Abolin Co Cool Roofs EU Kuwait Kisr

  • 768 views
Uploaded on

It is considered that the dark surfaces of buildings and pavements are of the major heat sources causing the urban heat island phenomenon. …

It is considered that the dark surfaces of buildings and pavements are of the major heat sources causing the urban heat island phenomenon.

Pavements and Roofs account a significant percentage of the land surface in an urban area.

Cool pavements and Cool Roofs can mitigate the urban heat island effect.

Cool Roofs and Cool Pavements have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sun-light) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) and stay cool in the sun.

Energy savings from installing a Cool Roofing Product depends on the local climate, existing insulation levels, the type of roof replaced, the type of roof installed, and maintenance. In the best applications, cool roofs have no incremental cost and deliver a nearly instant payback.
,

More in: Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
768
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. THEORY AND CASE STUDIESCool roofs impact into building’s thermalconditions:Workshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR KuwaitProkopis PerdikisU.G.I CYPRUS/ABOLIN CO GREECECommunication Committee: European Cool Roofs Council
  • 2. Kuwait: Energy Consumption #1 Residential buildings consume about 60% of national power.(DC Consortium Report 2009)Kuwait District Cooling Summit - 2011Prof. A. Ben-NakhiWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 3. Kuwait: Energy Consumption #2 Building sectors are the major consumers of electrical energy with ashare of over 75%; 0ver 65% goes for air- conditioning.27840 GWh9744 GWh7424 GWhResidentialSector 60%Commercialsectors 16%Othersectors 21%Industrialsector 3%Annual electrical consumption in GWh per sector*1392 GWh*MEW (2007)Total: 46400 GWhSaad Al Jandal, PhD. KISR / EUD- BETOctober, 2010 GBC Forum, DohaWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 4. Kuwait: Energy Consumption #3 Demand of peak power increases @ 5.6% and annual electricityincreases @ 5.3%6160645067507250748077508400890031.632.334.336.438.641.343.746.43035404550550065007500850095001999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006PeakPowerDemand(MW)Peak powerYearly Electricity ConsumptionYearlyElectricityConsumption(MWh/y)*10Saad Al Jandal, PhD.KISR / EUD- BETOctober, 2010 GBCForum, DohaWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 5. Kuwait: Energy Consumption #4Ali Ebraheem HajiahBuilding EnergyTechnologies Dept.October 2010 ManamaWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 6. Kuwait: Energy Code 2010 2nd Edition**MINISTRY OF ELECTRICITY AND WATEREnergy Conservation ProgramCODE OF PRACTICEMEW/R-6/2010Second Edition 20107.2 Building envelope construction7.2.1 Walls and roofsMinimum requirements for wall and roof insulation: Table 7 provides a list of themaximum allowable overall heat transfer coefficients (U) for variety of wall androof constructions and their external color.Table 7. Maximum Allowable U-values for Different Types of Walls and Roofs.Description Wall RoofHeavy construction, medium-light external color 0.568 (0.100) 0.397 (0.070)Heavy construction, dark external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.256 (0.045)Medium construction, medium-light external color 0.483 (0.085) 0.341 (0.060)Medium construction, dark external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.199 (0.035)Light construction, medium-light external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.284 (0.050)Light construction, dark external color 0.369 (0.065) 0.170 (0.030)What AboutCool Roofs ?Workshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 7. What about Cool Roofs ? The creation of surfaces of high reflectivity and emissivity in the urbanenvironment constitutes an easily applicable and economic passivecooling method that contributes in the reduction of urban temperatures.The creation of such surfaces can be achieved with the use of “coolmaterials” which are characterized from :High solar reflectanceHigh infrared emittanceWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 8. How Cool Roofs Work?Source:http://heatisland.lbl.gov/incidentsunlightreflectedsunlightnet emittedthermalradiationopaque surface at temperature Tconvectionconduction• High solar reflectance (Rsol) lowers solar heat gain (0.3 - 2.5 µm)• High thermal emittance (E) enhances thermal radiative cooling (4 - 80 µm)high solar reflectance + high thermal emittance = low surface temperatureWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 9. Five case