DIESEL ENGINE
POWER PLANT
&
MISCELLANEOUS
TOPICS
Introduction
 Good for medium and small outputs
 Used where price comparison and
availability is made to coal power
plan...
Classification of Engines
 Method of Ignition
– Spark Ignition
– Compression Ignition
 Cycles of Operation
– Two Stroke
...
4
Physical Principles
related to Engine
Operation
 Energy conversion
 Vacuum
 Pressure
 The relationship between tempe...
5
Basic Parts of the
Gasoline Engine Cylinder block
 Piston
 Piston rings
 Piston pin
 Connecting rod
 Crankshaft
 ...
6
Cylinder Block
 Basic frame of
gasoline engine.
 Contains the
cylinder.
7
Piston
 A sliding plug that
harnesses the force
of the burning gases
in the cylinder.
8
Piston Rings
 The rings seal the
compression gases
above the piston
keep the oil below
the piston rings.
9
Piston Pins
 Also known as the
wrist pin, it connects
the piston to the
small end of the
connecting rod.
 It transfers...
10
Connecting Rod
 Connects the piston
and piston pin to the
crankshaft.
11
Crankshaft
 Along the the piston
pin and connecting
rod it converts the
up and down motion
(reciprocating) of the
engi...
12
Flywheel
 Carries the inertia
when there is no
power stroke.
13
Lower End Action
14
Cylinder Head
 Forms the top of the
combustion
chamber.
 Contains the valves,
the passageways for
the fuel mixture to...
15
Intake and Exhaust
Valves
 Doorway that lets
the gases in and out
of the engine.
16
Camshaft
 Through the use of
an eccentric the
cam lobes push the
valves open.
 The valve springs
close them.
17
Spark Plug
 Electric match used
to begin the
combustion process
of burning air and
gasoline to create
heat.
18
Engine Related Terms
 TDC (top dead center)
 BDC (bottom dead center)
 Stroke
 Bore
 Revolution
 Compression Rati...
19
Four Stroke Cycle
 Intake
 Compression
 Power
 Exhaust
20
Intake Stroke
 Intake valve opens.
 Piston moves down, ½
turn of crankshaft.
 A vacuum is created in
the cylinder.
...
21
Compression Stroke
 Valves close.
 Piston moves up, ½
turn of crankshaft.
 Air/fuel mixture is
compressed.
 Fuel st...
22
Power Stroke
 Valves remain
closed.
 Spark plug fires
igniting fuel mixture.
 Piston moves down,
½ turn of crankshaf...
23
Exhaust Stroke
 Exhaust valve
opens.
 Piston move up,
crankshaft makes ½
turn.
 Exhaust gases are
pushed out polluti...
24
Four Stroke Cycle
Animation
25
Two Stroke Animation
26
Diesel Animation
Diesel Engine
Intake Stroke:
•Piston moves from TDC to BDC
creating vacuum in the cylinder
•Intake valve opens allowing on...
Diesel Engine
Compression Stroke
•Both valves stay closed
•Piston moves from BDC to TDC,
compressing air to 22:1
•Compress...
Diesel Engine
Power Stroke
•Both valves stay closed
•When the piston is at the end of
compression stroke(TDC) the injector...
Diesel Engine
Exhaust Stroke
•Piston moves from BDC to
TDC
•Exhaust valve opens and the
exhaust gases escape
•Intake valve...
Diesel Engine
Four Strokes of Diesel Engine
32
Diesel 2 stroke
33
Diesel
Diesel Engine
The only difference between diesel engine and a four-stroke
gasoline engine is:
•No sparkplug on Diesel engi...
35
Why not diesel?
1. Diesel engines, because they have
much higher compression ratios (20:1
for a typical diesel vs. 8:1 ...
36
Why not diesel?
3. Diesel engines, because of the weight and
compression ratio, tend to have lower
maximum RPM ranges t...
37
Why not diesel?
5. Diesel engines tend to produce more
smoke and "smell funny".
6. Diesel engines are harder to start i...
38
Advantages
 The two things working in favor of diesel
engines are better fuel economy and longer
engine life. Both of ...
