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Web Search 101

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Finding Lesson Plans, Activities, Songs, Games, and Conducting Serious Academic Research …

Finding Lesson Plans, Activities, Songs, Games, and Conducting Serious Academic Research
MADE EASIER, FASTER AND MORE ACCURATE

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  • 1. Web Search 101Finding Lesson Plans, Activities, Songs, Games, andConducting Serious Academic ResearchMADE EASIER, FASTER AND MORE ACCURATE Developed By William Tweedie
  • 2. October 2011 & 2012Table of ContentsPreface....................................................................................................................... 4Objectives .................................................................................................................. 5Materials: ................................................................................................................... 5Timing: ....................................................................................................................... 5Procedure................................................................................................................... 6Part 1 – The Surface Web, Search Engines and Directories...................................... 6A. Activating Prior Knowledge..................................................................................... 6B. Search Engine – An online (Internet) World Wide Web search program................7D. Search Queries ..................................................................................................... 8FRAMING YOUR SEARCH STRATEGY.................................................................... 8ACTIVITY:.................................................................................................................. 9E. Basic Boolean Search Operators (AND, OR, NOT).............................................. 10F. Search Tips, Tricks and Techniques..................................................................... 10G. Wrap-up of Part 1................................................................................................. 10Part 2 – The Hidden Web......................................................................................... 10The Internet, World Wide Web and the Hidden Web................................................ 11 Scratching the Surface and Digging Deep – Layers of the Web............................ 12 Education.............................................................................................................. 14Three Types of Search Engines .............................................................................. 18 Crawler-based search engines ............................................................................. 18 Human-powered directories ................................................................................. 19 Hybrid search engines ......................................................................................... 20 Table of Search Engine Features ......................................................................... 20 How do Search Engines Work?............................................................................ 22 Table of Directory Features................................................................................... 23 Subject Directories (Contain Databases), and Portals ......................................... 24 How to Find Subject-Focused Directories for a Specific Topic, Discipline, or Field .............................................................................................................................. 24 What Are "Meta-Search" Engines? How Do They Work? ..................................... 25 Are "Smarter" Meta-Searchers Still Smarter?....................................................... 25 Better Meta-Searchers.......................................................................................... 25 2
  • 3. Meta-Search Engines for SERIOUS Deep Digging .............................................. 26Search Basics: Constructing a Google Query .......................................................... 26 Where does the term Boolean originate from?...................................................... 27 Is Boolean Search Complicated?.......................................................................... 27 Boolean Search And / Or / Not.............................................................................. 27 Boolean Search Examples Boolean Connectors:.................................................. 28 Interactive Text Equivalent.................................................................................... 28 How the Search Engines Differ............................................................................. 30 Search Engine Syntax & Features Comparison Chart ......................................... 30 Some Search Tips, Tricks, & Techniques ............................................................ 33 Invisible or Deep Web: What it is, How to find it, and its inherent ambiguity.........34 Why isnt everything visible?................................................................................. 34 How to Find the Invisible Web .............................................................................. 35 The Ambiguity Inherent in the Invisible Web: ....................................................... 35 Want to learn more about the Invisible Web?........................................................ 35 10 Search Engines to Explore the Invisible Web................................................... 36 How do we get to this mother lode of information?................................................ 36The Invisible Web Databases................................................................................... 41Dictionaries, Translators, & Other Language & Reference Tools ............................. 44Web directories ........................................................................................................ 48Internet Gateways, Jumplists, & Specialized Link Collections................................... 48 Finding Jumplists & Gateways.............................................................................. 49www.invisible-web.net.............................................................................................. 49 Saving pages with Microsoft Internet Explorer ..................................................... 50 Peer-to-Peer Computing ...................................................................................... 50 Education ............................................................................................................. 50 Subject-orientated search services....................................................................... 52 Additional information about search engines, their use, and how they find resources.............................................................................................................. 52 Data services requiring registration ...................................................................... 52 Data services with unrestricted access................................................................. 54 Search Engines .................................................................................................... 55 Subject-orientated search services....................................................................... 56 Dictionaries and Thesauri .................................................................................... 57 Reference Works ................................................................................................. 58General Tips for Searching the Web......................................................................... 60 3
  • 4. Carefully Select Your Search Terms..................................................................... 60 Framing your search strategy............................................................................... 60International Educational Research Links................................................................. 62Education databases................................................................................................ 64Teaching websites.................................................................................................... 64Journals.................................................................................................................... 65Newsletters............................................................................................................... 65New Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and Students.......................65 NETS for Teachers 2008...................................................................................... 65 NETS for Students 2007....................................................................................... 67 Glossary ............................................................................................................... 69 A to Z Computer/Internet Terms............................................................................ 69Appendix A............................................................................................................... 74PrefaceThe Internet and its World Wide Web are growing, developing and adding newfeatures at an explosive exponential rate. As you read this there are newtechnologies being developed and implemented to make ‘surfing’ the Internet foruseful information of all types easier and more accurate, from the traditionaldocument to flash videos and file types previously inaccessible These types of pagesused to be invisible but can now be found in most search engine results: • Pages in non-HTML formats (pdf, Word, Excel, PowerPoint), now converted into HTML. • Script-based pages, whose URLs contain a ? or other script coding. 4
