But instead of this polarity, think about sustainable development as achieving economic health, environmental protection, and social equity objectives in an integrated, comprehensive way. It is about equal consideration between economic development and environmental quality, between technological innovation and community stability, and between investment in people and investment in infrastructure. Because it is broadly based -- cutting across all dimensions of human life, including such issues as energy shortages, species extinctions, pollution, disease, breakdown in families, armed conflict, child abuse, poverty, and corruption -- sustainable development requires participation by all of society in moving beyond the conflicts of debate.
Development Plans & Policies In Pakistan - Syed Anser Hussain Naqvi
Development Plans &
Policies In Pakistan
M. Shahzad Abbasi, AL - 540246
Syed Anser Hussain, AL - 539159
Asif Saleem Raja, AL- 541035
Allama Iqbal Open University
Climate change, global trade, war, cultural conflict, biodiversity,
poverty and the challenges of international development are among the
defining features of our times. These along with similar issues such as
energy, waste and sustainability are interlinked, and find a common
focus in the OU’s environment, development and international studies
From fuel sources to fair-trade coffee, in our interconnected world
governments, organizations and individuals are all encouraged to think
about the impact of their actions in environmental and international
With our qualifications you can explore some of the most challenging
trends and developments that are shaping our world and the
individuals who inhabit it. You'll become a more enlightened citizen.
And on a professional level, you’ll acquire highly valued skills that you
can deploy in the public, private and voluntary sectors.
Volunteers travel to developing countries to work on a huge variety
of projects such as assisting in under-resourced schools, offering
expertise at under-equipped medical facilities, campaigning on
human rights issues, providing care for HIV/AIDS orphans,
promoting improved agricultural practices and so on. But why do
these problems exist in the first place and why are they not easily
solved through our goodwill and charity?
Learning about development can help us understand more about
the causes of and solutions to these problems and can help us be
better informed volunteers, addressing not just the superficial
poverty related issues but the deeper rooted causes as well. It can
help us to have a more complex and accurate impression of the
developing world than what is commonly shown to us through
charity advertising. It can also help us when we return to educate
others about the issues involved.
Why Learn About Development
Paradigm of Development
Distributive policies extend goods and services to members of
an organization, as well as distributing the costs of the
goods/services amongst the members of the organization.
Examples include government policies that impact spending for
welfare, public education, highways, and public safety, or a
professional organization's benefits plan.
Regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of
individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of
behavior. These policies are generally thought to be best
applied when good behavior can be easily defined and bad
behavior can be easily regulated and punished through fines or
sanctions. An example of a fairly successful public regulatory
policy is that of a speed limit.
Constituent policies, create executive power entities, or deal
with laws. Constituent policies also deal with Fiscal Policy in
Pakistan Vision 2030 and Environment
• The first goal of Vision 2030 is the attainment of prosperity without
which growth can not be sustainable. The second fundamental
tenet is the establishment of a society which is innovative and
productive, and which makes excellence its guiding star. This is
the only route to be competitive in the 21st Century.
• The Vision 2030 for environmental conservation and management
equitable sharing of environmental benefits
increasing community management of national resources
integrating environmental issues into socio-economic planning
• Environment sustainability ensures that pursuit of rapid economic
growth does not jeopardize environment quality and reduce the
benefits of growth via increased pollution, inefficient use of energy,
low coverage of sanitation and limited access to safe drinking
Development is a complex issue, with many different and sometimes
contentious definitions. A basic perspective equates development with
economic growth. The UN Development Program uses a more detailed
definition according to them development is 'to lead long & healthy
lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for
a decent standard of living & to be able to participate in the life of the
Achieving human development is linked to a 3rd
development which views it as freeing people from obstacles that affect
their ability to develop their own lives & communities. Development,
therefore, is empowerment: it is about local people taking control of
their own lives, expressing their own demands & finding their own
solutions to their problems.
Definition of Development
Rural development actions are mainly and mostly to development
aim for the social and economic development of the rural areas.
Rural development programs are usually top-down from the local
or regional authorities, regional development agencies, NGOs,
national governments or international development organizations.
But then, local populations can also bring about endogenous
initiatives for development. The term is not limited to the issues
for developing countries. In fact many of the developed countries
have very active rural development programs. The main aim of
the rural government policy is to develop the undeveloped
Rural development aims at finding the ways to improve the rural
lives with participation of the rural people themselves so as to
meet the required need of the rural area. The outsider may not
understand the setting, culture, language and other things
prevalent in the local area. In developing countries like Nepal,
India, integrated development approaches are being followed up.
No single definition incorporates all of the different strands of economic development.
Typically economic development can be described in terms of objectives. These are most
commonly described as the creation of jobs and wealth, and the improvement of quality of
life. Economic development can also be described as a process that influences growth and
restructuring of an economy to enhance the economic well being of a community. In the
broadest sense, economic development encompasses three major areas:
Policies that government undertakes to meet broad economic objectives including
inflation control, high employment, and sustainable growth.
