U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
PROPOSED PLAN FOLLOW-UP
OFF-SITE SOIL REMEDY FACT SHEET
Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida
This fact sheet, issued by the U.S. Availability Session
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Date: October 6, 2010
provides clarification and additional information Time: 6:00 PM to 9:00 PM
about off-Site soil activities associated with the
preferred remedy in the Proposed Plan for the Location: Eastside Community Center
Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site (Site), 2841 East University Avenue
Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida. EPA Gainesville, Florida 32601
presented the preferred remedy for the Site
during a public meeting held on August 5th, The community is invited to a public availability
2010. The EPA determined that it should session regarding the Cabot Carbon/Koppers Site.
provide more details and clarification of the Representatives from EPA, the Florida Department
preferred remedy in response to questions and of Health (FDOH), and the Alachua County
concerns voiced by the community during that Environmental Protection Department (ACEPD)
meeting. A separate fact sheet for other will be available to provide information and answer
components of the preferred remedy is being questions about upcoming activities at the Site.
The Administrative Record file for the
This fact sheet provides a brief Site summary, Cabot Carbon/Koppers Site is available at the
addresses specific components of off-site soil
activities included in the preferred remedy, and Alachua County Library
discusses other community concerns related to 401 E. University Ave.
off-site soil cleanup. Gainesville, FL 32601
Site Summary www.aclib.us/locations/headquarters
The Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site is
located in a commercial and residential area of
the northern part of the Gainesville city limits,
Alachua County, Florida. This Site was groundwater, soil, sediment, and surface water
originally two Sites: Cabot Carbon in the to evaluate the effectiveness of the remedy over
southeast portion of the Site and Koppers on the time.
western portion of the Site (Figure 1). Cabot
Carbon was a pine tar and charcoal generation From this point forward the word “Site” will
facility, but is now commercial property. refer to the Koppers (western portion) of the
Koppers was an active wood-treating facility Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site, unless
until December 2009. Although remedial otherwise specified. The word “off-site” will
investigations at the Cabot Carbon/Koppers Site refer to residential and industrial areas
began in 1983 and are now completed, EPA will
continue to collect sampling data for
surrounding the Site. Hogtown and Springstead Off-Site Soil Cleanup Summary
creeks to the north and west of the Site are also Contaminants present in off-site soil include
considered off-site, but will be addressed in a arsenic, PAHs, and dioxins/furans. Cleanup of
separate preferred remedy fact sheet. off-site soil will address contaminant levels that
pose unacceptable risk at residences, as well as
Site contamination is a result of releases of commercial properties surrounding the Site.
wood-treatment chemicals. Site contaminants
are associated with the historical use of creosote For soil contamination, a range of options are
for wood treating and include mobile and/or proposed for use on individual subparcels after
residual dense non-aqueous phase liquids obtaining the consent of private property
(DNAPLs). DNAPLs are organic substances owners. The options include:
that do not mix with and are heavier than water. Excavation and removal of soil containing
Site contaminants also include arsenic, concentrations of contaminants that exceed
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and specified cleanup goals associated with
dioxins/furans in soil, sediment, and present use of the land.
groundwater. The most predominant Engineered controls that prevent contact
contaminant in groundwater is PAHs. Please with impacted soil that exceeds cleanup
refer to the Feasibility Study (FS) and Proposed goals based on present land use.
Plan for additional details. Institutional controls that protect access and
use of land/properties.
The preferred remedy for this Site is the result How is off-site soil contamination being
of years of collaborative effort and thorough assessed?
review on the part of many organizations, Off-site soil sampling and analyses have been
including input from local agencies and the conducted in the Gainesville area. The
public. This preferred remedy is robust and sampling results are included as an attachment
protective of human health and the environment. to this fact sheet. Results to date indicate that
Its selection initiates cleanup design and action the top six inches of soil obtained from right-of-
consistent with containing, treating, and way samples up to 300 feet west of the Site
controlling contamination associated with the contain dioxin, and to a much lesser degree
Site. It was selected over other options because arsenic and PAHs at concentrations above the
it was determined to provide the overall optimal Florida cleanup target levels for unrestricted
solution based on the Comprehensive residential use. The highest contaminant
Environmental Response, Compensation and concentrations were observed just outside the
Liability Act (CERCLA) FS evaluation criteria. western Site fenceline. Soil samples collected
The preferred remedy is compatible with the to the north of the Site were below Florida
anticipated future use of the property, as cleanup target levels for unrestricted residential
described in more detail below. use.