Important Terms
 Direct and Indirect Ignition
 Glow Plugs
 Engine Performance Parameters
DIESEL ENGINES
Indirect and Direct Injection
 In an indirect injection
(abbreviated IDI) diesel
engine, fuel is injected ...
DIESEL ENGINES
Indirect and Direct Injection
FIGURE 4-4 A direct injection diesel
engine injects the fuel directly into th...
GLOW PLUGS
 Glow plugs are always used in diesel
engines equipped with a precombustion
chamber and may be used in direct ...
Engine Performance
Parameters
 IMEP
 IHP
 BHP
 ITE
 BTE
 ME
Indicated Mean Effective
Pressure (IMEP)
Indicator Diagram
Indicated Mean Effective
Pressure (IMEP)
 In order to determine the power
developed by the engine indicator
diagram shoul...
Indicated Horse Power (IHP)
 It can be calculated as
 Pm is the IMPE in kg/cm2
 L is length of stroke in m
 A is area ...
Brake Horse Power (BHP)
 It is defined as the net output power
available at the crank shaft.
 It is found by using a dyn...
Frictional Horse Power (FHP)
 It is the difference between IHP and
BHP
FHP = IHP - FHP
Indicated Thermal Efficiency
(ITE)
 It is defined as the ratio of indicated
work to thermal input
 Where W is the weight...
Brake Thermal
Efficiency
 It is defined as the ratio of indicated
work to thermal input
 Where W is the weight of the fu...
Mechanical Efficiency
 It is the ratio of BHP to IHP
m
BHP
IHP
η =
Example 4.4
 A diesel power station has a supply power demand of
30kW. If the overall efficiency of generating station is...
Example 4.4 contd.
 (b) calculate the electrical energy generated per ton of
fuel
 Input per ton = 1000 kg
= 1000 * 1200...
Miscellaneous Topics
 Instrumentation
– Barometer
– Manometer
– Pyrometer
 Running Alternators in Parallel
 Advantages ...
AC or DC
 Brief History
 Available standards
 AC 220 or 110 ?
 50Hz or 60 Hz
Running Alternators in Parallel
 What is synchronizing
– Connecting of two or more alternators
 Conditions
– Frequency o...
Advantages of AC Tx
 Possible to generate voltage as high
as 33kV as compared to 11kV max in
DC
 Stepping up of voltage ...
Torricelli Barometer
 The mercury in the tube
pushes down with its
weight.
 The bottom of the tube
is open to the
atmosp...
Barometer Detail
Why doesn’t the diameter of the
column of Hg make a
difference?
Recall that Pressure =
force/area.
The “f...
Manometer
 A manometer is
comprised of a bulb
containing a gas and
a U-shaped tube.
 The U-shaped tube is
partially fill...
Manometer
– measures contained gas pressure
U-tube Manometer Bourdon-tube gauge
Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/...
lower
pressure
higher
pressure
Manometer
P1
Pa
height
750 mm Hg
130 mm
higher
pressure
880 mm Hg
Pa =
h =+-
lower
pressure...
Manometer
Pb
Pa
750 mm HgPa =
lower
pressure
Manometer
Pa
height
750 mm Hg
130 mm
lower
pressure
620 mm Hg
Pa =
h =-
880 mm Hg
higher
pressure
higher
pressure
Manometer
Pa
height
750 mm Hg
130 mm
Pa =
h =+
PYROMETERY
 Pyrometery is the art and science of measurement of high
temperatures. Pyrometery makes use of radiation emit...
PYROMETERS
 Pyrometer is a device capable of measuring temperatures of objects
above incandescence i.e. objects bright to...
PRINCIPLE
A pyrometer has
 optical system
 detector
It is based upon “Stephan Boltzmann law”
E=σ AT4
Basic Pyrometer
Diesel Engine Power Plant - Syed Anser Hussain Naqvi
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  • Manometers measure the pressures of samples of gases contained in an apparatus. • A key feature of a manometer is a U-shaped tube containing mercury. • In a closed-end manometer , the space above the mercury column on the left (the reference arm) is a vacuum ( P  0), and the difference in the heights of the two columns gives the pressure of the gas contained in the bulb directly. • In an open-end manometer , the left (reference) arm is open to the atmosphere here ( P = 1 atm), and the difference in the heights of the two columns gives the difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the gas in the bulb.