Policies and programs to provide services including building highways, managing parks,
and providing medical access to the disadvantaged.
Policies and programs explicitly directed at improving the business climate through
specific efforts, business finance, marketing, neighborhood development, business
retention and expansion, technology transfer, real estate development and others.
The main goal of economic development is improving the economic well being of a
community through efforts that entail job creation, job retention, tax base enhancements
and quality of life. As there is no single definition for economic development, there is no
single strategy, policy, or program for achieving successful economic development.
Communities differ in their geographic and political strengths and weaknesses. Each
community, therefore, will have a unique set of challenges for economic development.
A social energy helps develop. A certain will
of the society releases that energy.
Sometimes that energy is directed to
become a social force. That direction is given
by the social attitude and social goals. An
organization in the society converts that
force into social power. The available social
skills convert that social power into the social
results mentioned above. The process by
which the social energy is converted into
social results is a social process. It is this
process that is called development.
What is Social Development?
Social Development is a broad term that describes actions that are taken to build
positive outcomes and prevent negative social outcomes that can adversely
affect a community. These outcomes include issues ranging from crime, poverty,
gang activity, school disengagement, teen pregnancy, addictions and substance
abuse, obesity, and poor health.
The aim of social development is to improve the availability of support systems
in the community that prevent negative outcomes before they occur or buffer
(lessen) their impact. For example, rather than reacting to a crime after it has
already happened, measures are taken within the community that prevent crime
from ever occurring.
Good prevention starts with parents before they have children and very directly
once conception has occurred. Evidence suggests that negative environments
not only affect pregnant mothers but can very directly alter the architecture of
the brain of the unborn child. These events and circumstances forever change
the pathways of development and ways of interacting with the world and the
people in it. In other words, adverse events and circumstances affect a child’s
capacity to learn, their behavior and their health.
Recent research has suggested that there is a 17:1 return on investment in the
early years for vulnerable children and a 1:8 return for the remainder of the
population. Social development is about creating environments that enable
children and youth to thrive and not merely survive.
“…that which meets the needs of the
present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet
Rural development generally refers to the process of improving the
quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively
far-flung and sparsely populated areas. Rural development has
traditionally centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural
resources such as agriculture and forestry. However, changes in
global production networks and increased urbanization have
changed the character of rural areas. Increasingly tourism, position
manufacturers, and recreation have replaced resource extraction
and agriculture as dominant economic drivers. The need for rural
communities to approach development from a wider perspective
has created more focus on a broad range of development goals
rather than merely creating incentive for agricultural or resource
based businesses. Education, free enterprise, physical / social
infrastructure all play an important role in developing rural regions.
Rural development is also characterized by its emphasis on locally
produced economic development strategies. In contrast to urban
regions, which have many similarities, rural areas are highly
distinctive from one another. For this reason there are a large
variety of rural development approaches used globally.
The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for
large-scale production, with consequent changes in society.
Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later
transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed.
The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble
parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers
performing specific steps during the process. This led to
significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end
process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace
human operators. This process has accelerated with the
development of the computer and the robot.
What is Planning?
“formulation of programmes and
policies designed to lead it by a
consciously directed and
accelerated movement from a
largely technological backward
and feudalistic stage into the
modern era of advanced
What must be done?
When must it be done?
Where will it be done?
How will it be done?
Why must it be done?
Who will do it?
Effective plans revolve around the
6 x basic questions
Development Plans are intended to provide a consistent basis for
determining planning applications and to introduce certainty about
where and what kinds of development may or may not be allowed
over a number of years; otherwise known as the 'plan period'.
All planning applications are judged against planning policies that
are set out in the Development Plan for the area concerned.
Planning law requires that Development Plan policy is generally
adhered to in determining planning applications, although other
important circumstances can affect the final decision.
It is essential therefore for you to know how your planning
application may be affected by the policies in your area.
All authorities are required to produce Development Plans for their
areas. There are various types of Development Plan depending
upon the Council concerned.
Why are they Important
The term 'Development Plan' describes the various planning policy documents
that provide planning guidance for a particular area of the Country. This can
be at a Regional, County, District/Borough or Unitary Authority level.
These documents set out the Councils adopted policies and proposals for the
use of land and take the form of often quite detailed publications, containing
formal policies and explanatory text, together with detailed maps of the area,
showing the various allocations or restrictions upon land and other pertinent
The aim is to provide an efficient and effective use of land in the public
interest in order to meet the identified needs of the area, whilst also having
regard to national and regional planning guidance.
The development plan is a document that sets out how places should change
and what they could be like in the future. It says what type of development
should take place where, and which areas should not be developed. It sets out
the best locations for new homes and businesses and protects places of value
to people or wildlife.
