Development Plans & Policies In Pakistan - Syed Anser Hussain Naqvi


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  • But instead of this polarity, think about sustainable development as achieving economic health, environmental protection, and social equity objectives in an integrated, comprehensive way. It is about equal consideration between economic development and environmental quality, between technological innovation and community stability, and between investment in people and investment in infrastructure. Because it is broadly based -- cutting across all dimensions of human life, including such issues as energy shortages, species extinctions, pollution, disease, breakdown in families, armed conflict, child abuse, poverty, and corruption -- sustainable development requires participation by all of society in moving beyond the conflicts of debate.
  • Development Plans & Policies In Pakistan - Syed Anser Hussain Naqvi

    1. 1. Development Plans & Policies In Pakistan Presented By M. Shahzad Abbasi, AL - 540246 Syed Anser Hussain, AL - 539159 Asif Saleem Raja, AL- 541035 Allama Iqbal Open University MSc Sociology
    2. 2. Climate change, global trade, war, cultural conflict, biodiversity, poverty and the challenges of international development are among the defining features of our times. These along with similar issues such as energy, waste and sustainability are interlinked, and find a common focus in the OU’s environment, development and international studies courses. From fuel sources to fair-trade coffee, in our interconnected world governments, organizations and individuals are all encouraged to think about the impact of their actions in environmental and international terms. With our qualifications you can explore some of the most challenging trends and developments that are shaping our world and the individuals who inhabit it. You'll become a more enlightened citizen. And on a professional level, you’ll acquire highly valued skills that you can deploy in the public, private and voluntary sectors. Environmental Development
    3. 3. Volunteers travel to developing countries to work on a huge variety of projects such as assisting in under-resourced schools, offering expertise at under-equipped medical facilities, campaigning on human rights issues, providing care for HIV/AIDS orphans, promoting improved agricultural practices and so on. But why do these problems exist in the first place and why are they not easily solved through our goodwill and charity? Learning about development can help us understand more about the causes of and solutions to these problems and can help us be better informed volunteers, addressing not just the superficial poverty related issues but the deeper rooted causes as well. It can help us to have a more complex and accurate impression of the developing world than what is commonly shown to us through charity advertising. It can also help us when we return to educate others about the issues involved. Why Learn About Development
    4. 4. Paradigm of Development Environmental Development Social Development Economic Development
    5. 5. Mainstreaming Environment Distributive policies Distributive policies extend goods and services to members of an organization, as well as distributing the costs of the goods/services amongst the members of the organization. Examples include government policies that impact spending for welfare, public education, highways, and public safety, or a professional organization's benefits plan. Regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of behavior. These policies are generally thought to be best applied when good behavior can be easily defined and bad behavior can be easily regulated and punished through fines or sanctions. An example of a fairly successful public regulatory policy is that of a speed limit. Constituent policies, create executive power entities, or deal with laws. Constituent policies also deal with Fiscal Policy in some circumstances
    6. 6. Pakistan Vision 2030 and Environment • The first goal of Vision 2030 is the attainment of prosperity without which growth can not be sustainable. The second fundamental tenet is the establishment of a society which is innovative and productive, and which makes excellence its guiding star. This is the only route to be competitive in the 21st Century. • The Vision 2030 for environmental conservation and management aims for: equitable sharing of environmental benefits increasing community management of national resources integrating environmental issues into socio-economic planning • Environment sustainability ensures that pursuit of rapid economic growth does not jeopardize environment quality and reduce the benefits of growth via increased pollution, inefficient use of energy, low coverage of sanitation and limited access to safe drinking water.
