Большая история Games User Research. Софья Чебанова


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  • Сенет, (англ. senet, редк. senat) — древнеегипетскаянастольная игра. Возможно, старейшая известная игра с передвижением фишек на доске. Как светское развлечение он известен с V династии (около 3500 лет до н. э.), в более поздние времена стал ассоциироваться с путешествием в потусторонний мир.
  • Э́двард У́лер Ко́ндонсоздал компьютер для Westinghouse, который показывали на Мировой выставке. Копьютер играет в традиционную математическую игру-стратегию НИМ,в которой два игрока по очереди берут предметы, разложенные на несколько кучек. За один ход может быть взято любое количество предметов (большее нуля) из одной кучки. Выигрывает игрок, взявший последний предмет.100000 людей сыграло и компьютер выигрывал в 90% игр.
  • Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. ИEstle Ray Mann объединили катодную трубку с осциллографом - собрали так называемый CathodeRayTubeAmusementDevice на котором работала безымянная игра про войну. Судя по описаниям - игра выглядело как армейский радар. По кругу летели самолёты, а игрок пускал лучи из центра, пытаясь их сбивать.
  • OXO (также известна как NoughtsAndCrosses) — компьютерная игра для компьютера EDSAC, представляющая собой крестики-нолики. Разработана в 1952 годуА. С. Дугласом (англ.)русск. как иллюстрация к кандидатской диссертации на тему взаимодействия человека и компьютера.закон Хиказакон Хика — утверждает, что время реакции при выборе из некоего числа альтернативных сигналов зависит от их количества. Впервые эту закономерность установил в 1885 г. немецкий психолог И. Меркель, а в 1952 г. ее экспериментально подтвердил В. Э. Хик, причем она приобрела вид логарифмической функции:BP = a*log(n+l)где ВР — среднее значение времени реакции по всем альтернативным сигналам; n — число равновероятных альтернативных сигналов; а — коэффициент пропорциональности. Единица введена в формулу для учета еще одной альтернативы — в виде пропуска сигнала.
  •  1956  Sociologist Robert Merton, wrote a book titled, The Focused Interview in 1956. Long after he had helped devise the methodology, Mr. Merton deplored its abuse and misuse but added, ''I wish I'd get a royalty on it.''Ernest Dichter a marketing pioneer, read Merton’s work and coined the term “focus group”. And started using them on all sorts of products. The focus group was born. Dichter, heavily influenced by psychoanalytic theory, believed that there were unconscious motivations that could be tapped into via focus groups. 
  • WillyHiginbothamсоздал игру в теннис для двоих для осцилографа и аналогового компьютера для демонстрации в Brookhaven National Laboratory. Это предшесвенник“Pong”
  • MIT student Steve Russell invents Spacewar!, the first computer-based video game. Over the following decade, the game spreads to computers across the country. Spacewar (stylized "Spacewar!") is one of the earliest known digital computer games. Двум игрокам, управлявшим кораблями «Игла» (TheNeedle) и «Клин» (TheWedge), нужно было атаковать друг друга ракетами. При этом требовалось учитывать гравитацию звезды, возле которой разворачивается битва, ограниченный запас топлива и боеприпасов. Выпускать ракеты по противнику нужно было с осторожностью.