  • 5. • Pages generated dynamically by other types of database software (e.g., Active Server Pages, Cold Fusion). These can be indexed if there is a stable URL somewhere that search engine crawlers can find.The "visible web" is what you can find using general web search engines. Its alsowhat you see in almost all subject directories. The "invisible web" is what youcannot find using these types of tools.Search engines crawlers and indexing programs have overcome many of thetechnical barriers that made it impossible for them to find "invisible" web pages.Computer robot programs, referred to sometimes as "crawlers" or "knowledge-bots"or "knowbots" that are used by search engines to roam the World Wide Web via theInternet, visit sites and databases, and keep the search engine database of webpages up to date. They obtain new pages, update known pages, and delete obsoleteones. Their findings are then integrated into the "home" database. Most large searchengines operate several robots all the time. Even so, the Web is so enormous that itcan take six months for spiders to cover it, resulting in a certain degree of "out-of-datedness" (link rot) in all the search engines.http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Glossary.htmlTherefore this is truly just a starting point for the serious researcher whether inacademia or as a consumer of goods and services.ObjectivesIn this brief overview we will look at and explore the elements that make for effectiveresearch on the Internet. 1. You will learn the Internet is composed of the “Surface Web” and the “Deep or Hidden Web. 2. You will learn how to access information on both in the most expedient way through Search Engines, Meta-search engines and other Internet tools. a. You will learn what Search Engines are and the various types available. b. You will learn what Subject Directories, Portals, and Databases are. 3. You will learn how to construct a search strategy. 4. You will learn the basics of Boolean parameters which narrow search results. 5. You will be provided special resources for academic research.Materials:This workshop needs to be conducted in a computer lab with very good Internetaccess. Participants will follow specific areas of this reference book throughout theworkshop.These areas can be changed according to the needs of the group. This referencebook is as comprehensive a guide as possible at the time of production.Timing: 5
  • 6. This workshop is designed to give a brief introduction to the complex world of the‘Surface’ and ‘Hidden’ Webs with a focus on helping make searches more effectiveand productive. Normal time allotted is 2 hours but it can be extended according totime availability and the group’s level of expertise and interest. It is fully expected thatparticipants will regularly refer to this book and refine their search skillsindependently.DISCLAIMER: Changes on the Internet and in the Hidden Web occur at a rapid paceso some of the search engines, sites, directories and databases may no longer beavailable at the web addresses provided and some may no longer exist. Be preparedto move quickly to the next point of interest. Broken links and inaccessible web-sitescan be researched at a later date.ProcedureIt is preferable to distribute this reference book well in advance of the workshop soparticipants can familiarize themselves with the terms, content, and explore a few ofthe sites.Part 1 – The Surface Web, Search Engines and DirectoriesA. Activating Prior KnowledgeACTIVITY: PRIME TASK: Q & A1. The Surface Web (WWW) – What is it composed of? 6
  • 7. Write as many types of information or components of the World Wide Web as youcan.Time: 10 minutes___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. How can you access this information?Write as many ways as you can?Time: 10 minutes____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. How many Search Engines can you name? What is your favorite search engine?Do you use more than one?Write your answers.Time: 5 minutes____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. How often do you use a search engine in a day? Week? What do you search for?How long do you spend per search? Do you get the results you need or want?Write your answers.Time: 5 minutes_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B. Search Engine – An online (Internet) World Wide Web search program. 7
  • 8. 1. There are 3 types of Search Engine:a). Crawler-based (e.g. Google) – these create their listings automatically throughspecial programs that crawl or spider the web which follow links in web pages italready has to its collection of sources, retrieve information found in index servers ofweb-sites (containing key words) then send it back to the engine’s doc servers whichretrieve the entire document and create snippets to describe the document and whichcontain the key words that might be the subject of a search query. – Very fast.b). Human Powered Directories (e.g. (Open Directory Project) – gets its informationfrom visitor submissions which include a short description which is the source of anykey words in a search. – Also fast.c). Hybrid Engines – combine results from the first two though one engine may havea preference over the other. – Depends on the engine.Search engines rely on their own ‘cache’ of web pages they have harvested butwhen accessed (clicked) you are taken to the source’s latest page. If a page is neverlinked it cannot be indexed.The pages indexed are visible pages only. We’ll look at the Invisible web in Part 2.2. How many search engines do you think there are? 80% of web pages in a majorsearch engine exist only on that engine; so, it is worth taking a look at some of theothers for a ‘second opinion’.ACTIVITY:Chose a topic and search for it on Google or www.DuckDuckGo.com. Then do thesame search on Exalead (www.exalead.com/search/. Compare the number of resultsand the sources of these results.Time: 20 minutesC. Meta – search Engines – combine the results of many search engines.(www.dogpile.com), (www.surfwax.com)ACTIVITY:Use the same search term as in the previous activity and compare the results again.Time: 10 minutesD. Search QueriesFRAMING YOUR SEARCH STRATEGYTo get a successful search result, you must ask the right search question. Framing agood question requires you to think strategically about exactly what you need."By taking the time to identify key phrases and visualize the ideal answer, you will bemore likely to recognize that answer when you find it online." (Nora Paul)Her guidelines are based on the standard journalist approach of "who, what, when,where, why and how" reporting and include these tips, among others: 8
  • 9. Who: • Who is the research about: a politician, a businessperson, a scientist, a criminal? • Who is key to the topic you are researching? Are there any recognized experts or spokespersons you should know about?What: • What kind of information do you need: statistics, sources, background? • What kind of research are you doing: an analysis, a background report, a follow-up? • What would the ideal answer look like?When: • When did the event being researched take place? This will help determine the source to use, particularly, which information source has resources dating far enough back. • Do you know when you should stop searching?Where: • Where did the event you are researching take place? • Where have you already looked for information? • Where might there have been previous coverage: newspapers, broadcasts, trade publications, court proceedings, discussions?Why: • Why do you need the research: seeking a source to interview, surveying a broad topic, pinpointing a fact? • Why must you have the research: to make a decision, to corroborate a premise?How: • How much information do you need: a few good articles for background, everything in existence on the topic, just the specific fact? • How are you going to use the information: for an anecdote, for publication?"Today," Schlein says, "so much data is available that, without a plan, you can easilyfind yourself swimming in an ocean of information…A good, clear question will saveyou hours of work." Find Pauls complete checklist and other good searchsuggestions from Schlein in Find It Online (Tempe, AZ: Facts on Demand Press,2004).ACTIVITY:Reframe the above criteria for research on an academic topic.Time: 15 minutes 9
  • 10. E. Basic Boolean Search Operators (AND, OR, NOT)ACTIVITY:Complete the 4 activities on the “Boolify” worksheets.Time: 30 minutesSee Appendix AF. Search Tips, Tricks and TechniquesSee page 25 belowTime: 5 minutesG. Wrap-up of Part 1Reflection and FeedbackPart 2 – The Hidden WebLook at 10 Search Engines to Explore the Invisible Web on pages 28 – 33Experiment and explore some of the Web Portals, Directories and DatabasesA. List the Categories you find in eachB. Try Boolean searching for a specific topic you currently are researching for apaper or lessonTime: 1 hour 10
  • 11. You may make notes below:The Internet, World Wide Web and the Hidden WebThe Internet is a network of computers connected together (External net) to shareinformation with others through means of the World Wide Web (WWW).World Wide Web (WWW) is part of the Internet where text and graphics are placedtogether and where information can be easily accessed and shared with others toform a Web Page along with links to different documents or other places (Hypertextor Hyperlinks). - From the Glossary Section at the end of this reference book 11
  • 12. The World Wide Web is also known as the ‘Surface Web’ – available to anyone whohas a computer and internet connection.Scratching the Surface and Digging Deep – Layers of the Web"The Invisible Web"By Chris ShermanTheres a big problem with most search engines, and its one many people arenteven aware of. The problem is that vast expanses of the Web are completelyinvisible to general purpose search engines like AltaVista, HotBot and Google. Evenworse, this "Invisible Web" is in all likelihood growing significantly faster than thevisible Web youre familiar with.So what is this Invisible Web and why arent search engines indexing it? To answerthis question, its important to first define the "visible" Web, and describe how searchengines compile their indexes.The Web was created a little over twenty-two years ago by Tim Berners-Lee, aresearcher at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN -The name isderived from the acronym for the French Conseil Européen pour la RechercheNucléaire a high-energy physics laboratory in Switzerland.Berners-Lee designed the Web to be platform-independent, so that researchers atCERN could share materials residing on any type of computer system, avoidingcumbersome and potentially costly conversion issues. To enable this cross-platformcapability, Berners-Lee created HTML, or HyperText Markup Language - essentiallya dramatically simplified version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language).HTML documents are simple: they consist of a "head" portion, with a title andperhaps some additional meta-data describing the document, and a "body" portion,the actual document itself. The simplicity of this format makes it easy for searchengines to retrieve HTML documents, index every word on every page, and storethem in huge databases that can be searched on demand.Whats less easy is the task of actually finding all the pages on the Web. Searchengines use automated programs called spiders or robots to "crawl" the Web andretrieve pages. Spiders function much like a hyper-caffeinated Web browser - theyrely on links to take them from page to page.Crawling is a resource-intensive operation. It also puts a certain amount of demandon the host computers being crawled. For these reasons, search engines will oftenlimit the number of pages they retrieve and index from any given Web site. Itstempting to think that these unretrieved pages are part of the Invisible Web, but theyarent. They are visible and indexable, but the search engines have made aconscious decision not to index them.In recent months, much has been made of these overlooked pages. Many of themajor engines are making serious efforts to include them and make their indexesmore comprehensive. Unfortunately, the engines have also discovered through their"deep crawls" that theres a tremendous amount of duplication and spam on the Web.Current estimates put the Web at about 1.2 to 1.5 billion indexable pages. BothInktomi and AltaVista have claimed that theyve spidered most of these documents,but have been forced to cull their indexes to cope with duplicates and spam. Inktomi 12