The plan also helps development to take place quickly by describing how any
new or improved facilities, such as roads, schools and parks, will be provided.
In the 4 main provinces (Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, KPK) and their
surrounding areas. The development plan is made up of:
The strategic development plan
local development plan
Main Instruments of National Planning
i. Perspective Plan 10-25 Years
ii. Mid Term Plan 04-07 Years
iii. Rolling Plan 03 Years
iv. Annual Plan 01 Year
•Provide long-term (10-25 years) economic and
social policy framework
•Statement of goals to be achieved.
•Establishes long-term targets of massive
improvement in living standards by mobilizing
resources and energies of the nation.
•A broad approach to key problems.
•Many short term decisions have bearing on long-
term growth, which are covered in long term plan.
•Economic growth is a continuous process. Planning
for it calls for integration and adjustment of short-
term, intermediate and long-term programmes.
• Medium-term plan covers 4-7 years period with
5 years being most popular choice.
• Five year plan has the advantage of reasonable
time frame for achievement of solid results.
• General statement of objectives and targets to
be achieved in five years.
• Board framework for formulation of short-term/
Medium Term / Five Year Plan
• Formulated for one fiscal years.
• Principal instrument for adjusting five year plan to
• Instrument for translating plan objectives into an
• Includes an evaluation of past performance, presentation
of main annual targets, an outline of investment program
in the public and private sector and a broad outline of the
economic policies necessary to achieve targets.
•Single-use plans are essentially one-time use
plans having a specific goal or objective.
•They may run for a few days or last several
• Projects, programs, & budgets are commonly
thought of as single-use plans.
Single Use Plans
•Concerned with overall mission.
• Define unit objectives & goals.
• Give us the big picture.
• Designed to provide long-range
• Provide a base line for other plans.
• Once mission & objectives have been
defined, strategies can be developed to
•Must remain flexible enough to
accommodate shifts in policy or action by
our own government & other nations.
• Must include alternate or contingency
plans in anticipation of foreseeable
Local Plans - interpret the broad Structure Plan policies at a District Council level in great detail often for specific sites.
National Parks also produce Local Plans for their areas.
The Local Plan is probably the most important planning document you will need to look at before preparing your
The Plan for your area is available for inspection or purchase at your local planning department and many local
libraries will also keep a copy.
The Plan contains detailed 'Proposals Maps' for the whole District, such as: -
Settlement boundaries around cities, towns and villages.
Land allocations for housing, commercial and industrial development.
Green Belt, Special Landscape areas, public open space, SSSI's etc.
Transport proposals for road, rail and air.
Educational and other social proposals.
Conservation Areas and other issues of special interest.
The Proposals Maps are linked to written policies in the Plan, which specify the way in which development may or
may not be permitted. Certain policies may prohibit development in certain areas or circumstances altogether, whilst
others will establish detailed criteria which must be satisfied if development is to be allowed.
Apply to National Areas
Set out the strategic framework for planning in the County.
They contain policies that are related to the County.
Structure Plans are important as they establish the framework within which
Local Plans are prepared and interpret Government and Regional guidance at a
Different Plans of Pakistan
1. Colombo Plan (Six Year Plan) 1951-57
2. Ist Five year Plan 1955-60
3. 2nd Five year Plan 1960-65
4. 3rd Five year Plan 1965-70
5. 4th Five year Plan 1970-75
6. 5th Five year Plan 1978-83
7. 6th Five year Plan 1983-88
8. 7th Five year Plan 1988-93
9. 8th Five year Plan 1993-98
10. 9th Five year Plan 1998-2003
11. 10 Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11
12. Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 2005-10
13. Vision 2030 (Under Consideration) Under
• It is a principle or rule to guide decisions & achieve rational
• The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this
is normally referred to as procedure or protocol.
• Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance
body within an organization whereas procedures or protocols would be
developed & adopted by senior executive officers.
• Policies can assist in both subjective & objective decision making.
• Policies to assist in subjective decision making would usually assist
senior management with decisions that must consider the relative
merits of a number of factors before making decisions & as a result
are often hard to objectively test e.g. work-life balance policy.
• In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually
operational in nature & can be objectively tested e.g. password policy
Definition of Policy
A Policy can be considered as a "Statement of Intent" or a "Commitment".
For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for
The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and
groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy
policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy
differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g.
a law requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides
actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.
Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important
organizational decisions, including the identification of different
alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among
them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood
as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms
arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical
accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry which is
considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a
material impact on the financial statements.
Communications & Information Policy
Human resource policies
Domestic policy, Economic policy
Education policy, Energy policy
Foreign policy, Health policy
Housing policy, Information policy
Monetary policy, Population policy
Public policy in law
Science policy, Security policy
Social policy, Transportation policy
Urban policy, Water policy
Types of Policies