  • Diesel Engine Power Plant - Syed Anser Hussain Naqvi

    1. 1. DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT & MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
    2. 2. Introduction  Good for medium and small outputs  Used where price comparison and availability is made to coal power plants  Main element is a diesel engine
    3. 3. Classification of Engines  Method of Ignition – Spark Ignition – Compression Ignition  Cycles of Operation – Two Stroke – Four Stroke  On basis of fuel – Petrol – Diesel
    4. 4. 4 Physical Principles related to Engine Operation  Energy conversion  Vacuum  Pressure  The relationship between temperature, pressure and volume.  The three states of matter.
    5. 5. 5 Basic Parts of the Gasoline Engine Cylinder block  Piston  Piston rings  Piston pin  Connecting rod  Crankshaft  Cylinder head  Intake valve  Exhaust valve  Camshaft  Timing gears  Spark plug
    6. 6. 6 Cylinder Block  Basic frame of gasoline engine.  Contains the cylinder.
    7. 7. 7 Piston  A sliding plug that harnesses the force of the burning gases in the cylinder.
    8. 8. 8 Piston Rings  The rings seal the compression gases above the piston keep the oil below the piston rings.
    9. 9. 9 Piston Pins  Also known as the wrist pin, it connects the piston to the small end of the connecting rod.  It transfers the force and allows the rod to swing back and forth.
    10. 10. 10 Connecting Rod  Connects the piston and piston pin to the crankshaft.
    11. 11. 11 Crankshaft  Along the the piston pin and connecting rod it converts the up and down motion (reciprocating) of the engine to spinning (rotary) motion.
    12. 12. 12 Flywheel  Carries the inertia when there is no power stroke.
    13. 13. 13 Lower End Action
    14. 14. 14 Cylinder Head  Forms the top of the combustion chamber.  Contains the valves, the passageways for the fuel mixture to move in and out of the engine.
    15. 15. 15 Intake and Exhaust Valves  Doorway that lets the gases in and out of the engine.
    16. 16. 16 Camshaft  Through the use of an eccentric the cam lobes push the valves open.  The valve springs close them.
    17. 17. 17 Spark Plug  Electric match used to begin the combustion process of burning air and gasoline to create heat.
    18. 18. 18 Engine Related Terms  TDC (top dead center)  BDC (bottom dead center)  Stroke  Bore  Revolution  Compression Ratio  Displacement  Cycle
    19. 19. 19 Four Stroke Cycle  Intake  Compression  Power  Exhaust
    20. 20. 20 Intake Stroke  Intake valve opens.  Piston moves down, ½ turn of crankshaft.  A vacuum is created in the cylinder.  Atmospheric pressure pushes the air/fuel mixture into the cylinder.
    21. 21. 21 Compression Stroke  Valves close.  Piston moves up, ½ turn of crankshaft.  Air/fuel mixture is compressed.  Fuel starts to vaporize and heat begins to build.
    22. 22. 22 Power Stroke  Valves remain closed.  Spark plug fires igniting fuel mixture.  Piston moves down, ½ turn of crankshaft.  Heat is converted to mechanical energy.
    23. 23. 23 Exhaust Stroke  Exhaust valve opens.  Piston move up, crankshaft makes ½ turn.  Exhaust gases are pushed out polluting the atmosphere.
    24. 24. 24 Four Stroke Cycle Animation
    25. 25. 25 Two Stroke Animation
    26. 26. 26 Diesel Animation
    27. 27. Diesel Engine Intake Stroke: •Piston moves from TDC to BDC creating vacuum in the cylinder •Intake valve opens allowing only air to enter the cylinder and exhaust valve remains closed
    28. 28. Diesel Engine Compression Stroke •Both valves stay closed •Piston moves from BDC to TDC, compressing air to 22:1 •Compressing the air to this extent increases the temperature inside the cylinder to above 1000 degree F.