    7. 7. Development is a complex issue, with many different and sometimes contentious definitions. A basic perspective equates development with economic growth. The UN Development Program uses a more detailed definition according to them development is 'to lead long & healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living & to be able to participate in the life of the community.' Achieving human development is linked to a 3rd perspective of development which views it as freeing people from obstacles that affect their ability to develop their own lives & communities. Development, therefore, is empowerment: it is about local people taking control of their own lives, expressing their own demands & finding their own solutions to their problems. Definition of Development
    8. 8. Rural development actions are mainly and mostly to development aim for the social and economic development of the rural areas. Rural development programs are usually top-down from the local or regional authorities, regional development agencies, NGOs, national governments or international development organizations. But then, local populations can also bring about endogenous initiatives for development. The term is not limited to the issues for developing countries. In fact many of the developed countries have very active rural development programs. The main aim of the rural government policy is to develop the undeveloped villages. Rural development aims at finding the ways to improve the rural lives with participation of the rural people themselves so as to meet the required need of the rural area. The outsider may not understand the setting, culture, language and other things prevalent in the local area. In developing countries like Nepal, India, integrated development approaches are being followed up. Rural Development
    9. 9. No single definition incorporates all of the different strands of economic development. Typically economic development can be described in terms of objectives. These are most commonly described as the creation of jobs and wealth, and the improvement of quality of life. Economic development can also be described as a process that influences growth and restructuring of an economy to enhance the economic well being of a community. In the broadest sense, economic development encompasses three major areas: Policies that government undertakes to meet broad economic objectives including inflation control, high employment, and sustainable growth. Policies and programs to provide services including building highways, managing parks, and providing medical access to the disadvantaged. Policies and programs explicitly directed at improving the business climate through specific efforts, business finance, marketing, neighborhood development, business retention and expansion, technology transfer, real estate development and others. The main goal of economic development is improving the economic well being of a community through efforts that entail job creation, job retention, tax base enhancements and quality of life. As there is no single definition for economic development, there is no single strategy, policy, or program for achieving successful economic development. Communities differ in their geographic and political strengths and weaknesses. Each community, therefore, will have a unique set of challenges for economic development. Economic Development
    10. 10. A social energy helps develop. A certain will of the society releases that energy. Sometimes that energy is directed to become a social force. That direction is given by the social attitude and social goals. An organization in the society converts that force into social power. The available social skills convert that social power into the social results mentioned above. The process by which the social energy is converted into social results is a social process. It is this process that is called development. Social Development
    11. 11. What is Social Development? Social Development is a broad term that describes actions that are taken to build positive outcomes and prevent negative social outcomes that can adversely affect a community. These outcomes include issues ranging from crime, poverty, gang activity, school disengagement, teen pregnancy, addictions and substance abuse, obesity, and poor health. The aim of social development is to improve the availability of support systems in the community that prevent negative outcomes before they occur or buffer (lessen) their impact. For example, rather than reacting to a crime after it has already happened, measures are taken within the community that prevent crime from ever occurring. Good prevention starts with parents before they have children and very directly once conception has occurred. Evidence suggests that negative environments not only affect pregnant mothers but can very directly alter the architecture of the brain of the unborn child. These events and circumstances forever change the pathways of development and ways of interacting with the world and the people in it. In other words, adverse events and circumstances affect a child’s capacity to learn, their behavior and their health. Recent research has suggested that there is a 17:1 return on investment in the early years for vulnerable children and a 1:8 return for the remainder of the population. Social development is about creating environments that enable children and youth to thrive and not merely survive.
    12. 12. Development “…that which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs"
    13. 13. Rural development generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively far-flung and sparsely populated areas. Rural development has traditionally centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry. However, changes in global production networks and increased urbanization have changed the character of rural areas. Increasingly tourism, position manufacturers, and recreation have replaced resource extraction and agriculture as dominant economic drivers. The need for rural communities to approach development from a wider perspective has created more focus on a broad range of development goals rather than merely creating incentive for agricultural or resource based businesses. Education, free enterprise, physical / social infrastructure all play an important role in developing rural regions. Rural development is also characterized by its emphasis on locally produced economic development strategies. In contrast to urban regions, which have many similarities, rural areas are highly distinctive from one another. For this reason there are a large variety of rural development approaches used globally. Rural Development
    14. 14. The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, with consequent changes in society. Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot. Industrial Development
    15. 15. What is Planning? “formulation of programmes and policies designed to lead it by a consciously directed and accelerated movement from a largely technological backward and feudalistic stage into the modern era of advanced technology”
    16. 16. What must be done? When must it be done? Where will it be done? How will it be done? Why must it be done? Who will do it? Effective plans revolve around the answers to 6 x basic questions
    17. 17. Development Plans are intended to provide a consistent basis for determining planning applications and to introduce certainty about where and what kinds of development may or may not be allowed over a number of years; otherwise known as the 'plan period'. All planning applications are judged against planning policies that are set out in the Development Plan for the area concerned. Planning law requires that Development Plan policy is generally adhered to in determining planning applications, although other important circumstances can affect the final decision. It is essential therefore for you to know how your planning application may be affected by the policies in your area. All authorities are required to produce Development Plans for their areas. There are various types of Development Plan depending upon the Council concerned. Why are they Important