  • 13. puts the size of the distilled Web at about 500 million pages; AltaVista at about 350million.But these numbers dont include Web pages that cant be indexed, or informationthats available via the Web but isnt accessible by the search engines. This is thestuff of the Invisible Web.Why cant some pages be indexed? The most basic reason is that there are no linkspointing to a page that a search engine spider can follow. Or, a page may be madeup of data types that search engines dont index - graphics, CGI scripts, Macromediaflash or PDF files, for example.But the biggest part of the Invisible Web is made up of information stored indatabases. When an indexing spider comes across a database, its as if it has runsmack into the entrance of a massive library with securely bolted doors. Spiders canrecord the librarys address, but can tell you nothing about the books, magazines orother documents it contains.There are thousands - perhaps millions - of databases containing high-qualityinformation that are accessible via the Web. But in order to search them, youtypically must visit the Web site that provides an interface to the database. Theadvantage to this direct approach is that you can use search tools that werespecifically designed to retrieve the best results from the database. Thedisadvantage is that you need to find the database in the first place, a task thesearch engines may or may not be able to help you with.Another problem is that content in some databases isnt designed to be directlysearchable. Instead, Web developers are taking advantage of database technologyto offer customized content thats often assembled on the fly. Search engine resultspages are an example of this type of dynamically generated content - so are serviceslike My Excite and My Yahoo. As Web sites get more complex and users demandmore personalization, this trend toward dynamically generated content willaccelerate, making it even harder for search engines to create comprehensive Webindexes.In a nutshell, the Invisible Web is made up of unindexable content that searchengines either cant or wont index. Its a huge part of the Web, and its growing.Fortunately, there are several reasonably thorough guides to the Invisible Web.Gary Price, Reference Librarian at the Gelman Library at George WashingtonUniversity, is considered one of the foremost authorities on online databases andother invaluable search resources on the Invisible Web.http://www.resourceshelf.com/Prices List of Lists (LOL) was started around 1998 and maintained by Gary Price formany years. The LOL grew, and Garys commitment to other projects and speakingengagements made the upkeep of the LOL impossible. In late 2000, Garyapproached Trip Wyckoff, of Specialissues.com, about taking over the upkeep andexpansion of the LOL. By 2002 the online database and structure to maintain andorganize the LOL was in place and in October 2002 the LOL was transferred towww.Specialissues.com."By the way, do not mistake an interest in the Invisible Web as a slam on the generalsearch engines because it is NOT," says Price. "General search tools are still 100%essential for accessing material on the Internet." 13
  • 14. One of the largest gateways to the Invisible Web is the aptly named Invisibleweb.com<http://www.invisibleweb.com> from Intelliseek."Invisible Web sources are critical because they provide users with specific, targetedinformation, not just static text or HTML pages," says Sundar Kadayam, CTO andCo-Founder, Intelliseek."InvisibleWeb.com is a Yahoo-like directory. It is a high quality, human edited andindexed, collection of highly targeted databases that contain specific answers tospecific questions," says Kadayam.Intelliseek also makes BullsEye, a desktop based metasearch engine that can alsoaccess many of the sites included in InvisibleWeb.com. More information can befound at <http://www.intelliseek.com/prod/bullseye.htm>.A good librarian would not start looking for a phone number (specialized, InvisibleWeb info) by searching the Encyclopaedia Britannica (general knowledge resource),"says Price. "Both professional and casual searchers should at least be aware thatthey could be missing some information or wasting time finding what could be foundmore easily if the right tool for the job is easily accessible. This is very similar to agood reference librarian “knowing the major reference tools in his or her collection.Chris Sherman is the Web Search Guide for About.com. - Extracted from http://web.freepint.com/go/newsletter/64Gary Prices List of ListsAgriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Petroleum & Mining, Utilities,Construction, Manufacturing, Wholesale Trade, Retail Trade, Transportation andWarehousing Information, Finance & Insurance, Real Estate Rental & Leasing,Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services, Business & Industry Management,Administrative & Support Services, Education, Health Care and Social AssistanceArts, Entertainment and Recreation, Accommodation and Food Services, Repairs,Religious, Civic, Professional, and Similar Organizations, Public Administration &Public Works, Country/Region Specific, Executives… - extracted from http://www.specialissues.com/lol/EducationMagazine Article YearAmerican School & Top 10 Issue (biggest, best and most popular in education 2005University Magazine facilities and business)American School & Top 10 Issue (biggest, best and most popular in education 2003University Magazine facilities and business) 14
  • 15. American School & Top 100 School Districts and Colleges Facilities (ranked 2003University Magazine by size of facilities)American School & Top 10 Issue (biggest, best and most popular in education 2004University Magazine facilities and business)American School & Top 100 School Districts and Colleges Facilities (ranked 2004University Magazine by size of facilities)American School & Top 100 School Districts and Colleges Facilities (ranked 2002University Magazine by size of facilities)American School & Top 10 Issue (biggest, best and most popular in education 2006University Magazine facilities construction, operations and management)American School & Top 100 School Districts and Colleges Facilities (ranked 2006University Magazine by size of facilities)Business Week(Global edition) Best Business Schools (ranking and review of the worlds 2002(formerly North leading business schools) (1986)America edition)Business Week(Global edition) Best Executive Education/Business Schools (ranking and 2005(formerly North review of the worlds leading business schools) (1986)America edition)Business Week(Global edition) Best Executive Education/Business Schools (ranking and 2004(formerly North review of the worlds leading business schools) (1986)America edition)Business Week(Global edition) Young Professionals: Best Undergrad B-Schools 2007(formerly NorthAmerica edition)Business Week(Global edition) Young Professionals: Best Undergrad B-Schools 2008(formerly NorthAmerica edition) MBA Report (annual look at master of business administration education, weve decided to forgo ourCanadian Business traditional ranking of Canadas MBA programs and instead 2003 examine the ever-increasing variety of choices Canadian schools are offering) (1991)Chief Executive Annual Best Business Schools for Executive Education 2006 15
  • 16. (2004) Almanac of Higher Education (statistical/demographicChronicle of Higher databook on education covering four major topical areas: 2002Education, The students, faculty and staff, resources, and institutions) (separate issue)Expansion Metro With the Best Public Education Systems 2005Management College Census (2001 performance report for 100 top self-Foodservice Director 2002 op colleges) School Census (performance report for top 100 schoolFoodservice Director 2002 districts) Best Business Schools (ranked by return on investment)Forbes 2008 (2001, biennial) Best Business Schools (ranked by return on investment)Forbes 2007 (2001, biennial)Fortune Top 50 MBA Employers 2007Fortune(InternationalVersion: Asia, 20 Great Employers for New Grads 2007Europe, LatinAmerica)Fortune Small 10 Cool Colleges for Entrepreneurs 2006Business: FSBFortune Small Best Colleges for Entrepreneurs 2007Business: FSBMacleans Canadas Best Schools 2004Macleans Annual University Ranking (1990) 2004 Scholastic Top 10 (top 10 universities ranked by the quality and variety of workshops, conferences and shortMeat & Poultry 2004 courses available at universities throughout the U.S.) (2000) Top 10 Universities (top 10 universities ranked by the quality and variety of workshops, conferences and shortMeat & Poultry 2007 courses available at universities throughout the U.S.) (2000) 16
  • 17. National Law JournalNLJ Law Schools Report 2008Progress Magazine The High School Report Card (the AIMS Ranking of High(CA) (formerly School Performance in Every District in Atlantic Canada 2009Atlantic Progress and Maine) (2002)Magazine)Quirks Marketing University Degree Programs in Marketing Research 2008Research ReviewSchool Bus Fleet Statistics & Top Rankings 2003School Bus Fleet Top 50 Contractor Fleets 2002School Bus Fleet Top 100 School District Fleets 2002School Planning & Leading the Way: Americas Fastest Growing Districts 2007ManagementTechnology Review University Research Scorecard (ranking and analysis of(formerly MIT intellectual property and research revenues and spin-offs, 2002Technology Review) includes profiles of hot start-ups)U.S. News and Best Graduate Schools Guide 2002World ReportU.S. News and Americas Best Colleges Guide 2002World ReportU.S. News and Colleges (1,400+ schools) 2002World ReportU.S. News and Community Colleges (1,200+ schools) 2002World ReportU.S. News and Corporate E-learning vendors (600+ providers) 2002World ReportU.S. News and E-learning courses and degrees (1,000+ institutions) 2002World ReportU.S. News and Graduate Schools (1,000+ programs) 2002World ReportU.S. News and Scholarships (600,000+ awards) 2002World ReportU.S. News and Best Graduate Schools 2005World ReportU.S. News and Best Colleges 2004 17
  • 18. World ReportVirginia Business Special Report: Business Schools Directory 2006Virginia Business Private Schools Directory 2006Virginia Business Special Report: Community Colleges Directory 2006Virginia Business Education: Engineering/IT Schools Directory 2006Three Types of Search EnginesThe term "search engine" is often used generically to describe crawler-based searchengines, human-powered directories, and hybrid search engines. These types ofsearch engines gather their listings in different ways, through crawler-basedsearches, human-powered directories, and hybrid searches.Crawler-based search enginesCrawler-based search engines, such as Google (http://www.google.com), create theirlistings automatically. They "crawl" or "spider" the web, then people search throughwhat they have found. If web pages are changed, crawler-based search engineseventually find these changes, and that can affect how those pages are listed. Pagetitles, body copy and other elements all play a role.The life span of a typical web query normally lasts less than half a second, yetinvolves a number of different steps that must be completed before results can bedelivered to a person seeking information. The following graphic (Figure 1) illustratesthis life span (from http://www.google.com/corporate/tech.html): 18
  • 19. 1. The web server sends the query to the index3. The search results are servers. The content inside the index servers isreturned to the user in a similar to the index in the back of a book - itfraction of a second. tells which pages contain the words that match the query. 2. The query travels to the doc servers, which actually retrieve the stored documents. Snippets are generated to describe each search result.Human-powered directoriesA human-powered directory, such as the Open Directory Project(http://www.dmoz.org/about.html) depends on humans for its listings. (Yahoo!, whichused to be a directory, now gets its information from the use of crawlers.) A directorygets its information from submissions, which include a short description to thedirectory for the entire site, or from editors who write one for sites they review. Asearch looks for matches only in the descriptions submitted. Changing web pages,therefore, has no effect on how they are listed. Techniques that are useful forimproving a listing with a search engine have nothing to do with improving a listing ina directory. The only exception is that a good site, with good content, might be morelikely to get reviewed for free than a poor site. 19
  • 20. Hybrid search enginesToday, it is extremely common for crawler-type and human-powered results to becombined when conducting a search. Usually, a hybrid search engine will favor onetype of listings over another. For example, MSN Search (http://www.imagine-msn.com/search/tour/moreprecise.aspx) is more likely to present human-poweredlistings from LookSmart (http://search.looksmart.com/). However, it also presentscrawler-based results, especially for more obscure queries.Recommended Search EnginesUC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet WorkshopsGoogle is currently the most used search engine. It has one of the largest databasesof Web pages, including many other types of web documents (blog posts, wiki pages,group discussion threads and document formats (e.g., PDFs, Word or Exceldocuments, PowerPoints). Despite the presence of all these formats, Googlespopularity ranking often places worthwhile pages near the top of search results.Google alone is not always sufficient, however. Not everything on the Web is fullysearchable in Google. Overlap studies show that more than 80% of the pages in amajor search engines database exist only in that database. For this reason, getting a"second opinion" can be worth your time. For this purpose, we recommend Yahoo!Search or Exalead. We do not recommend using meta-search engines as yourprimary search tool.Table of Search Engine FeaturesSome common techniques will work in any search engine. However, in this verycompetitive industry, search engines also strive to offer unique features. When indoubt, look for "help", "FAQ", or "about" links. Search Google Yahoo! Search Exalead Engine www.google.com search.yahoo.com www.exalead.com/search/ Links to Google help Yahoo! help Exalead help and FAQ helpSize, type IMMENSE. Size not HUGE. Claims over LARGE. Claims to have disclosed in any way 20 billion total "web over 8 billion searchable that allows objects." pages. comparison. Probably the biggest.Noteworthy PageRank™ system Shortcuts give Truncation lets you search features includes hundreds of quick access to by the first few letters of a factors, emphasizing dictionary, word. pages most heavily synonyms, patents, Proximity search lets you linked from other traffic, stocks, find terms NEAR each pages. encyclopedia, and other or NEXT to each 20
  • 21. Many additional more. other. databases including Thumbnail page previews. Book Search, Scholar Extensive options for (journal articles), Blog refining and limiting your Search, Patents, search. Images, etc.Phrase Enclose phrase in Enclose phrase in Enclose phrase in "doublesearching "double quotes". "double quotes". quotes".Boolean Partial. AND assumed Accepts AND, OR, Partial. AND assumedlogic between words. NOT or AND NOT. between words. Capitalize OR. Must be Capitalize OR. ( ) accepted but not capitalized. ( ) accepted. required. ( ) accepted but not See Web Search Syntax In Advanced Search, required. for more options. partial Boolean available in boxes.+Requires/ - excludes - excludes - excludes-Excludes + retrieves "stop + will allow you to + retrieves "stop words" words" (e.g., +in) search common (e.g., +in) words: "+in truth"Sub- The search box at the The search box at The search box at the topSearching top of the results page the top of the of the results page shows shows your current results page shows your current search. Modify search. Modify this your current this (e.g., add more terms (e.g., add more terms search. Modify this at the end.) at the end.) (e.g., add more terms at the end.)Results Based on page Automatic Fuzzy Popularity rankingRanking popularity measured AND. emphasizes pages most in links to it from other heavily linked from other pages: high rank if a pages. lot of other pages link to it. Fuzzy AND also invoked. Matching and ranking based on "cached" version of pages that may not be the most recent version.Field link: link: intitle: 21
  • 22. limiting site: site: inurl: intitle: intitle: site: inurl: inurl: after:[time period] Offers U.S.Govt url: before:[time period] Search and other hostname: (For details, click on special searches. (Explanation of "Advanced search") Patent search. these distinctions.)Truncation, No truncation within Neither. Search Use * Stemming words. Automatically with OR as in example: messag* ) stems some words. Google. Search variant endings and synonyms separately, separating with OR (capitalized): airline OR airlines Use * or _ as wildcards substituting for initials or words: sickle * anemia george _ bushLanguage Yes. Major Yes. Major Extensive language and Romanized and non- Romanized and geographic options. Use Romanized languages non-Romanized "Advanced Search". in Advanced Search. languages.Translation Yes, in "Translate this Available as a Yes, in "Translate this page" link following separate service. page" link following some some pages. To and pages. sometimes from English and major European languages and Chinese, Japanese, Korean. Ues its own translation software with user feedback.How do Search Engines Work?Search engines do not really search the World Wide Web directly. Each onesearches a database of web pages that it has harvested and cached. When you usea search engine, you are always searching a somewhat stale copy of the real webpage. When you click on links provided in a search engines search results, youretrieve the current version of the page. 22
  • 23. Search engine databases are selected and built by computer robot programs calledspiders. These "crawl" the web, finding pages for potential inclusion by following thelinks in the pages they already have in their database. They cannot use imaginationor enter terms in search boxes that they find on the web.If a web page is never linked from any other page, search engine spiders cannot findit. The only way a brand new page can get into a search engine is for other pages tolink to it, or for a human to submit its URL for inclusion. All major search engines offerways to do this.After spiders find pages, they pass them on to another computer program for"indexing." This program identifies the text, links, and other content in the page andstores it in the search engine databases files so that the database can be searchedby keyword and whatever more advanced approaches are offered, and the page willbe found if your search matches its content.Many web pages are excluded from most search engines by policy. The contents ofmost of the searchable databases mounted on the web, such as library catalogs andarticle databases, are excluded because search engine spiders cannot access them.All this material is referred to as the "Invisible Web" -- what you dont see in searchengine results.Recommended Subject DirectoriesUC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops - extracted from http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/SubjDirectories.htmlRecommended General Subject Directories:Table of Directory FeaturesWeb ipl2 Infomine About.com Yahoo!Directories www.ipl.org infomine.ucr.edu www.about.com dir.yahoo.comSize, type Over 40,000. Over 125,000. Over 2 million. About 4 million. Highest quality Useful, reliable Generally good Very short sites only. annotations. annotations done descriptions. Useful, reliable Compiled by by "Guides" with Often useful, annotations. academic librarians various levels of especially for Formed by a from the University expertise. popular and merger of the of California and commercial Librarians elsewhere. topics. Internet Index and the Internet Public Library.Phrase No. Yes. Use " " Yes. Use " " Yes. Use " "searching |term term| requires exact matchBoolean OR implied AND implied No. Yes, as in 23
  • 24. logic between between words. Yahoo! Search words. Also Also accepts OR, web search accepts AND NOT, and ( ). engine. and NOT. Nesting with ( ) does not work.Truncation No. Use *. Also stems. Use *. No.) Can turn stemming Not accepted off. Use " " or | | to consistently. search exact terms.Field No. Limit to Author, No. As in Yahoo!searching Title, Subject, Search web Keyword, search engine. Description, and more.Subject Directories (Contain Databases), and PortalsHow to Find Subject-Focused Directories for a Specific Topic, Discipline, or FieldThere are thousands of specialized directories on practically every subject. If youwant an overview, or if you feel youve searched long enough, try to find one. Oftenthey are done by experts -- self-proclaimed or heavily credentialed. Here are someways to find them:Use any of the Subject Directories above to find more specific directories. Here aresome tips: • In ipl2 or Infomine, look for your subject as you would for any other purpose, and keep your eyes open for sites that look like directories. Read through the descriptions. Sometimes these resources are identified as "Directories, "Virtual Libraries," or "Gateway Pages." • In About.com (A Portal which is a site that links to many other sites according to its site construction or Directory) or Yahoo! directory, try adding the terms web directories to your subject keyword term:EXAMPLES:civil war web directoriesweddings web directories • In About.com, search by topic and look for pages that are described as "101" or "guides" or a "directory." About.com is written by "Guides" who, themselves, often are experts in the sections they manage. Sometimes they write excellent overviews of a topic. 24
  • 25. Meta-Search EnginesUC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet WorkshopsWhat Are "Meta-Search" Engines? How Do They Work?In a meta-search engine, you submit keywords in its search box, and it transmits yoursearch simultaneously to several individual search engines and their databases ofweb pages. Within a few seconds, you get back results from all the search enginesqueried. Meta-search engines do not own a database of Web pages; they send yoursearch terms to the databases maintained by search engine companies.Are "Smarter" Meta-Searchers Still Smarter?"Smarter" meta-searcher technology includes clustering and linguistic analysis thatattempts to show you themes within results, and some fancy textual analysis anddisplay that can help you dig deeply into a set of results. However, neither of thesetechnologies is any better than the quality of the search engine databases theyobtain results from.Few meta-searchers allow you to delve into the largest, most useful search enginedatabases. They tend to return results from smaller and/or free search engines andmiscellaneous free directories, often small and highly commercial.Although we respect the potential of textual analysis and clustering technologies, werecommend directly searching individual search engines to get the most preciseresults, and using meta-searchers if you want to explore more broadly.The meta-search tools listed here are "use at your own risk." We are notendorsing or recommending them.Better Meta-Searchers Whats Searched Meta-Search (As of date at bottom of Complex Results Display Tool page. They change Search Ability often.) Yippy Searches Bing, Ask, Accepts Results accompanied with yippy.com Open Directory, and Boolean subdivisions based on (formerly Yahoo (as of 6/15/10). operators AND, words in search results, Clusty) OR, NOT, and intended to give the major limiting by themes. Click on these to "filetype:" and search within results on "site:". each theme. Dogpile Searches Google, Yahoo,www.dogpile.com Bing, and Ask.com (as of 6/15/10). Sites that have purchased ranking and inclusion are mixed into the results. Watch for 25
  • 26. "Sponsored:". Meta-Search Engines for SERIOUS Deep Digging Whats Complex Search Meta-Search Tool Results Display Searched Ability SurfWax A better than Accepts " ", +/-. Click on source link to www.surfwax.com average set of Default is AND view complete search search engines. between words. I results there. Can mix with recommend fairly Click on to view educational, US simple searches, helpful "SiteSnap™" Govt tools, and allowing SurfWaxs extracted from most news sources, SiteSnaps and other sites in frame on right. or many other features to help you Many additional categories. dig deeply into features for probing results. within a site. Copernic Agent Select from list ALL, ANY, Phrase, Must be downloaded www.copernic.com of search and more. Also and installed, but Basic engines by Boolean searching version is free of clicking on within results under charge. Table Advanced, then "Find in results" > comparing versions. "Modify search "Advanced Find" engine (powerful!). settings".Search Basics: Constructing a Google QuerySearch engines work by providing you with a screen form containing one or morefields into which you type your search term (a combination of words and/or phrases).Single words are quick and easy, but produce much too general a result. With Google,for example, looking for florists yields 24 million hits (search results). If we narrowthe search to florists in Vancouver (i.e. type florists Vancouver), we come up with1.7 million results. Narrow further by making your search term a phrase. To do this,enclose the words in double quotation marks, as in "Vancouver florists". In Google,this example produces just 27,000 hits, because Google is making a match for theexact string of characters we typed.Some search engines provide radio buttons that allow you to specify whether thesearch must match Any or All of the terms you type. Most default to All, returningpages that contain every word used in your search. Choose Any to retrieve pagesthat contain one or more of your search words. This AND versus OR distinction iscalled Boolean logic, and its the key to controlling the search engines. To specify anOR in Google, you must type the word OR between words. In our Vancouver floristsscenario, for example, typing florists OR vancouver results in 85 million hitsbecause it returns all pages containing either the word florists or the word Vancouver. 26
  • 27. Thus, you might get florists in Hungary and welders in Vancouver! By combiningANDs, ORs, and phrases, you can begin to build truly powerful queries. Learn thesetechniques and many more powerful search strategies in our popular Internet researchcourse.Where does the term Boolean originate from?Boolean searching is built on a method of symbolic logic developed by GeorgeBoole, a 19th century English mathematician. Most online databases and searchengines support Boolean searches. Boolean search techniques can be used to carryout effective searches, cutting out many unrelated documents.Is Boolean Search Complicated?Using Boolean Logic to broaden and/or narrow your search is not as complicated asit sounds; in fact, you might already be doing it. Boolean logic is just the term used todescribe certain logical operations that are used to combine search terms in manysearch engine databases and directories on the Net. Its not rocket science, but itsure sounds fancy (try throwing this phrase out in common conversation!).Basic Boolean Search Operators - ANDUsing AND narows a search by combining terms; it will retrieve documents that useboth the search terms you specify, as in this example: • Portland AND OregonBasic Boolean Search Operators - ORUsing OR broadens a search to include results that contain either of the words youtype in. OR is a good tool to use when there are several common spellings orsynonyms of a word, as in this example: • liberal OR democratBasic Boolean Search Operators - NOTUsing NOT will narrow a search by excluding certain search terms. NOT retrievesdocuments that contain one, but not the other,of the search terms you enter, as inthis example: • Oregon NOT travel.Keep in mind that not all search engines and directories support Boolean terms.However, most do, and you can easily find out if the one you want to use supportsthis technique by consulting the FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) on a searchengine or directorys home page.Boolean Search And / Or / NotThis is an algebraic concept, but dont let that scare you away. Boolean connectorsare all about sets. There are three little words that are used as Boolean connectors: • and • or • not 27
  • 28. Think of each keyword as having a "set" of results that are connected with it. Thesesets can be combined to produce a different "set" of results. You can also excludecertain "sets" from your results by using a Boolean connector.AND is a connector that requires both words to be present in each record in theresults. Use AND to narrow your search. Search Term Hits Television 999 hits Violence 876 hits Television and violence 123 hitsThe words television and violence will both be present in each record.OR is a connector that allows either word to be present in each record in the results.Use OR to expand your search. Search Term Hits Adolescents 97 hits Teenagers 75 hits Adolescents or teenagers 172 hitsEither adolescents or teenagers (or both) will be present in each record.NOT is a connector that requires the first word be present in each record in theresults, but only if the record does not contain the second word. Search Term HitsHigh school 423 hitsElementary 652 hitsHigh school not Elementary 275 hitsEach record contains the words high school, but not the word elementary.Boolean Search Examples Boolean Connectors:Interactive Text EquivalentThis Boolean demonstration provides a simple example of how Boolean connectorscan help focus your search as finitely as possible. 28
  • 29. THE SCENARIOYour research topic: television violenceYou do a separate search for each keyword and get back the following results:Television = 999Violence = 876Thats a lot to wade through. Select AND, OR, or NOT to see how that Booleanconnector will affect this search.ANDYou use AND to connect terms or phrases.We have two words television and violence. To connect them we use the Booleanconnector AND. Compare the results of the search options below:SEARCH #1: televisionResult: A circle balloons until it fills about half the play area. As it gets bigger we seethe word television appear. When its finished generating the results show up =999results.SEARCH #2: violenceResult: A circle balloons until it fills about half the play area. As it gets bigger we seethe word violence appear. When its finished generating the results show up =876results.SEARCH #3: television AND violenceResult: The two circles balloon until they fill the play area as in those above. As theyget bigger we see the words television and violence appear. When theyre finishedgenerating the results show up as above, plus, the same in between the two circles isa different color and it reads as followings:AND =123 resultsORYou use OR to search for multiple terms or phrases.Youve decided to focus on how violence on television affects a specific age group.That is, teenagers. But in your searches youve encountered another term thatsfrequently used: "adolescents.So, in order to get information that uses either term, youd use the OR connector.SEARCH: teenager OR adolescent:Result: Both circles balloon until they fill the play area as above. As they get biggerwe see the words teenager and adolescent appear. When theyre finishedgenerating the results show up as above.Next OR appears between them, and the two circles come towards one another.The text teenager, 75 result and adolescent 97 results stay where they are. As thecircles merge (and change into a new color) the OR disappears behind them. Whenthe merging has finished, the following text appears in the middle of the new circle. 29