    29. 29. Diesel Engine Power Stroke •Both valves stay closed •When the piston is at the end of compression stroke(TDC) the injector sprays a mist of diesel fuel into the cylinder. •When hot air mixes with diesel fuel an explosion takes place in the cylinder. •Expanding gases push the piston from TDC to BDC
    30. 30. Diesel Engine Exhaust Stroke •Piston moves from BDC to TDC •Exhaust valve opens and the exhaust gases escape •Intake valve remains closed
    31. 31. Diesel Engine Four Strokes of Diesel Engine
    32. 32. 32 Diesel 2 stroke
    33. 33. 33 Diesel
    34. 34. Diesel Engine The only difference between diesel engine and a four-stroke gasoline engine is: •No sparkplug on Diesel engine. •Has a higher compression ratio. (14:1 to 25:1) •Better fuel mileage.
    35. 35. 35 Why not diesel? 1. Diesel engines, because they have much higher compression ratios (20:1 for a typical diesel vs. 8:1 for a typical gasoline engine), tend to be heavier than an equivalent gasoline engine. 2. Diesel engines also tend to be more expensive.
    36. 36. 36 Why not diesel? 3. Diesel engines, because of the weight and compression ratio, tend to have lower maximum RPM ranges than gasoline engines (see Question 381 for details). This makes diesel engines high torque rather than high horsepower, and that tends to make diesel cars slow in terms of acceleration. 4. Diesel engines must be fuel injected, and in the past fuel injection was expensive and less reliable
    37. 37. 37 Why not diesel? 5. Diesel engines tend to produce more smoke and "smell funny". 6. Diesel engines are harder to start in cold weather, and if they contain glow plugs, diesel engines can require you to wait before starting the engine so the glow plugs can heat up. 7. Diesel engines are much noisier and tend to vibrate. 8. Diesel fuel is less readily available than gasoline
    38. 38. 38 Advantages  The two things working in favor of diesel engines are better fuel economy and longer engine life. Both of these advantages mean that, over the life of the engine, you will tend to save money with a diesel.  However, you also have to take the initial high cost of the engine into account. You have to own and operate a diesel engine for a fairly long time before the fuel economy overcomes the increased purchase price of the engine.
    39. 39. Important Terms  Direct and Indirect Ignition  Glow Plugs  Engine Performance Parameters
    40. 40. DIESEL ENGINES Indirect and Direct Injection  In an indirect injection (abbreviated IDI) diesel engine, fuel is injected into a small prechamber, which is connected to the cylinder by a narrow opening.  The initial combustion takes place in this prechamber.  This has the effect of slowing the rate of combustion, which tends to reduce noise. FIGURE 4-3 An indirect injection diesel engine uses a prechamber and a glow plug.
    41. 41. DIESEL ENGINES Indirect and Direct Injection FIGURE 4-4 A direct injection diesel engine injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber. Many designs do not use a glow plug.
    42. 42. GLOW PLUGS  Glow plugs are always used in diesel engines equipped with a precombustion chamber and may be used in direct injection diesel engines to aid starting.  A glow plug is a heating element that uses 12 volts from the battery and aids in the starting of a cold engine.  As the temperature of the glow plug increases, the resistance of the heating element inside increases, thereby reducing the current in amperes needed by the glow plugs.