The preferred remedy has three parts that Further off-site soil sampling is currently being
address three distinct media groups: on-Site completed in residential yards in the Stephen
media (soil and groundwater above the Upper Foster neighborhood and in City right-of-ways
Floridan Aquifer [UFA]), groundwater in the to the south, northeast, and east of the former
UFA, and off-site media (soil, sediment, and Koppers facility. Results of these samples
surface water). The activities proposed for should be available in December 2010. Those
cleanup of off-site soil will be described in this sample results will be provided to property
fact sheet. A general summary of off-site soil owners as well as the general public at that time.
cleanup activities is presented first, followed by
responses to concerns that have been voiced by
What are dioxins and where might they What studies are being conducted to
be found? determine if contaminated soil will affect
Dioxins typically refer to a group of 75 different human health?
chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins that have similar Concentrations of site-related contaminants in
chemical structures (congeners). Chlorinated off-site soil are being compared to the Florida
dibenzo furans (furans) are also structurally SCTLs. SCTLs are conservative and protective
similar to dioxins. There are 210 structurally of human health for intended uses of the land
related compounds in the dioxin/furan family. (i.e., there are different cleanup levels for
Dioxins are known contaminants of the wood residential and commercial land uses). The
preservative pentachlorophenol (PCP). PCP Florida Department of Health (FDOH) is
was used in the wood treating process at the conducting a health survey in the vicinity of the
Koppers Site beginning in 1969 and was former Koppers Site and continues to issue
discontinued by 1990. Of the dioxin/furan health advisories as soil sampling results are
family of contaminants, seventeen are obtained.
potentially toxic according to the World Health
Organization. How will remediation of off-site
properties be conducted?
Dioxins are found almost everywhere in the Cleanup of off-site properties will expedited.
environment at low levels (parts per trillion Off-site sampling will continue throughout the
[ppt] or parts per quadrillion [ppq]) in the air, process to expedite completion of off-site
water, and soil. At the Koppers Site dioxins cleanup.
presumably entered the environment when
wood-treatment chemicals were dripped onto The primary approach for off-site soil that
the soil or deposited into unlined lagoons. contains a Site contaminant that exceeds the
Dioxins bind strongly to soil and sediments and Florida SCTL is removal of soil with
are suspected of being transported off-site replacement of clean soil to a depth of up to 2
through movement of surface soils via feet. A secondary approach that is consistent
windblown dust and sediments via storm water with Florida law involves developing a
runoff. Soil particles carried in storm water voluntary agreement between property owners
would have likely been deposited in the and the responsible party, Beazer East, that may
drainage ditch that begins on-Site and directs require institutional controls (i.e., deed
storm water north toward Hogtown Creek and restrictions or engineering controls, such as an
subsequently flows into Springstead Creek. asphalt driveway) that prevent exposure to soils
Dioxins have very low solubilities in water (i.e., that exceed default SCTLs.
they will not dissolve into water from the
sediment particles). Therefore, dioxins bound Why was re-location of residents not
in this sediment are unlikely to degrade addressed?
significantly. Residents surrounding the Site are not located
on a direct source area or a highly contaminated
Soil-bound dioxins were presumably groundwater plume. Based on concentrations of
transported off-site due to windblown dust were contaminants in surface soil at surrounding
deposited in areas surrounding the Site . That residences and the practical remedial
is, the soil particles either settle out of the air alternatives that exist for preventing exposure to
due to gravity, or are washed out by rainfall. these soils, relocation is not warranted.
After these soil particles are deposited to the Alternatives presented in the preferred remedy
ground surface, soil-bound dioxins are unlikely will be protective of human health.
to reach the underlying groundwater due to
being very insoluble in water.
How will EPA determine that no Mailing List
contamination is left at my property? Anyone wishing to be placed on the mailing list
After the off-site soil remedies have been for this Site should send his/her request to Ms.
implemented, EPA will collect soil samples to LaTonya Spencer, EPA Community
confirm that contaminated soils have been Involvement Coordinator, at the above address.
removed, or if selected by property owners, You may also call Ms. Spencer with your
engineering controls are properly in place. request at (800) 435-9234 or (404) 562-8463
EPA provides information to the community
regarding Site cleanup through fact sheets,
Information concerning the Cabot Carbon/
public meetings, local Site information
Koppers Superfund Site may be found at the
repository, and the Administrative Record file.
Copies of data and reports generated during Site
investigations for use in the remedy selection
Alachua County Library
process are located in the Administrative
401 E. University Ave.
Record file. This fact sheet will become part of
Gainesville, FL 32601
the Administrative Record file for the cleanup
decision for the Carbon/Koppers Superfund
Site. The public may review this file at the
Alachua County Library.
EPA will be providing an additional opportunity
for the community to address any remaining
questions they may have about Site cleanup
during an availability session that will be held
from 6:00 PM until 9:00 PM on October 6,
2010, at the Eastside Community Center, 2841
East University Avenue, Gainesville, Florida
An availability session for the Cabot Carbon/
Koppers Superfund Site will be held from 6:00
PM until 9:00 PM on October 6, 2010, at the
Eastside Community Center, 2841 East
University Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32601.