    18. 18. The term 'Development Plan' describes the various planning policy documents that provide planning guidance for a particular area of the Country. This can be at a Regional, County, District/Borough or Unitary Authority level. These documents set out the Councils adopted policies and proposals for the use of land and take the form of often quite detailed publications, containing formal policies and explanatory text, together with detailed maps of the area, showing the various allocations or restrictions upon land and other pertinent information. The aim is to provide an efficient and effective use of land in the public interest in order to meet the identified needs of the area, whilst also having regard to national and regional planning guidance. Development Plan
    19. 19. The development plan is a document that sets out how places should change and what they could be like in the future. It says what type of development should take place where, and which areas should not be developed. It sets out the best locations for new homes and businesses and protects places of value to people or wildlife. The plan also helps development to take place quickly by describing how any new or improved facilities, such as roads, schools and parks, will be provided. In the 4 main provinces (Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, KPK) and their surrounding areas. The development plan is made up of: The strategic development plan local development plan supplementary guidance. Development Plan
    20. 20. Main Instruments of National Planning 1. Policies 2. Plans i. Perspective Plan 10-25 Years ii. Mid Term Plan 04-07 Years iii. Rolling Plan 03 Years iv. Annual Plan 01 Year
    21. 21. •Provide long-term (10-25 years) economic and social policy framework •Statement of goals to be achieved. •Establishes long-term targets of massive improvement in living standards by mobilizing resources and energies of the nation. •A broad approach to key problems. •Many short term decisions have bearing on long- term growth, which are covered in long term plan. •Economic growth is a continuous process. Planning for it calls for integration and adjustment of short- term, intermediate and long-term programmes. Perspective Plan
    22. 22. • Medium-term plan covers 4-7 years period with 5 years being most popular choice. • Five year plan has the advantage of reasonable time frame for achievement of solid results. • General statement of objectives and targets to be achieved in five years. • Board framework for formulation of short-term/ annual plans. Medium Term / Five Year Plan
    23. 23. • Formulated for one fiscal years. • Principal instrument for adjusting five year plan to current realities. • Instrument for translating plan objectives into an operational program. • Includes an evaluation of past performance, presentation of main annual targets, an outline of investment program in the public and private sector and a broad outline of the economic policies necessary to achieve targets. Annual Plan
    24. 24. •Single-use plans are essentially one-time use plans having a specific goal or objective. •They may run for a few days or last several years. • Projects, programs, & budgets are commonly thought of as single-use plans. Single Use Plans
    25. 25. •Concerned with overall mission. • Define unit objectives & goals. • Give us the big picture. • Designed to provide long-range guidance. • Provide a base line for other plans. • Once mission & objectives have been defined, strategies can be developed to meet them. •Must remain flexible enough to accommodate shifts in policy or action by our own government & other nations. • Must include alternate or contingency plans in anticipation of foreseeable changes. Strategic Plans
    26. 26. Local Plans - interpret the broad Structure Plan policies at a District Council level in great detail often for specific sites. National Parks also produce Local Plans for their areas. The Local Plan is probably the most important planning document you will need to look at before preparing your planning application. The Plan for your area is available for inspection or purchase at your local planning department and many local libraries will also keep a copy. The Plan contains detailed 'Proposals Maps' for the whole District, such as: - Settlement boundaries around cities, towns and villages. Land allocations for housing, commercial and industrial development. Green Belt, Special Landscape areas, public open space, SSSI's etc. Transport proposals for road, rail and air. Educational and other social proposals. Conservation Areas and other issues of special interest. The Proposals Maps are linked to written policies in the Plan, which specify the way in which development may or may not be permitted. Certain policies may prohibit development in certain areas or circumstances altogether, whilst others will establish detailed criteria which must be satisfied if development is to be allowed. Local Plans
    27. 27. Apply to National Areas Set out the strategic framework for planning in the County. They contain policies that are related to the County. Structure Plans are important as they establish the framework within which Local Plans are prepared and interpret Government and Regional guidance at a countywide level. Structure Plans
    28. 28. Different Plans of Pakistan Plan Period 1. Colombo Plan (Six Year Plan) 1951-57 2. Ist Five year Plan 1955-60 3. 2nd Five year Plan 1960-65 4. 3rd Five year Plan 1965-70 5. 4th Five year Plan 1970-75 6. 5th Five year Plan 1978-83 7. 6th Five year Plan 1983-88 8. 7th Five year Plan 1988-93 9. 8th Five year Plan 1993-98 10. 9th Five year Plan 1998-2003 11. 10 Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11 12. Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 2005-10 13. Vision 2030 (Under Consideration) Under Consideration
    29. 29. • It is a principle or rule to guide decisions & achieve rational outcomes. • The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as procedure or protocol. • Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization whereas procedures or protocols would be developed & adopted by senior executive officers. • Policies can assist in both subjective & objective decision making. • Policies to assist in subjective decision making would usually assist senior management with decisions that must consider the relative merits of a number of factors before making decisions & as a result are often hard to objectively test e.g. work-life balance policy. • In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature & can be objectively tested e.g. password policy Definition of Policy
    30. 30. A Policy can be considered as a "Statement of Intent" or a "Commitment". For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for their "Policy“. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g. a law requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome. Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry which is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements. Policy
    31. 31. Company Policy Communications & Information Policy Human resource policies Privacy policy Public policy Defense policy Domestic policy, Economic policy Education policy, Energy policy Environmental Policy Foreign policy, Health policy Housing policy, Information policy Macroeconomic policy Monetary policy, Population policy Public policy in law Science policy, Security policy Social policy, Transportation policy Urban policy, Water policy Types of Policies
    32. 32. 8 x Steps Policy Cycle  Issue identification  Policy analysis  Policy instrument development  Consultation (which permeates the entire process)  Coordination  Decision  Implementation  Evaluation