  • 30. Teenager OR Adolescent75 + 97 = 172 resultsthe teenager = 75 results and adolescent =97 results should now be outside thecircle to the left and right.NOTYou use NOT to exclude terms or phrases.In one of your searches you use "high school" as a keyword phrase. You notice thatyou get many results which cover both high school and elementary school. The mainemphasis of your research, as youve followed the process, has turned towards howtelevision violence affects students in high school.So, in order to eliminate unwanted results you use the NOT connector.SEARCH: high schoolThe circle to the left balloons. As it gets bigger we see the words high schoolsappear. When its finished generating the results show up as follows. High school =423 results.SEARCH: elementaryThe circle to the right balloons. As it gets bigger we see the words elementaryappear. When its finished generating, the results show up as follows. Elementary =652 results.SEARCH: high school NOT elementaryBoth circles balloon until they fill the play area as above. When its finishedgeneration the results appear as above, but where the circles overlap it reads: NOT =148 exclusions.Next the elementary circle and the NOT overlap move away from the high schoolcircle. The NOT area like a bite taken out of the high school circle.When the elementary circle and the NOT bite stop, the results in the high schoolcircle change to:High school NOT elementary 423 - 148 exclusions = 275In excluding all references to high school in combination with elementary you get275 results in which high school is only mentioned.How the Search Engines DifferThe Web puts a variety of powerful search engines at your disposal, includingAltavista, Google, All The Web, Teoma, Wisenut, and many more. Which is best?These tools vary in ease of use not to mention features. Your choice of searchengine should be driven by the research challenge you face. Some search enginesare better than others for particular purposes. See below for brief descriptions oftodays major players, their respective strengths and weaknesses, and theiraffiliations:Search Engine Syntax & Features Comparison ChartAn understanding of the syntax differences among search engines is essential tomastery of these tools and the ability to force them to return the precise results you 30
  • 31. want. Many of these sites appear to operate similarly, at least on the surface. Yetthey can differ substantially in how they understand queries and allow you to filterresults, as well as how they rank the hits returned. Consult our search basics pagefor information on syntax and operators, then experiment with the search engines inthe chart provided. To click through to the various search engines, use the HTMLchart below. We have also provided a PDF version of the chart for printing.Search Boolean Default Phrase Wildcards Case Prefixes FamilyEngine sensitive filterAltavist + - ( ) Phrase, "" Yes No anchor, Yes.a then * 1-5 applet, Password AND, OR, AND characters, domain, protected. AND NOT, must type host, NEAR ( ) first 3 image, like, (Simple characters link, text, Srch) title, urlGoogle OR AND "" Whole word No filetype, Yes wildcard (*) daterange, - cache, link, + to related, include info, spell, stop words stocks, site, intitle, allintitle, inurl, allinurlAll The AND, OR, AND "" No No site, url, YesWeb ANDNOT, link, title, ( ), language, filesize, +, - filetype ( ) means ORWisenu +, - AND "" No No language YestTeoma -, OR AND "" No No intitle, inurl, No site, inlink, + to lang, include afterdate, stop words beforedate, between date 31
  • 32. Google: Google is the worlds most popular search engine. Claiming to search 3.3billion pages (thats practically the entire Web!), this search engine remainsundisputed king in terms of size. Google produces highly relevant results, using linkpopularity for ranking. Googles original claim to fame was its speed, although itsclean, uncluttered interface has also won fans. Google defaults to AND whenprocessing queries containing two or more words (returning pages that match allwords specified). If you want either word (as in alternate spellings of color), you mustactually force Google to see your search this way, by specifying the Boolean ORoperator, as in color OR colour. Google supports exact phrase searching plus theability to exclude words (use the minus sign) and to constrain by domain and othercriteria. Alliances: Google has taken over the Deja newsgroup archive. It powershundreds of other search engines and the web search feature of directories likeYahoo. Googles Web directory is provided by DMOZ.Altavista: Still the champ in terms of raw search power, Altavista was recentlypurchased by Overture, the Nets major pay-per-click search company. Altavistasindex is respectable, at 1 billion pages. It defaults to OR, ordering search resultsaccording to number, location and proximity of search term occurrences. UseAltavista when you need to construct complex queries containing nestedcombinations of AND and OR. Altavista supports the quasi-Boolean operators (+, -)and the formal Boolean operators (AND, OR, AND NOT, NEAR). This search engineallows you to constrain your search by domain, location within page, date, andnumerous other criteria. Drawbacks include notoriously buggy hit counts and aninterface that could stand some usability improvements. Alliances: Altavista, too,powers hundreds of other sites. Its web directory is provided by DMOZ.All The Web: At first glance, All The Web looks much like Google, providing theclean look and user-friendliness of the industry leader. All The Web defaults to AND,with a convenient tick box that allows you to specify a phrase. Its index rivalsGoogles, at 3.2 billion documents. It does not recognize formal Boolean arguments,although it supports quasi-Boolean operators (+, -) and the ability to constrain bydomain, location within page, and several other criteria. Alliances: All The Web wasalso recently taken over by Overture.Wisenut: Known for its clean screen and speedy performance, Wisenut set out torival Google. A "clustering" search engine, Wisenut groups results into categories itcalls "WiseGuide." Small plus and minus signs allow you to collapse and expandthese categories. Like Google, Altavista, and other major players, Wisenut is aspider-based search engine that crawls, links and indexes page contents. Wisenutclaims to have an index of 1.5 billion pages. Wisenut defaults to AND, and supportsphrase searching and the + and - operators, though it offers no advanced searchfeatures as yet. Alliances: Wisenut is owned by Looksmart.Teoma: Like Wisenut, Teoma set out to emulate Googles clean screen and fastperformance. It too defaults to AND. Teomas index is a respectable 1.5 billionpages. Like Google, Teoma evaluates page popularity, using complex relevance andlink popularity algorithms to rank results. Teoma clusters search results at the top ofthe screen and displays a list of what it calls "Expert Link Collections" at bottom right.These listings point to sites Teoma considers authoritative link collections relevant tothe subject of your search. Sometimes called jumplists, link collections can be amongthe Webs hidden treasures. Teoma is one of the few search engines to identify 32
  • 33. them. This feature alone makes it a valuable addition to your bookmark list.Alliances: Teoma was acquired by Ask Jeeves in 2001.Site contents Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone. All rights reserved.Some Search Tips, Tricks, & TechniquesTheres more to search success than simply typing a few words into a search engine.Here are a few points to keep in mind for your next search. • Choose the right tool for the job. Its not all about search engines! Choosing the appropriate research tool is half the battle. Know when to use a specialized resource such as telephone directory , a regional directory, or a reference work like those youd find at the Library. • Familiarize yourself with search engine syntax. The search engines all differ in the rules they apply when processing your query. Did you know, for example, that Google limits queries to ten words? If you type more than ten words, Google simply truncates your query, dropping excess words off the end. Thats one good reason to plan your search strategy carefully! Check search engine sites for a link labelled Help or Search Tips for syntax information, and see our search basics page and feature comparison chart for more on this important success factor. • Think outside the box when specifying your search term. Its very much a trial and error process. Think about how the information youre after might be indexed. If you did not get results with one word, try a synonym. If, for example, youre seeking information about sailing, you might want to try both the words sailing and yachting. If a word has alternate spellings, specify it both ways (colour and color, for example). • Understand results ranking. Search engines use complicated formulas to order results. Most search engines evaluate web documents against your keywords, ordering results by relevance. They do this by assigning a numeric score to each hit, based on how closely it matches the specified term. They all use different criteria for arriving at this score. Some search engines also factor popularity with users into how they order results, and they measure this in different ways as well. Be aware that advertising may also influence results ranking. • Take advantage of collective human experience. Know when to tap into archived discussions. Look on the Web for facts; ask in discussion groups for opinions. Turn to newsgroups, mailing lists, or web forums for solutions to problems or for answers to obscure or esoteric questions. Google maintains a handy searchable archive of online discussions. Chances are, someones already answered your question! • Let someone else do the work. Sometimes, the fastest way to the information youre after is to locate a jumplist. Specialized collections of links on one subject or theme, jumplists are the hidden treasure of the Web. To find them, try adding words like links, resources, collection, or list to your search term. Yahoo can be useful for finding jumplists, which you can locate by selecting "Web Directories" from many of its menus and sub-menus. The 33