studies were implemented, within the framework of the IntelligentEnergy Europe (IEE) program SAVE 2007 "Promotion of Cool Roofs in EU" todemonstrate cool roof capabilities in real buildings, in terms of improving thethermal conditions in non-air conditioned buildings and reducing the energyconsumption in air-conditioned buildings.The buildings were selected to achieve maximum geographical and buildingtypology coverage aiming to promote the benefits coming from this technique withreference to cooling energy demand and peak savings all around the EU.The corresponding activities were performed at two levels:• experimental monitoring in real buildings treated with Cool Rooftechniques (hardware task)• numerical analysis of the same buildings with a number of variants(software analysis)The findings of the case studies show 10-40% energy savings depending on theclimatic conditions. More info about the case studies : www.coolroofs-eu.eu.Here we present 3 of them implemented in France, Greece and UK. Carrefour ItalyCool Roofs – European Case StudiesWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 10. Cool Roofs –Case Study FRANCE #1Le Parvis: Collective Dwellings, Poitiers -Non A/C BuildingFig 2. Duplex flat chosen for the case studyFig1 Collective dwellings in PoitiersThe roof slope (11.5%) faces east and is not shaded by adjacent dwellings. The roof wasconstructed with steel cladding, insulated with a 100mm mineral wool and sealed withasphalt. This Cool Roof case study focuses on the dwellings under the roof which are allduplex apartments of approximately 100m2 each (Fig.2). The walls are insulated with100mm polystyrene and the windows are made of PVC with double glazing. The attic aboveeach duplex apartment is also insulated with 200mm mineral wool. The studied buildinghas no cooling system for summertime. So the impact of the Cool Roof’s technologyapplication is evaluated in terms of indoor temperature difference for the studied duplex flatcompared to the adjacent duplex flats.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 11. Cool Roofs –Case Study FRANCE #2Le Parvis: Collective Dwellings, Poitiers -Non A/C BuildingCool Roof technologyThe roof was coated with a white cool paint at the end of July 2009. The cool paint’ssolar reflectance was 0.88 and the infrared emittance 0.90.The temperatures evolved with the same daily variation, with high maximum temperaturesdifferences. During the night, the minimum temperatures were very similar. The predictedmean surface temperature for the cool painted surface is 21.6°C compared to 34.1°C forthe default roof surface for the summer period. The difference in the indoor operativetemperature is less visible due to the good insulation of the attic: the mean operativetemperature in the room decreased from 24.9°C to 24.2°C. In this case, with a very wellinsulated roof, there is a predicted gain of approximately 1°C on the maximum operativetemperature, from 30.2°C to 29.3°C.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 12. Cool Roofs –Case Study GREECE #1School building in Kaisariani, Athens, Greece Non Insulated No A/CFigure . School building in Kaisariani, Athens, GreeceFigure . The spectral reflectance of the roof surface before (grey concrete, SR=0.2)and after the Cool Roof application (ABOLIN Cool Roof barrier, SR=0.89)This case study involves a 410m2 flat roof school building located at the Municipality ofKaisariani, a densely built urban area near the centre of Athens (Fig.5). It is a rectangular,two floor building with a school courtyard and was constructed in 1980. The load bearingstructure of the building is made of reinforced concrete and an overall concrete masonryconstruction which is not insulated. The school building is occupied by 120 children and 15adults (the school staff) and is non-cooled and naturally ventilated. There is an installedheating system using natural gas. Walls: U value = 2.846 W/m2K , Roof: U value = 1.971W/m2K , Windows : U value = 2.95 W/m2K .Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 13. Cool Roofs –Case Study GREECE #2School building in Kaisariani, Athens, Greece Non Insulated No A/CCool Roof technologyThe initial roof surface was covered by cement and gravel having a solar reflectance of 0.2.The cool material used is a white elastomeric coating (Cool Roof Barrier by ABOLIN) with asolar reflectance of 0.89, infrared emittance 0.89 and SRI 113.Impact on air temperatureAdditionally, a variant of the model has been studied considering the building withincreased insulation. External insulation of 5cm has been added to the walls resulting in aU-value of 0.417 W/m2K and 7cm on the roof resulting in a U-value of 0.302 W/m2K.The maximum, minimum and average air temperatures in both cases (non insulated andinsulated) and for the cooling and the heating period are presented.Impact on energy loadsIn order to estimate the impact of the cool roof on energy loads it has been assumedthat the building is cooled during the summer and heated during the winter. Set point forcooling is set to 26C and for heating is set to 20C. The building is considered to be in useall year round. Figure 5 displays the absolute and percentage variation of the annualheating and cooling loads for all the simulation scenarios that have been carried out.