    43. 43. Engine Performance Parameters  IMEP  IHP  BHP  ITE  BTE  ME
    44. 44. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Indicator Diagram
    45. 45. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP)  In order to determine the power developed by the engine indicator diagram should be available  Area of the indicator diagram shows power  But it can also calculate average gas pressure on piston in any stroke  This pressure is called IMEP
    46. 46. Indicated Horse Power (IHP)  It can be calculated as  Pm is the IMPE in kg/cm2  L is length of stroke in m  A is area of piston  N is speed in rpm  n is number of cylinders  k is for stroke count of engine . . . . 4500. mP L A N n IHP k =
    47. 47. Brake Horse Power (BHP)  It is defined as the net output power available at the crank shaft.  It is found by using a dynamometer at the output of the shaft where N is speed in rpm T is torque 2 4500 NT BHP π =
    48. 48. Frictional Horse Power (FHP)  It is the difference between IHP and BHP FHP = IHP - FHP
    49. 49. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE)  It is defined as the ratio of indicated work to thermal input  Where W is the weight of the fuel CV is the calorific value of the fuel J is the joules equivalent = 427 4500 i IHP W CV J η × = × ×
    50. 50. Brake Thermal Efficiency  It is defined as the ratio of indicated work to thermal input  Where W is the weight of the fuel CV is the calorific value of the fuel J is the joules equivalent = 427 4500 b BHP W CV J η × = × ×
    51. 51. Mechanical Efficiency  It is the ratio of BHP to IHP m BHP IHP η =
    52. 52. Example 4.4  A diesel power station has a supply power demand of 30kW. If the overall efficiency of generating station is 40%, (a) Calculate the diesel required per hour and also (b) calculate the electrical energy generated per ton of fuel  Efficiency = Output/ Input  0.4 =30/Input  Input = 0.4*30 = 75kW  Energy per hour = 75kWh = 75*860 kcal = 64500kcal  Fuel Required = 64500 / 12000 = 5.37kg
    53. 53. Example 4.4 contd.  (b) calculate the electrical energy generated per ton of fuel  Input per ton = 1000 kg = 1000 * 12000 kcal = 1000 * 12000 / 860 KWh = 13954 kWh  Efficency = Output/Input Output = Efficiency * Input = 0.4 * 13954 = 5581 kWh
    54. 54. Miscellaneous Topics  Instrumentation – Barometer – Manometer – Pyrometer  Running Alternators in Parallel  Advantages of AC transmission  Stability of Power Systems
    55. 55. AC or DC  Brief History  Available standards  AC 220 or 110 ?  50Hz or 60 Hz
    56. 56. Running Alternators in Parallel  What is synchronizing – Connecting of two or more alternators  Conditions – Frequency of the systems should be identical – Phases of the incoming alternator should be identical to that of the bus bar – Voltage of the incoming alternator should be approximately same as that of the bus bar
    57. 57. Advantages of AC Tx  Possible to generate voltage as high as 33kV as compared to 11kV max in DC  Stepping up of voltage is much easier in AC as compared to DC  Easier to maintain AC substation  Efficiency is much higher than DC
    58. 58. Torricelli Barometer  The mercury in the tube pushes down with its weight.  The bottom of the tube is open to the atmosphere.  The air pushes on the open surface of the mercury.  On an average day, the pressure of the air equals the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high. Weight of mercury
    59. 59. Barometer Detail Why doesn’t the diameter of the column of Hg make a difference? Recall that Pressure = force/area. The “force” is the weight of the mercury, but the pressure that results is that weight divided by the area of the column. So … a bigger column weighs more but also has a proportionally bigger area, and the two factors cancel one another out. The pressure caused by the column of mercury pressing down is independent of the diameter of
    60. 60. Manometer  A manometer is comprised of a bulb containing a gas and a U-shaped tube.  The U-shaped tube is partially filled with mercury. The weight of the mercury puts pressure on the gas.  If the U-tube is OPEN there is also air pressure acting on the gas.  The gas molecules put pressure on the mercury. PHg
    61. 61. Manometer – measures contained gas pressure U-tube Manometer Bourdon-tube gauge Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem
    62. 62. lower pressure higher pressure Manometer P1 Pa height 750 mm Hg 130 mm higher pressure 880 mm Hg Pa = h =+- lower pressure 620 mm Hg P1 = Pa P1 < Pa
    63. 63. Manometer Pb Pa 750 mm HgPa =
    64. 64. lower pressure Manometer Pa height 750 mm Hg 130 mm lower pressure 620 mm Hg Pa = h =-
    65. 65. 880 mm Hg higher pressure higher pressure Manometer Pa height 750 mm Hg 130 mm Pa = h =+
    66. 66. PYROMETERY  Pyrometery is the art and science of measurement of high temperatures. Pyrometery makes use of radiation emitted by the surface to determine its temperature  Temperature measuring devices invented are called pyrometers
    67. 67. PYROMETERS  Pyrometer is a device capable of measuring temperatures of objects above incandescence i.e. objects bright to the human eye).  It is a non contact device  A device that measures thermal radiation in any temperature range.
    68. 68. PRINCIPLE A pyrometer has  optical system  detector It is based upon “Stephan Boltzmann law” E=σ AT4
    69. 69. Basic Pyrometer

    ×