  • 34. Teoma search engine is also useful in locating jumplists, which it calls "expert link collections." • Sign up for our popular Internet research course to find out more. Among the many topics covered, youll learn some little-known but potent Google techniques for ferreting out the Nets most stubbornly elusive information!Finding Information on the Internet: A Tutorialhttp://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/InvisibleWeb.htmlInvisible or Deep Web: What it is, How to find it, and its inherent ambiguityWhat is the "Invisible Web", a.k.a. the "Deep Web"?Why isnt everything visible?There are still some hurdles search engine crawlers cannot leap. Here are someexamples of material that remains hidden from general search engines: • The Contents of Searchable Databases. When you search in a library catalog, article database, statistical database, etc., the results are generated "on the fly" in answer to your search. Because the crawler programs cannot type or think, they cannot enter passwords on a login screen or keywords in a search box. Thus, these databases must be searched separately. o A special case: Google Scholar is part of the public or visible web. It contains citations to journal articles and other publications, with links to publishers or other sources where one can try to access the full text of the items. This is convenient, but results in Google Scholar are only a small fraction of all the scholarly publications that exist online. Much more - including most of the full text - is available through article databases that are part of the invisible web. The UC Berkeley Library subscribes to over 200 of these, accessible to our students, faculty, staff, and on-campus visitors through our Find Articles page. • Excluded Pages. Search engine companies exclude some types of pages by policy, to avoid cluttering their databases with unwanted content. o Dynamically generated pages of little value beyond single use. Think of the billions of possible web pages generated by searches for books in library catalogs, public-record databases, etc. Each of these is created in response to a specific need. Search engines do not want all these pages in their web databases, since they generally are not of broad interest. o Pages deliberately excluded by their owners. A web page creator who does not want his/her page showing up in search engines can insert special "meta tags" that will not display on the screen, but will cause most search engines crawlers to avoid the page. 34
  • 35. How to Find the Invisible WebSimply think "databases" and keep your eyes open. You can find searchabledatabases containing invisible web pages in the course of routine searching in mostgeneral web directories. Of particular value in academic research are: • ipl2 • InfomineUse Google and other search engines to locate searchable databases by searching asubject term and the word "database". If the database uses the word database in itsown pages, you are likely to find it in Google. The word "database" is also useful insearching a topic in the Google Directory or the Yahoo! directory, because theysometimes use the term to describe searchable databases in their listings.Examples:plane crash databaselanguages databasetoxic chemicals databaseRemember that the Invisible Web exists. In addition to what you find in searchengine results (including Google Scholar) and most web directories, there are othergold mines you have to search directly. This includes all of the licensed article,magazine, reference, news archives, and other research resources that libraries andsome industries buy for those authorized to use them.As part of your web search strategy, spend a little time looking for databases in yourfield or topic of study or research. The contents of these may not be freely available:libraries and corporations buy the rights for their authorized users to view thecontents. If they appear free, its because you are somehow authorized to search andread the contents (library card holder, company employee, etc.).The Ambiguity Inherent in the Invisible Web:It is very difficult to predict what sites or kinds of sites or portions of sites will or wontbe part of the Invisible Web. There are several factors involved: o Which sites replicate some of their content in static pages (hybrid of visible and invisible in some combination)? o Which replicate it all (visible in search engines if you construct a search matching terms in the page)? o Which databases replicate none of their dynamically generated pages in links and must be searched directly (totally invisible)? o Search engines can change their policies on what they exclude and include.Want to learn more about the Invisible Web? • The Wikipedia "Deep Web" article provides a fairly up-to-date summary, with links to other resources. 35
  • 36. 10 Search Engines to Explore the Invisible Webby Saikat Basu March 14, 2010Image credit: MarcelGermain Saikat BasuSaikat is a techno-adventurer in a writers garb. When he is not scouring the net fortech news, you can catch him looking for life hacks and learning tidbits.The Invisible Web refers to the part of the WWW that’s not indexed by the searchengines. Most of us think that that search powerhouses like Google and Bing are likethe Great Oracle”¦they see everything. Unfortunately, they can’t because they aren’tdivine at all; they are just web spiders who index pages by following one hyperlinkafter the other.But there are some places where a spider cannot enter. Take library databaseswhich need a password for access. Or even pages that belong to private networks oforganizations. Dynamically generated web pages in response to a query are oftenleft un-indexed by search engine spiders.Search engine technology has progressed by leaps and bounds. Today, we havereal time search and the capability to index Flash based and PDF content. Eventhen, there remain large swathes of the web which a general search engine cannotpenetrate. The term, Deep Net, Deep Web or Invisible Web lingers on.To get a more precise idea of the nature of this “˜Dark Continent’ involving theinvisible and web search engines, read what Wikipedia has to say about the DeepWeb. The figures are attention grabbers ““ the size of the open web is 167 terabytes.The Invisible Web is estimated at 91,000 terabytes. Check this out – the Library ofCongress, in 1997, was figured to have close to 3,000 terabytes!How do we get to this mother lode of information?That’s what this post is all about. Let’s get to know a few resources which will be ourdeep diving vessel for the Invisible Web. Some of these are invisible web searchengines with specifically indexed information.Infomine 36
  • 37. Infomine has been built by a pool of libraries in the United States. Some of them areUniversity of California, Wake Forest University, California State University, and theUniversity of Detroit. Infomine “˜mines’ information from databases, electronicjournals, electronic books, bulletin boards, mailing lists, online library card catalogs,articles, directories of researchers, and many other resources.You can search by subject category and further tweak your search using the searchoptions. Infomine is not only a standalone search engine for the Deep Web but also astaging point for a lot of other reference information. Check out its Other SearchTools and General Reference links at the bottom.The WWW Virtual LibraryThis is considered to be the oldest catalog on the web and was started by started byTim Berners-Lee, the creator of the web. So, isn’t it strange that it finds a place in thelist of Invisible Web resources? Maybe, but the WWW Virtual Library lists quite a lotof relevant resources on quite a lot of subjects. You can go vertically into thecategories or use the search bar. The screenshot shows the alphabeticalarrangement of subjects covered at the site.Intute 37
  • 38. Intute is UK centric, but it has some of the most esteemed universities of the regionproviding the resources for study and research. You can browse by subject or do akeyword search for academic topics like agriculture to veterinary medicine. Theonline service has subject specialists who review and index other websites that caterto the topics for study and research.Intute also provides free of cost over 60 free online tutorials to learn effective internetresearch skills. Tutorials are step by step guides and are arranged around specificsubjects.Complete PlanetComplete Planet calls itself the “˜front door to the Deep Web’. This free and welldesigned directory resource makes it easy to access the mass of dynamic databasesthat are cloaked from a general purpose search. The databases indexed byComplete Planet number around 70,000 and range from Agriculture to Weather. Alsothrown in are databases like Food & Drink and Military.For a really effective Deep Web search, try out the Advanced Search options whereamong other things, you can set a date range.Infoplease 38
  • 39. Infoplease is an information portal with a host of features. Using the site, you can tapinto a good number of encyclopedias, almanacs, an atlas, and biographies.Infoplease also has a few nice offshoots like Factmonster.com for kids and Biosearch,a search engine just for biographies.DeepPeepDeepPeep aims to enter the Invisible Web through forms that query databases andweb services for information. Typed queries open up dynamic but short lived resultswhich cannot be indexed by normal search engines. By indexing databases,DeepPeep hopes to track 45,000 forms across 7 domains.The domains covered by DeepPeep (Beta) are Auto, Airfare, Biology, Book, Hotel,Job, and Rental. Being a beta service, there are occasional glitches as some resultsdon’t load in the browser.IncyWincyIncyWincy is an Invisible Web search engine and it behaves as a meta-searchengine by tapping into other search engines and filtering the results. It searches theweb, directory, forms, and images. With a free registration, you can track searchresults with alerts.DeepWebTech 39
  • 40. DeepWebTech gives you five search engines (and browser plugins) for specifictopics. The search engines cover science, medicine, and business. Using these topicspecific search engines, you can query the underlying databases in the Deep Web.ScirusScirus has a pure scientific focus. It is a far reaching research engine that can scourjournals, scientists’ homepages, courseware, pre-print server material, patents andinstitutional intranets.TechXtra 40
