Agila ”projekt” - Ett nytt sätt att standardisera? . Standardisering och agilt, finns det någon motsättning?Vad är standardisering av projekt och projektverksamhet inom ett företag, ochvad fyller den för behov? Och vilka är drivkrafterna bakom denna utveckling? Finns det någon motsättning mellan agila utvecklingsmetoder och standardisering av projektprocessen, eller är de i själva verket bara ett nytt kapitel i historien om projektens institutionalisering inom företagen. En kort presentation av mitt forskningsprojekt. Inger Bergman Industrial PhD Student Chalmers University of Technology Senior PM Consultant Semcon Project Management
Agenda• Kort presentation av mig och mitt forskningsprojekt• Projektet som en organisation i organisationen• Standardisering och institutionalisering – två sidor av samma mynt• Agila arbetssätt – vilka krav ställer det på en organisation och dess projekt
Min bakgrund10 år som lärare15 år med projektmetodstöd på Ericsson10 år som konsultOch nu – forskare på deltid på Chalmers University ofTechnologyDags att summera…..Från traditionell tillverkningsindustri till projektbaseradutveckling:• Vad var det som hände?• Hur var det möjligt och vem gjorde det?• Och vad händer sen?
Theoretical FrameworkI approach the subject from organization theory,rather than a traditional project managementperspective by looking at firm-based projects as: Temporary organizations embedded in a parent organization with different levels of coupling to the organization, its projects and environment
Analysis ModelThe model makes it possible to study a firm-based project’scoupling to its parent organization from different perspectives
A Project’s Coupling to Its OrganizationHypothesis:• At least one link is decoupled (otherwise part of “business as usual”)• At least one tight link (otherwise not “firm-based”)
Examples of Negative Effects from Loose Coupling Structure Perspective • Poor management control Process Perspective • Poor quality, time and cost control People Perspective • Poor knowledge transfer • Loss of knowledge gained in projects Product, Mission • Poor control of alignment with strategies
StandardizationStandardization is a means to tightenthe projects’ coupling to its parentorganization (“the company”) throughformalization of project processes,work products and competencies.Examples of standardizationinitiatives in the company’s history:• Standardization of terminology• Standardization of project documentation and reporting• Standardization of project management process• Standardization of knowledge and attitudes through certification of project managers
InstitutionalizationInstitutionalization initiatives havemainly been focused on tightening thecoupling by adapting the companystructure and processesto the demands of the projects.Examples of institutionalizationinitiatives in the companys history:• Institutionalization of project roles for line managers• Establishment of project management offices (PMO)• Institutionalization of project governance (project sponsor role, fixed steering groups, project portfolio management)• Integration of project financial planning and reporting into the corporate financial system
Example 1: Internal Change ProjectTypical pattern for internal change with loose coupling in the process andstructure perspective.Success criteria: Tight coupling in the people and mission perspective
Example 2: A Typical Customer ProjectBy loose coupling in the structure perspective, the project is free toadapt to the customer’s organizationAlso processes need to adapt to the customer, but are mainlydeveloped to optimize the product delivery and integrationProject management teams are internal but the projects employsubcontractors
Example 3: New Product (with New Technology) Development ProjectBy the loose coupling in the product perspective, the project is allowed tobe innovative and explore new technology and business ideasNew technology also means exploring new processes and ways of working
Agile Manifesto“We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it andhelping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software* over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a planThat is, while thereis value in the items on the right,we value the items on the left more.”* Project result??
Agile Development Downloaded from Wikipedia 20111010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(development)
Environment Business Technology Project trends Digital Perspectives on the organization 1G 2G 3G 4G Products & offerings Multimedia Services People Processes Development processes Delivery processes Rev1 Rev2 Rev3 Rev4 Rev5 Project processes/support Structure M-structure Matrix Organization Centralization Globalization Functional Organization Outsourcing/ Mergers/Growth Downsizing Projects Customer Projects Infrastructure Projects R&D Projects Internal Change Projects Institution- Standardiza- Project The The First Single Project Common alization tion of PM Portfolio “Traditional” “New” Projects Management Standardized Terminology of Competence Management Projects Projects18761876 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2010
Example 4: Agile Product Development ProjectThe development process is “built-in” and fully aligned with the organization’s way ofworking, a situation that requires less need for documentation.Fixed teams with cross-functional competence - strong coupling in the peopleperspective.The permanent organization has a structure that is well adapted to support thedevelopment work.Semi-tight coupling in the product perspective opens up for allowing new requirementswhile at the same time ensuring full understanding of impact of suggested changes.Tight coupling between the project benefits and the organization’s mission and value-adding responsibility.
Institutionalization Supporting Agile WoWExamples of institutionalizationinitiatives in the company’s history:• Institutionalization of project roles for line managers• Establishment of project management offices (PMO)• Institutionalization of project governance (project sponsor role, fixed steering groups, project portfolio management)• Integration of project financial planning and reporting into the corporate financial system• Establishment of a permanent matrix organization (legal organization vs. operational - “product-based”)• Establishment of fixed development teams• Introduction of fixed released dates for new releases of products
Consequences of the Agile Approach for the Company’s R&D Organization• Shorter “projects” with increasing need for integration and coordination and eventually to program management• Focus for project management has shifted from planning and progress control to coordination, integration, and value-driven quality control• Closer alignment between product portfolios and project portfolios• The project-line dilemma is almost gone – with empowered fixed teams for which product development is “business as usual”.