityLocal facilities create opportunities forsocial interaction and physical activity - 1 in 4 young people have notTransport difficulties attended a job interviewcan jeopardiseopportunities: - 1.4 million people missed, turned down or chose not to seek medical help
    20. 20. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity Physical Natural activity spaces Air pollution Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality well-being Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Psychological in children Mixed land use well-being Street design Road Traffic Obesity Physical activity Accidents Social contact Obesity Deaths Physical activity Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    21. 21. Mixed land-use & street designResidents in highly walkable Higher levels of social capitalneighbourhoods engagein 70 minutes morephysical activity a week Reduced risk of obesity Increased risk of obesityCar drivers walk 56minutes less per weekthan non-car owners– equivalent to 2 stoneweight gain over adecade
    22. 22. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical Natural DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity activity spaces Air pollution Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality well-being Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Mixed land use Psychological in children Street design Obesity well-being Road Traffic Physical activity Social contact Accidents Obesity Physical activity Deaths Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    23. 23. Safety and incivilities People who feel safe in their neighbourhood are more likely to be physically activeResidents in areas with highlevels of graffiti, litter anddog mess are 50% lesslikely to be physically active Perceived neighbourhoodand 50% more likely to be disorder is associated withoverweight/ obese poorer mental health
    24. 24. Outdoor INDIRECTenvironment HEALTH IMPACTSand health Natural spaces Physical Natural DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS Safety and incivilities General health Obesity activity spaces Air pollution Physical activity Social contact General health Cardiovascular Social contact Psychological Mental health disease Blood pressure Mortality well-being Cholesterol Cancer Stress & anxiety Male fertility Recovery rates OUTDOOR Floods ENVIRONMENT Noise Respiratory Heart disease illness Hearing Stomach impairment upsets Mental health Blood pressure Reading abilities Mixed land use Psychological in children Obesity well-being Road Traffic Street design Social contact Accidents Physical activity Physical activity Deaths Obesity Accessibility Obesity Social contact
    25. 25. Natural spaces Individuals are more socially engagedPeople living in areas in green areas than in barren spaceswith high levels ofgreenery are 3 timesmore physically activeand 40% less likely tobe overweight/obese ‘Green’ exercise can improve health and well-beingAttractive parksand public greenspaces are morelikely to be usedfor physicalactivity
    26. 26. Virtuous circle Reduces Sustainable economic burden outdoor environment Reduces level of Benefits physical & demand mental health of for health services local population
    27. 27. Next steps • Have this discussion with: – Planners – Architects – Transport planners, and – Public health professionals At a national, regional and/or local level. • Use the principles of sustainable development as a framework for decision making.
    28. 28. For more informationwww.sd-commission.org.uk/health

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