Abiyeva Marzhanai andAbiyeva Marzhanai and
Chernysheva AnnaChernysheva Anna
TThe historyhe history
18561856 is cis considered to be the founding date of theonsidered to be the founding date of the
Tretyakov Gallery. That's when Pavel Tretyakov, aTretyakov Gallery. That's when Pavel Tretyakov, a
merchant by occupation,merchant by occupation, boughtbought the first two paintingsthe first two paintings
ofof Russian artists "Temptation"Russian artists "Temptation" byby N.G.Shilder andN.G.Shilder and
"Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers'"Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers' byby V.G.V.G.
KhKhudyakov. In the late 50's, he addsudyakov. In the late 50's, he adds thethe worksworks byby
II..II..SokolovSokolov,, VV..II.. Jacobi, AJacobi, A..KK.. Savrasov and M.P.Savrasov and M.P. KlodtKlodt
toto his collection. At thhis collection. At thatat time, Pavel Tretyakov had atime, Pavel Tretyakov had a
dream to create a museum, which wdream to create a museum, which wououlldd househouse thethe
works by Russian painters.works by Russian painters. HHe began to collecte began to collect
paintingspaintings from scratch. The collector acquired all thatfrom scratch. The collector acquired all that
waswas thethe best in the art market of Russian artists. Pavelbest in the art market of Russian artists. Pavel
Tretyakov was not just a collectorTretyakov was not just a collector by nature. He had a. He had a
broad knowledge of literaturebroad knowledge of literature,, the arts, theatthe arts, theatrere andand
music. Amusic. A..NN.. BenoitBenoit, an artist and a critic,, an artist and a critic, wrote aboutwrote about
Pavel TretyakovPavel Tretyakov,, "... Tretyakov by nature and"... Tretyakov by nature and
knowledge was a scientist. He correctly chose the bestknowledge was a scientist. He correctly chose the best
that created the Russian art.that created the Russian art.”” I.N.I.N. KramskoKramskoi, a famousi, a famous
artist, wrote aboutartist, wrote about Pavel TretyakovPavel Tretyakov,, "This is a man"This is a man
with a kindwith a kind ofof, must be devil‘, must be devil‘ instinct.instinct.””
In his first will, in 1860, Tretyakov leftIn his first will, in 1860, Tretyakov left
150,000 silver rubles150,000 silver rubles toto MoscowMoscow forfor
creatcreatinging ““anan art museum orart museum or aa public artpublic art
gallery ...". He created the first museum ingallery ...". He created the first museum in
Russia reflecting the development ofRussia reflecting the development of
Russian art andRussian art and more than that his gallerymore than that his gallery
become a public museum. Being rich,become a public museum. Being rich,
Tretyakov tried not to pay intermediaries.Tretyakov tried not to pay intermediaries.
AndAnd hehe thoughtthought,, ««TheThe more moneymore money youyou
savesave, the more works of art you can, the more works of art you can
collect." Pavel Tretyakov avoided frills.collect." Pavel Tretyakov avoided frills.
He helped the needy artists, widows andHe helped the needy artists, widows and
orphans.orphans. He rHe reinforced and expanded theeinforced and expanded the
In 1867 Pavel Tretyakov opened the gallery, which presented his
collection and the collection of his brother Sergei. Visitors saw
1,276 paintings, 471 sculptures and 10 pictures by Russian artists,
as well as 84 pictures by foreign masters. Pavel Mikhailovich
exhibited his collection in his house in Lavrushinsky Lane. From
1872 to 1874 two halls of the museum were built, they were
connected with the living part of the house. In 1882, when it was
necessary to exhibit the collection of pictures from the Turkestan
collection, 6 new rooms were added. Additional facilities also
appeared in 1885 and 1892. 1892 was a landmark for the museum,
that year Pavel Tretyakov gave his collections as a gift to the city
of Moscow. Then in 1887 the collection included paintings, 518
drawings and sculptures by Russian artists of the 18-19th
centuries, as well as the works by Western European masters. A
year later, the official opening of the Moscow City Gallery of
Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov took place. After the death of Pavel
Tretyakov in 1898, his work was continued by other patrons.
In the years of 1902-1904 under the supervision of A. Kalmykov V.
M. Vasnetsov built the famous facade, which became the emblem of
the Tretyakov Gallery. The facades of the building were designed by
the architect V. Bashirov with the drawings by the artist V. Vasnetsov.
On April 2, 1913 Igor Emmanuilovich Grabar, an artist, restorer and
arts critic, was elected a trustee of the museum,. Thanks to him, the
Tretyakov Gallery was established by the European type - in
chronological order. In December 1913, the museum was opened to
visitors. After the revolution in 1918, the museum was renamed the
State Tretyakov Gallery and was declared state property of the Russian
Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. I. Grabar became the director of
the gallery. A great contribution to the development of the museum,
including the expansion and equipping, was made by the architect
A.V. Schusev. During the war, most of the exhibits were evacuated to
Novosibirsk. The building itself was damaged by bombing. On the
100th anniversary of the museum in 1956, the collection included over
35,000 works of art. Ju. K. Korolev, the museum's director from 1980
to 1992, contributed much to the expansion of the museum. In 1989 a
new engineering building was built, which housed a conference hall, a
data processing centre, children's studio and exhibition halls. After the
reconstruction of the museum the Tretyakov Gallery ensemble
included the architectural monument of the XVIIth century - the
church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi. It was restored, sanctified and
became the home church of the museum.
Tretyakov GalleryTretyakov Gallery. P. Picturesictures..
The museum has many rooms and each masterpiece can be found. Pavel
Tretyakov highly valued the creativity of V.G. Perov. In the 1860s
several of his paintings including the "Rural procession on Easter"
and «Troika» as well as some portraits were purchased .
In the collection there are pictures that reflect some episodes of Russian
history. There is a portrait gallery of famous composers, writers and
artists of Russia – K.P. Bryullov, V.A. Tropinin and V.G. Perov,
A.N. Ostrovsky, F.M. Dostoevsky, I.S. Turgenev and N.A. Nekrasov
and V.I. Dahl.
TTroikaroika Rural procession on EasterRural procession on Easter
• Tretyakov supported formed at the time of the Association of
Traveling Art Exhibitions (TPHV). Many of the paintings
were acquired at those shows. In 1870 Pavel Tretyakov
acquired such famous paintings as "Christ in the Desert" by
I.N. Kramskoi and "Pinery" by I.I. Shishkin, "The Rooks Have
Arrived" by A.K. Savrasov and "Peter I Interrogating the
Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich" by N.N. Ge. One of Tretyakov’s
most expensive acquisitions was the work of V.V.
Vereshchagin – the Turkestan collection of paintings and
sketches. Later the collection was enriched with the pictures
by I.Ye. Repin and V.I. Surikov, V.M. Vasnetsov and I.I.
Shishkin, I.N. Kramskoi and some other famous artists. In the
Tretyakov Gallery, we see the works by Repin, Ivanov,
Kuindzhi, Bryullov, Vrubel and many others. One of the most
talked about exhibits is "Black Square" by Malevich.
"The Rooks Have Arrived""The Rooks Have Arrived"
byby AK SavrasovAK Savrasov "Black Square" by Malevich"Black Square" by Malevich