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 14. Cool Roofs –Case Study GREECE #3School building in Kaisariani, Athens, Greece Non Insulated No A/CAir Temperature, Cooling and Heating Loads before and after the cool roof application for thezone adjacent to the roofMin [oC] Max [oC] Average [oC]Cooling period (May – September)Uninsulated building 0.8 2.8 1.8Insulated building 0.3 0.7 0.5Heating period (October – April)Uninsulated building 0.9 1.2 0.9Insulated building 0.2 2 0.4Annual Cooling Loads (kWh/m2) Annual Heating Loads (kWh/m2)Uninsulated building -40% +10%Insulated building -35% + 4%Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 15. Cool Roofs –Case Study UK #1Office at Brunel University, Uxbridge, West London, UK, Colored Cool RoofCool Roof Light Red Brown CB 012The office is located (moderate climate of South East England) on the top floor (flat roof) of afour storey building of which the top floor was constructed in 1995. The total floor area is137m2 of which the open office area accounts for 97.6m2. The floor to ceiling height isapproximately 2.65m. The open office area has 6 window openings while each room has oneopening. Each of these openings is approximately 0.9m x 1.5m. The roof is made of 0.15 mthick concrete slab with a 0.04 m insulation layer on top of the slab and is covered with a layerof water proofing material (asphalt). Roof: U Value 0.6 (W/m2 K). The external wall structureis made of 0.125 m thick concrete block work and is protected with 0.18 m insulation layerand ZnAl cladding.. Wall: U Value 0.184. (W/m2 K) Glazing Argon filled double glazing: U value1.4 (W/m2 K). The office has a central heating system with perimeter radiators and is naturallyventilated through open-able windows.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 16. Cool Roofs –Case Study UK #2Office at Brunel University, Uxbridge, West London, UK, Colored Cool RoofCool Roof technology“Cool Barrier 012 (CB012)” was applied on the roof with an SR of 0.6 The reflectivity of theoriginal roof was 0.1. The building was monitored from April 2009 until October 2009Evaluation results:There is reduction on maximum and average internal air and operative temperaturesduring the summer months. For the month of July, maximum internal air temperature isreduced by 1.3 ◦C and average air temperature by 2.1 ◦C. In terms of thermal comfort,max operative temperature is reduced by 2.2 ◦C and average operative temperature by2.5 ◦C improving significantly thermal comfort.Increasing insulation levels would decrease the potential energy benefits in heatingand cooling demand.Thermal comfort can be improved by as much as 2.5 ◦C (operative temperaturedifference for a change of 0.5 in albedo) but heating demand could be increased by10%.Cooling load is decreased, although there is a heating penalty, the overall contributionis positive.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 17. Cool Roofs –Case Study UK #3Office at Brunel University, Uxbridge, West London, UK, Colored Cool RoofSimulated heating and cooling energy demand for the case-study building before and afterthe application of the cool roof.Albedo Heating demand Cooling demand Total energy demand (kWh/year)Winter, set-point 21◦C Summer, set point 25 ◦C2 ACH * 2 ACH * 2 ACH *BEFORE 0.1 1769 2443 4211COOL ROOF 0,6 2015 2017 4031*2 air exchanges per hourOptimum surface albedo is estimated between 0.6 and 0.7 with air exchange rate of 2 airexchanges per hour. This combination creates an overall heating and cooling load reductionof 3-6% depending on the set-point temperature for winter and summer.Cool Roofs ProjectWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 18. Cool Roofs –Carrefour ItalyHypermarket Carrefour Assago Milan ItalyDate: 14/07/2011Place: Assago Milan ItalyTotal Roof Surface: 17.000 SqmConcrete Flat Roof Top Covered with Gray PVCApplication: Cool Barrier Roof WaterbasedSpace 1: Non Treated Area – Surface Temperature 50.4 °CSpace 2: Treated Area - Surface Temperature 32.2 °C“We are about 25% reduction in electricityconsumption for air conditioning ““Around 65.000€ savings per year”“Payback period: 2.5 Years”Energy Manager: Mr. Giovanni PianoENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA AND SAVINGSConsumption (weekly) measured on multimeters(Week average for the period July-August)Without Cool Barrier Roof System2007: 44.573 kWh, 2008: 46.783 kWh, 2009: 46.627kWh 2010: 45.259 kWh Average: 45.810 kWhWith Cool Barrier Roof System 2011: 33.500 kWhWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 19.  Energy savings from installing a Cool Roofing Product depends on the localclimate, existing insulation levels, the type of roof replaced, the type of roofinstalled, and maintenance. In the best applications, cool roofs have noincremental cost and deliver a nearly instant payback.Winter Penalty: Also known as heating penalty. Just as cool roofs reflect solar radiationthroughout the summer, they also reflect wintertime sunlight. Thus, the winterpenalty is the potential for increased heating demand in winter due to reflectedsolar radiation by light colored roofs. Over an entire year, decreases in summerenergy use typically exceed any wintertime increases. (US Environmental Protection Agency –EPA)The Absolute Benefits of Cool Roofs in a climate hot and sunny, at least in summercan summarised as follows:Cool Roofs and Energy SavingsWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 20.  Cooling load reduction - Less heat penetrates into building Energy Savings - Minimize the need for cooling Money savings Improved thermal comfort conditions Improved public health conditions Enhanced building’s durability - Less thermal stress Improved microclimatic conditions - Urban Heat Island MitigationCool Roofs Consequences in BuildingsWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 21.  Urban Heat Island mitigation – Temperature and Smog reduction Lower surface temperature increase thermal comfort conditions of theland users. Lower air temperatures penetrate into the surrounding buildings –thermal comfort in buildings –energy savingsDowntown DallasSurfaceTemperaturesCool Roofs Consequences in City LevelWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 22. Cool Roofs - Peak Demand ReductionHigh peak electricity loads oblige utilities to build additional plants in order tosatisfy the demand, but as these plants are used for short periods, the averagecost of electricity increases considerably. Southern European countries face avery steep increase of their peak electricity load mainly because of the very rapidpenetration of air conditioning. “Kuwait’s peak power demand is set to almostdouble by 2020”, according to Suhaila Marafi, director of the ElectricityMinistry’s department of studies, MEED’s Arabian Power & Water Summit in AbuDhabi on 6 March 2012“Cool Roofing products can help reduce the amount of air conditioning neededin buildings, and can reduce peak cooling demand by 10-15 percent”.(www.epa.gov)Workshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 23. Cool Roofs – CO2 Emissions“Cool roofs are one of the quickest and lowest cost ways we can reduce ourglobal carbon emissions and begin the hard work of slowing climate change,”U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu “By demonstrating the benefits of cool roofson our facilities, the federal government can lead the nation toward moresustainable building practices, while reducing the federal carbon footprint andsaving money for taxpayers.”http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/5/1/014005/fulltext/“We estimate that increasingthe albedo of urban roofs andpaved surfaces by 0,1 willinduce a negative radiativeforcing on the earth surfaceequivalent to removing 44GtCO2 from atmosphere. “Hashem Akbari and Surabi MenonLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,USA H_Akbari@LBL.gov ArthurRosenfeld California EnergyCommission, USAARosenfe@energy.state.ca.us 2006Workshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 24. Cool Roofs – Policies and InitiativesWorkshop: “National Energy Security – Future prospect” 13 December 2012 KSIR Kuwait
  • 25. Cool and Photocatalytic Construction MaterialsManufacturer, Athens Greecewww.abolinco.comUrbanus Green Innovations Cyprus Ltd (U.G.ICyprus) operates as a sustainable managementconsultant and as a raw materials supplier.U.G.Ifocuses on the promotion of specifications andstandards into national and local construction codesand on the supply of high performance raw materialsfor the industrial and construction sector.Prokopis PerdikisU.G.I CYPRUS/ABOLIN CO GREECEEmail: abolin@otenet.gr, ugi.cyprus@gmail.comThank you for your attention !