  • Nolan Bushnell installed Computer Space (an arcade version of the computer-based video game Spacewar!) in the Dutch Goose, a popular hang-out for nearby Stanford University students. Computer Space was well received by the Dutch Goose audience but not the wider public. The controls were deemed to be too complex for the general public. http
  • 1972Carol Kantor is hired by Atari becoming the 1st Games User Researcher EVER.Carol went to University of Texas majoring in Business, Computer Science and StatisticsThen off the University of Boulder CO in Management Science & marketingShe was trained in marketing research by the Clorox company in CA (a part of Procter & Gamble). Classily trained in marketing research. They had hard core traditions. Burke marketing research firm was THE company. They were the ones who did it right. The consumer marketing gurus. Everyone trained with them. They had specific methods and they have been using them for years.It all started on a bet. I met Gene Lipkin VP of Atari. I asked him how could he tell if his games were good or not. I bet him that in 6 months I could tell which game will do better in the market than the others, and if I could then he needed to hire me full time. I did, and then he did.Series of types of tests to tell if one game was going to be a success. All this stuff was happening in arcades so that is where we did our research. In 1973 I started testing.First observation in the fieldDeveloped a questionnaire –intercepted people playing the games in arcadeDeveloped a comparative database and used it to compare all the other games againstFocus groups that we did at different phases of developmentCoin collection data (and this was the only way they would do it before I started this)I was working on Atari’s pinball games vs competitors pinball games. I remember testing Tank. It was very successful. But they wanted to make Tank 8…an 8 player game in the arcade. A radical idea at the time. And where would it be a good place to have it (arcade/bar/etc). I remember doing all this on Breakout too. Interacting with the engineers was really fun. Everyone was family. It was a real party culture too. I would get the design engineers out there in the field to watch the kids. I would give them the job of observing the kids and giving them things to notice. It was fun to be the liaison between marketing and engineering. It was about 4-6 games a year that she would work on. Colette Weil was my first employee in 1977, then Mary in 1978 and then Lindahttp://www.businessbuilders.com/
  • Carol hiresColette Weil in 1977 and then Mary Takatsuno (later Mary Fujihara) & Linda Benzler (later Adam)-Mary, Linda and their team are the first team of video games user researchershttp://atarigames.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=5:atari-inter-office-memos&Itemid=5 Methods-”Location Testing” –take the arcade cabinet to the location (7-11, bar, etc) and watch people play-Focus Groups-SurveyColette Weil Hired in 1977Did all the field work to start with.Coin op was kinda easy because the metric is if you put it out there and if it got coin drops.Would have a prototype and put it into an arcade. Set up a table and sit there and watch the kids play and make notes on it. Video games were still under the shadow of pinball.We would either interview folks after they had finished, or look at the behavioral reactionsLooked at factors like complexity, value of entertainment…how it compared to other games they have played.It was imperative that the programmers liked us. Very important to get anything changed. As time went on the developers started to understand that there were places that were “flat” in the game where folks left the game.Many times the games wouldn’t have final graphics and we had to deal with that.Asteroids was a fascinating game in testing. Initially it was no big deal when folks started testing. But it hooked them… and really hooked them. Took awhile for folks to get into. The dev on Asteroids goal was for the game would have longevity regardless of what other games came out.Atari put me through a MA program. I was looking at video game play between girls and boys. We saw that girls would play risk taking kinds of games. Not shoot em ups…but risk taking.For my MA thesis: I looked at this difference between girls and boys.When I moved to consumer we started to do early modeling to try to predict what the game would score based on the features. That was our goalFound that if you had a hit in coin op, you would have a hit in the console market. Also found that license based games still did ok revenue wise even if the game play was terrible. But if the game play was terrible then the sales would fall off quick, and that was bad too for other reasons.I don’t believe you can test for a breakout genre. I think that is very difficult to test for. Hard to predict. If it’s truly a new one…we missed on some of those.Research is just advisory. And I couldn’t stand it. I felt like I wanted to have more impact. I became director of Home Applications and Children's Software. Brenda Laurel coincidentally worked with me …she was both a researcher and a technical developer. Brenda was in Home Applications. Tidbit: Atari tried to enter Japan twice. They were failing in Japan. We were working on setting up research around the world. We wanted to do research in Japan. We did not know it, but it turned out our #1 competitor was Nintendo, who was our distributer in Japan. So unknown to us our collaborator was our real competition.Linda B AdamLinda Butcher = Linda Benzler Adam (married to Richard Adam Missile Command Programmer)Both students at San Jose state. I was a psych major to begin with, but changed my major to business marketing degree + psychologyAtari was a blast –got sucked inFire Truck was the first game she worked on…a 2 player game. One was driver of the truck and the other was the driver of the back of the truckWould work on about 2-3 games at a time. The team could only produce 2-3 games at a time. So we were working as fast as the devs were.Focus groups first…this is where we’d bring in kids to play the games. About 30% got killed then…Player interviews in the field (at arcades)…somewhat standard questionnaire with a rating sheet that would be used.Most games only got 1 field test…then it was all telemetry from there. All the drop box returns.We also did brainstorming sessions at off sites –this is where all the game ideas game from for coin op. We’d all mix up from all divisions to do these. We’d do these at Pebble Beach.Once we got to product testing stages very few got…less than 5%.We were very focused on players that would put multiple coins into the game, the hardcore players.We chose our methods due to practicality…it was just the easiest, cheapestWe worked w/ a bunch of male engineers trying to convince them that their baby is ugly…gave me a lot of practice in dealing with difficult personalities. I thought it was very hard. We would come into the conference room with the whole design team, we’d give them a written report. We felt like if 30% of folks said something needed to be improved…that wouldn’t often go over well. Often we’d get management to believe in what we were doing…and they would get the changes made.Gravitar was just too difficult…30 sec on first quarter. We could NOT convince the developer to make the beginning easier…and it tanked. Years later I married that developer (and the developer of Missile Command) and we’re still married We got questions into the Gallup poll early 1990’s about video game usage.The reason I quit Atari was Mortal Kombat. I saw the graphics of that game, and how bloody that was. I didn’t want that in my own home and I wouldn’t want my kids playing it.Mary F1978 hiredWorked on 200-300 games…don’t remember the 1st one. So many. Might have been BreakoutIntern for Atari games…that will carry me till I graduate I thoughtHired to do the market research. Linda started after I did. There were 4 folks total in marketing at the time.Developed it from there.Market research in general about the entertainment industry…lots of sales analysis and research. Locations that games could be placed and sold.Carol Kantor hired us. Was from Proctor and Gamble…and then our supervisor was Collette Weil.Developed the User Research -phases of 0 budget to lots of budget…it was crazy. Methods changed based on the $$ we had.-continued to do “location testing”. Would watch and then do interviews afterwards. Is this candid camera” is what they would often say…-Developed a standard questionnaire. Was it easy to learn, Did you think it was too hard/easy, Were the controls different to learn, Did you understand the goal-started doing focus groups later…when game was 33% of the way done to 65% complete -started making on database of players -conference room sit around a table -one console, you would have them get up in small groups or individually and have them play, ask 1st impression. Would play 5 min at a time. Then discuss as a group -What did you think of goal, theme, character, controls, difficulty -3 sets of groups in one evening. 13 and under group, 13- 18 group and adult group. Or would be “casual” gamer…folks who played rarely. -would deck out the observation room for beer, pizza and stuff for the development team…at least when we had budget in the early days-then we started using Nichols research to do the recruiting and the scheduling for us. And sometimes moderating later when we had $$-some of the best coders/designers were the best listeners and users of our research-Were not about the difficulty ramp so much…more about the first 5 minutes.-Measure for coin op success was the coin drop…that was everything. Everyone agreed on that one… You had to grab them on the 1st coin drop or that was it. This was a big, big one.-I played games too, and I was pretty good. I wasn’t a beginner or advanced…I was in the middle. I played a lot of prototypes for many hours.Mimi NicholsNichols Research, Inc. was established in 1978 by Mimi Nichols to provide data collection throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and Northern California. The company has grown to its current status as one of the top 100 independent, woman owned businesses in the area. Nichols company was noteworthy because in 1979 it would become the first company to provide recruiting and moderating services for Atari and their new Marketing Research departmenthttp://www.nicholsresearch.com/about/history/
  • 1985Nintendo Japan develops an 8 point survey scale that they used with people they would bring in for graphics, sounds, character, pace, lasting interest, and controls.
  • Большая история Games User Research. Софья Чебанова

    2. 2. MICHAEL MEDLOCK! СПАСИБО, Senior User Researcher Games and Entertainment (Microsoft Games Studios)
    4. 4. 4 GUR Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 HCI Human Factors Market Research Analytics Training Software Testing Information Architecture Graphic Design Interaction Design User Research Content Strategy Technical Communication Psychology Computer Science Ergonomics Anthropology Library Science Software Design Quality Assurance GAMES
    5. 5. 5 3500 лет до н.э. Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Игра Сенет
    6. 6. 6 1940 Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Эдвард Кондон (Edward U. Condon), игра НИМ
    7. 7. 7 1947 Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. и Estle Ray Mann
    8. 8. 8 1952 Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Александр Дуглас (Alexander S. Douglas ), игра OXO
    9. 9. 9 1956 Мертон Роберт Кинг (Robert Merton) Социолог Книга The Focused Interview Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Эрнест Дихтер (Ernest Dichter) маркетолог Focus Group
    10. 10. 10 1957 Human Factors Society Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    11. 11. 11 1958 Вилли Хигинботэм (Willy Higinbotham), игра в теннис Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    12. 12. 12 1962 Стив Рассел (Steve Russell), игра Spacewar! (первая видео игра для компьютера) Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    13. 13. 13 1971 Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014 Нолан Бушнелл(Nolan Bushnell), игра Computer Space (аркадная версия Spacewar!)
    14. 14. 14 1972 Кэрол Кэнтор (Carol Kantor) Первый Games User Researcher Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    15. 15. 15 1977-1978 Colette Weil, Mary Takatsuno и Linda Benzler Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    16. 16. 16 1980 – 1985 1980 Ericson and Simon опубликовали "Verbal Reports as Data« 1981 Наблюдение за играющими детьми 1982 Jim Lewis, статья респондентах для юзабилити-тестирования 1983 The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction 1985 Nintendo Japan. 8ми бальный опрос, оценивающий графику, музыку, контролы, героев, темп игры и интересность Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    17. 17. 17 1986 – 1990 1986 John Brooke. System Usability Scale (SUS) 1986 Don Norman. Book Psychology of Everyday Things 1986 Первая Game Development Conference (GDC) 1990 Jakob Nielsen, Rolf Molich Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    18. 18. 18 1991 – 1995 1991 Usability Professionals Association (UPA) 1992 Brenda Laurel. Этнографическое исследование девочек с 8 до 14 лет и игр 1993 Jakob Nielsen. Книга Usability Engineering 1994 Первое задокументированное традиционное юзабилити – тестирование. Microsoft Games Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    19. 19. 19 1996 – 2000 1997 Playtesting group at MS Games. Bill Fullton Внутренние стандарты на исследование 1997 Whitepapers туториал, навигация, миникарта 1998 ISO 9241-11 2000 Microsoft Games Usability team + Playtest team =team Microsoft Games User Research (17 специалистов) Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    20. 20. 20 2001 – 2005 2002 RITE Method. Age of Ampires 2002 Melissa Federoff publishes Usability Guidelines for the Creation and Evaluation of Fun in Video Games 2002 Первая исследовательская лаборатория. Sony America 2003-2005 Группы исследователей Nielsen Norman Group, Ubisoft, Electronic Arts, THQ, Warner Brothers Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    21. 21. 21 2006 – 2009 2007 XEODesign. Первое тестирование игры на Iphone 2008 Книга Game Usability: Advancing the Player Experience 2006 – 2009 Activision, Valve, Zynga 2009 Microsoft GUR labs Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    22. 22. 22 2010 – 2014 2010 2011 Riot 2013 Epic Games, Amazon Game Studios 2014 Ubisoft 68 специалистов Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    23. 23. 23 GUR в СНГ 2012 Mail.ru Group 2012 Wargaming.net 2013 Playtestix Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    24. 24. 24 NEXT Новые методики Специалисты Психофиология Sofia Chebanova, ProfsoUX 2014
    25. 25. ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ СЛЕДУЕТ… s_chebanova@wargaming.net Софья Чебанова