PCC-ICGC Pan-Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Sequencing Project AWARENESS | SUPPORT | RESEARCH Prostate Cancer Canada 2011
What is ICGC? ICGC = International Cancer Genome Consortium Members consist of project Funding Members (provide level of funding sufficient to undertake sequencing of 500 cancer cases for one type of cancer) and Research Members (provide sufficient expertise to undertake characterization of cancer genome) All ICGC members have either financial or scientific support of one cancer genome sequencing project Ensure high quality data by establishment of international standards and guidelines for genome sequencing projects Share ICGC project data generated by members to all researchers around the world Co-ordinate generation of catalogues of gene abnormalities/mutations in tumors from 50 different cancer types
What is a genome? All cancers arise due to alterations in DNA DNA contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all living organisms Main role of DNA is long-term storage of genetic information Compared to a blueprint or recipe or code Contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells DNA segments that carry information are called genes A genome contains all the hereditary information (genes) and non-hereditary information (variations) in DNA Organ cells contain their own set of instructions (genome)
Analogy of a human genome stored on DNA A Library
Contains 46 books (chromosomes)
Books range in size from 400 to 3340 pages (genes)
Which is 48 to 250 million letter (A,C,G,T) per book
Library fits into a cell nucleus the size of a pinpoint
A copy of the library (all 46 books) is contained in almost every cell of our bodies.
What is genome sequencing? Listing of the genes within a genome is called sequencing Genome sequencing is a read from several chromosomes of various individuals or organs from several individuals A human genome contains approximately 20,000 different genes Genome sequencing refers to the study of a whole family of genes within the chromosome of a cell To learn what variations in genetic information underlie a disease requires comparisons across many individuals
Why sequence prostate cancer genome? Despite the use of T-stage, Gleason Score and PSA, better predictors of treatment outcome/prognosis are required to individualize prostate cancer treatment options and determine the clinical course of “clinically silent” cancers. Given the existence of indolent cancers and a lack of individualized approaches for treatment, next generation sequencing approaches must translate genomic findings into innovative clinical practice. With the long natural history of the disease, having bio-banked materials with associated databases in which patients have a minimum of 5 year follow-up after treatment allows for the generation of sequencing-based genetic classifiers linked directly to clinical outcome.
Project Outcomes Testing bio-banked materials from prostate cancer patients may identify genetic mutations related to : Indolent or aggressive cancer Radical prostatectomy success or failures Radiotherapy success and failure Androgen-independence and metastases Information may be used to develop improved diagnostic methods and therapies AWARENESS | SUPPORT | RESEARCH Prostate Cancer Canada 2011
Acknowledgments Up to $15 million in funding will be provided by Prostate Cancer Canada (PCC), thanks to fund raised by Movember and $5 million from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR)