Workshop: Paraphrasing and Avoiding Plagiarism Elena González Rivera, Ed.D. September 16th 2011 BIOL 3095
Objectives• Define the terms – Paraphrasing – Direct Quoting – Summarizing• Discuss effective ways to summarize• Identify appropriate transitional words• Practice effective ways of paraphrasing• Define plagiarism and identify it• Discuss how to find your own voice and avoid plagiarism
Exercise # 1• In your own words and without consulting a dictionary, write your definition of – Paraphrasing – Summarizing – Direct quoting
I. DefinitionsParaphrasing involves:• expressing the text in your own words.• producing a slightly shorter version of the original text.• crediting the author for their intellectual production.Source:http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/OWL University of Perdue Writing Lab
I. DefinitionsSummarizing involves:• placing only the author’s main idea(s) into your own words.• recognizing the author’s contribution by citing him/her.• making a significantly shorter version of the test.• a more ample perspective.Source:http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/OWL University of Perdue Writing Lab
I. DefinitionsDirect quotations must:• be a carbon copy of the original text.• refer to a limited segment of the source.• give credit to the author.Source:http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/OWL University of Perdue Writing Lab
Exercise #2• Summarizing• Read handout #1 on Summarizing Facts about summarizing
II. Transitional WordsMaking logical transitions between ideas• Alternative—some examples of alternative transitional words are: either, or, nor, on the other hand, however, neither, and otherwise. They are used when you can alternate between two concepts or expressions.• Causal— include thus, then, unless, subsequently, therefore, because, consequently, as a result, if, in order to/that, for, and so. They can be used when referring to consequences or effects.• Illustrative—phrases such as for example, for instance, to illustrate, and as an example permit us to clarify an idea by connecting it to an example.• Repetitive, reiterative— expressions such as include in other words, in short, that is, stated simply, and to put it another way help add clarity through meaningful repetition• Spatial, physical—prepositions like the words under, beside, on top of, next to, behind, point to a physical/spatial relationship between things mentioned in two separate statements• There are also transitional words to denote time (“first”), purpose (“to this end”), summary (“without doubt”), and addition (“equally important”)
Paragraph model - transitional words Studies show that there has been anincrease in the number of people who (Topic sentence)support “medicide,” which happens whenpeople with terminal diseases choose to endtheir lives, rahter than continue living. Onecommon argument for this growing support (Supporting sentence 1)is that people should not be forced tocontinue living if they are in severe pain andcannot live with this constant pain). A (Supporting sentence 2)second reason is that staying in the hospitalfor a long time often causes a financialburden on the family. Terminally ill peopleoften worry about the hardship that this willcause their families. Finally, people who aredying sometimes lose hope. Even if they are (Supporting sentence 3)alive, they can often only lie in bed, and forsome people, this is not “life.” While manypeople believe that medicide is an “unnaturalway to die” and should remain illegal, sick (Counterargument orpeople should certainly have the right to end rebuttal)their lives if they want. • Source: Dr. José Santos “Module for INGL 3201” 2007
III. Effective Paraphrasing6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 1. Re-read a selection until you fully understand it before trying to paraphrase 2. Close the selection and paraphrase from memory 3. Give your paraphrase a topic title and write yourself a footnote reminding you how you could use it in the future 4. Compare your text with the author’s 5. Place borrowed terms or phrases in quotation marks 6. Jot down all bibliographic information for citationhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/2/“Write it in Your Own Words” by Dana Lynn Driscoll and Allen Brizee, June 2010
III. How to ParaphraseThe University of New South Wales in Sydney Australia mention the same steps to paraphrasing as Purdue but adds other important elements to consider. Elements to consider: – Meaning: maintain the same ideas and the same relationship between them – Words: Use synonyms except for specialized subject vocabulary C. Phrases: If you want to retain unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks (“ “) D. Structure: Do not maintain the same grammatical or sentence structure as the author. (Vary sentence length, change from active to passive voice, or use adjectives instead of nouns) D. Order: Change the order in which the text is presented without altering the ideas E. Attitude: Reflect the author’s attitude in your version of the text (ex. critical, confident, etc.)Source: http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/sumpara.html
Exercise #3• Read handout #2 entitled: Paraphrasing and documentation• If the hyperlink does not work, refer to the document I attached along with the presentation.
Exercise #4• Now that you have read an example of a paraphrase, complete the following exercise by evaluating the quality of 3 paraphrased versions of a test. Handout #3 contains the exercise. Compare paraphrases
Exercise #5• Now you will practice paraphrasing 5 passages by completing handout #4 Paraphrasing exercises
Define Plagiarism• Plagiarism is – taking another person’s ideas and pretending they are yours – a type of intellectual theft – the result of ignorance or deliberate intention• Plagiarism has serious consequences
Clarification of Term• Take the plagiarism quiz http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/plagiarism/plagquiz
How Does Plagiarism Happen?“Intellectual insecurity related to use your own words paradox The Problem:• “One of the contradictions about academic writing is that while you are expected to read, research and refer to experts and authorities, you are also expected to produce original work.”• “So, you are asked for your view, but it must also contain academic research. Therefore, you plagiarize because youre not sure how to develop your own argument, or dont have the confidence in your conclusions.”• http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/plagiarism/how_1.html
How Does Plagiarism Happen? The Solution• “You need to realize the ways in which your own ideas (your voice) may be incorporated into your own writing.• Most of the work you will do at university will concern the words, information and ideas of other writers and researchers.• When writing assignments, your job is to synthesize answers from the opinions of others, rather than just think up an answer off the top of your own head.• Dont be concerned about drawing from various sources. Student writers, especially early on, are more like DJs sampling than classical composers. Even if you are writing a PhD, you still need to develop your ideas in relation to other writers.• Finding your own voice is not about saying something original (something that no other person has ever said before) but about producing something of your own from the ideas/ research in the same way in which DJs produce original music from the pre-recorded sounds of other music writers.”• http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/plagiarism/how_1.html
Four Steps to Finding Your Own Voice“1. Overt One way is to write yourself into the essay – For example: I will argue that …’ – In this essay I argue that... ’ – From our investigations we conclude that … – The researchers of this study concludes… – One can conclude from this investigation… • By drawing such a clear distinction between your voice and the voice of your sources, the marker is more able to hear what you are trying to say.• WARNING: Some disciplines and schools dont allow their students to use I in their written assignments. Check with your lecturers and tutors before you adopt this strategy.2. Original Research The content of lectures and weekly readings can only give you the basics: you are expected to go beyond the material presented in class when you are producing a research-based assignment. Some students never go beyond lecture material and/or the set readings when doing research. But by branching out on your own, by reading more widely youll have many more ideas to draw from. By broadening your research youll be able to include ideas and information not discovered by others whove not read as widely as you have. This will allow you to construct a different argument from other students and, in turn, this research will give your argument a more individual quality.”http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/plagiarism/voice.html
Four Steps to Finding Your Own Voice“3. OrganizationThe way you put your essays together may give them a distinctive quality. Although you must always engage with and answer the question, and the question will always place limits on your essay, the question itself does not dictate the structure of your essay. It does not give you the correct sequence of paragraphs: the order of the paragraphs is your choice.Impose your framework over the question, and dont let your sources dictate the structure of your essay either.4. Integration: choosing the right wordsWhat transition signals and reporting verbs (states, argues, asserts, writes etc.) do you use to show your relationship to the ideas expressed by other writers?By carefully selecting your reporting verbs you can use the words/ideas of others and your own considered opinion of their view.”
Using the Correct WordsEvans states that the sky is red states indicates that you have a(2001:8). largely neutral stance toward the idea expressed.Evans argues that the sky is red argues indicates that you think that(Evans, 2001:8) Evans supports his opinion with argument & evidenceEvans asserts that the sky is red ‘asserts indicates that you think that(Evans, 2001:8 Evans does not fully support his ideaEvans claims that the sky is red claims indicates that you think that(Evans, 2001:8) Evans does not support his idea at allEvans rightly argues that the sky is rightly argues indicates that youred (2001:8) agree strongly with the viewEvans wrongly argues that the sky wrongly argues indicates that youis red (2001:8 disagree with conclusion that Evans has drawnEvans is partially correct when he partially correct suggests that youargues that the sky is red (200 1: 8) agree with some, but not all, of Evans view
Exercise #6• Take one of the articles you found for your review paper and paraphrase a passage from it.• Summarize the the article, “Proteomic biomarker discovery: It’s more than just mass spectrometry”• Include a direct quote in your summary
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