  • 41. TechXtra concentrates on engineering, mathematics and computing. It gives youindustry news, job announcements, technical reports, technical data, full text eprints,teaching and learning resources along with articles and relevant website information.Just like general web search, searching the Invisible Web is also about looking forthe needle in the haystack. Only here, the haystack is much bigger. The InvisibleWeb is definitely not for the casual searcher. It is a deep but not dark because if youknow what you are searching for, enlightenment is a few keywords away.Do you venture into the Invisible Web? Which is your preferred search tool?The Invisible Web DatabasesWhich database might have Turbo10 Search user-selected deepthe information I need? Web resources Resource Discovery Keyword search Network Complete Planet Deep Web directory Digital Librarian and Uncover databases Librarians Guide to the InternetNews and magazines Google News Search 30 day news archive (for US, UK, others) AltaVista News Includes New York Times 1st Headlines Breaking news in categories (US & World; Business; Health; Lifestyles; Sports; Technology; Weather) New York Times Full-text newspaper archive Washington Post search (14 or 30 day trials Seattle Times available) San Francisco Chronicle HeadlineSpot Search news directory by media, region, subject, opinion 41
  • 42. Directory of Open Search or browse by subject Access Journals for peer-reviewed, scientific (DOAJ) and scholarly titles HeadlineSpot: Search magazine directory Magazines by subjectPublic Radio webcasts PublicRadioFan.com Search database of program listingsHistory Guide to History on Database of more than the Web 5,000 US and world history sitesBiography Galileo Project, Individuals Thomas A. Edison Papers Biography.com 25,000 people Biographical 28,000 short identification Dictionary informationCountries Nations Online Alphabetical index to Project, Thomas A. government Web pages Edison Papers Portals to the World From the Library of Congress World Fact Book From the CIA Infonation U.N. member nations Country Profiels From the BBCData Finding and Using Statistical DataBooks (full text) Online Books Page Free e-books 42
  • 43. Outstanding literature Literature, Math and CA Dept. of Ed. Science Literature recommended literature for K-12 HAISLN Recommended reading lists YALSA (ALA) Outstanding Books for the College BoundPhotographs Digital Library Photos 80,000 images of California and natural world Time Life Pictures Historical and current (Getty Images)Fine Arts National Gallery of Search 17,000 images Art (check "images only") ImageBase Search 85,000 images in the Fine Arts Museums of SF Artcyclopedia Fine arts search engine Contemporary Art Search by medium and themeCross-disciplinary Literature, Arts and Browse or search annotated Medicine Database bibliography of prose, poetry, film, video and art -- comprehensive (adult and young adult fiction) resource for medical humanitiesEducation ERIC Education journals and other resources; Check "full-text," limit by publication type in advanced searchK-12 curriculum projects Blue Webn PacBell project American Memory Lessons using primary 43
  • 44. sourcesInvisible Web expert Direct Search Gary PriceSearch for: 3 Hidden Features in Google Advanced Search You May Not Know About 3 Useful Tools to See & Compare Search Results Side By Side 3 Firefox Add-ons To Improve YouTube Search ResultsDictionaries, Translators, & Other Language & Reference ToolsStudents and educators: Check out our invisible web and scholarly and academicresearch resources too! Locate books and textbooks through our books page.Need a dictionary, encyclopedia, or thesaurus? Looking for a good collection ofquotations, a ScrabbleTM dictionary, anagram engine, or acronym expander? Fromgrammar, usage and style guides to etymological resources (the origins of words) —from encyclopedias and almanacs to why and how things work — the traditionallibrary reference shelf is just clicks away! Most resources are free. Not only are themajor English dictionaries available, there are dictionaries devoted to every languagein the world! There are also specialized glossaries by industry, profession, or hobby.Encyclopedias are useful when you need a definitive information source, especiallyfor science, history, geography or humanities topics. From Rogets and Bartletts tojargon, slang, and rhyming dictionaries, all the resources youll find at the libraryreference desk are online. Below are some examples.Looking for online translation? Check out Systran. And feel free to download ourtravel translator. This printable Excel reference provides quick French, Spanish, Dutch,and German translations for common English travel terms.Dictionaries (English)Dictionary.Com Merriam-Webster (US) Oxford English Dictionary ($) AmericanHeritage Dictionary Official Scrabble Dictionary AllWords Dictionary/TranslatorEncarta Dictionary Cambridge (UK) Information Please WordNet (Java version)Memidex WordnikDictionaries & Translators (non-English)SysTran TravLang: Translation Dictionaries TravLang: Foreign Languages forTravelers Ectaco Translation Dictionaries Langenberg Dictionaries Babylon.ComWorldLingo Languages on the Web ForeignWord.com Language IdentifiersFreeTranslation.Com OneLook Dictionaries YourDictionary.com Cyber HawaiianDictionary Yahoo Language Dictionaries 44
  • 45. Dictionary CollectionsOneLook Dictionaries YourDictionary RefDesk Dictionaries Yahoo Dictionary ListJargon & Slang DictionariesAlternative Dictionaries BuzzWhack Jargon Dictionary PseudoDictionarySpecialty GlossariesGlossarist Babylon Glossaries ForeignWord (& English) Glossaries YourDictionarySpecialty Glossaries Journalists Guide to Economic Terms Cooks Thesaurus TheISM Book: Philosophy Glossary Glossary of Literary Terms Glossary of GrammaticalTerms Science & Medical Dictionaries WebLens Medical Dictionaries (scroll down)Thesauruses (Thesauri?)Thesaurus.Com Rogets Plumb Design Visual Thesaurus Merriam-WebsterQuotationsBartletts Quotations Simpsons Contemporary Quotations Famous Quotations IMDBMovie Quote Search QuoteLand.com BrainyQuote Moncur Quotations SearchQuotations Archive Aphorisms Galore QuotezWordplayChiasmus EasyPeasy Anagram Engine Wordsmith Anagram Server Mags WordFinder OneAcross Crosswords & Cryptograms Interactive Word Games OfficialScrabble Dictionary TransparentEnglish Language & EtymologyYak-Yak Phrase Finder RhymeZone WordNet (Java version) Lexical Freenet WorldWide Words Dictionary of Strange & Unusual Words Grandiloquent DictionaryAlphabet Zoope Word Detective Wiltons Word Origins Fun with WordsTakeOurWordForIt Focusing on Words Word a DayGrammar & UsageHyperGrammer: U of Ottawa Word Police Strunk: Elements of StyleGeneral Reference DesksBartleby.com xReferPlus RefDesk LibrarySpot Research-ItAlmanacs and EncyclopaediasWikipedia (collaborative encyclopedia) How Stuff Works Article on WikisEncyclopedia Britannica Encarta Columbia Encyclopedia Encyclopedia.ComWorldBook Encyclopedia FactBites Farmers AlmanacHistory, Geography & BiographyHistory Channel Encyclopedia Titanica Biography.Com Biographical Dictionary CIAWorld Factbook VirtualSources Symbols.ComPrint and Broadcast MediaHistory Channel Biography.Com CBC News Archives The PaperBoy NewspaperGateway WebLens News & Weather Search ToolsAcronyms 45
  • 46. AcronymFinder WhatIs.Com Webopedia.Com NetLingoHow and WhyHow Stuff Works eHow The Why FilesSite contents Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone. All rights reserved.Scholarly & Academic Research: Finding Journal ArticlesNeed a grammar or usage tune-up for that report, essay, or homework assignment?Try these reference tools. Find books and textbooks through our books page.Looking for scholarly or academic research articles? Ordinary search engines aregreat for researching business and popular culture, but theyre not very useful forfinding academic research papers or scholarly journal articles. Not to worry.These resources abound online, and can be found using the tools listed below.Journal articles are available in a variety of formats, ranging from citations or briefabstracts to full text delivered electronically or in hard copy. Some articles areprovided free. Often, a fee is required, or access is restricted in some way. You mayhave some success locating journals via search engines or web directories. Checkout the tools below or try the Google search above. Simply add the word journal orthe phrase "electronic journal" to your search term. In directories, look under yourrespective discipline. Yahoo, for example, lists eleven journals underScience/Biology/Cell Biology and twelve under Arts/Humanities/Literature/Poetry.Academic information may also be available through the Internets many librarygateways, listed at right below. You may also want to try our invisible web resources,useful for searching databases.Searchable Journal ArticlesGoogle Scholar Musselman Library: Journals vs. Magazines InfoMineFindArticles.com MagPortal HighBeam Ingenta Eric Database Periodicals.NetSciBase InfoTrieve Stanford University Columbia University e-Guides NewJourGoldRush AllAcademic JournalSeek JSTOR Project Muse Journals UNCGJournalFinder WorldCAT Pinakes Launchpad (multi-disciplinary) Silver PlatterNational Academy Press SearchEbooks SearchEdu Canada Institute for Scientific &Technical Info JakeScience and MedicineBioMedNet MedBioWord: Science & Medical Journals & Databases Yale MedicalJournal Search The Lancet Medical Journal Search New England Journal ofMedicine Medical Matrix SciCentral Scirus Medsite Journal Manager National Libraryof Medicine ScienceResearch.com WebLens Medline LinksLibrary GatewaysLibDex U.S. Library of Congress Library of Congress Resources for ResearchersLibrary Catalogue Gateway National Library of Canada Smithsonian LibrariesNational Library of Medicine Academic Libraries on the Web BookWire Libraries byState Lib-Web-Cats OCLC WorldCat OCLC Periodical Index Library Spot SchoolLibraries on the Web Yahoo LibrariesTheses & DissertationsDissertation.com Digital Dissertations DissertationsAndTheses.com Theses.org 46
  • 47. Other ResourcesUnion Institute Research Resources Union Institute A-Z DatabasesSite contents Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone. All rights reserved.Researching Books & Finding Rare, Used & Out of Print TitlesLooking for dictionaries or reference works? Try our online reference tools! Locatejournal articles with our academic research resources. Web sites devoted to booksabound online. The Internet has become a powerful research resource for readersand a major sales avenue for booksellers. Below youll find tools for locating onlinebook stores and researching or finding books. Vintage or new, find the best price onhardcover books, paperbacks, and college textbooks. Locate book sellers. You canfind obscure titles and rare, used, or out of print books. The sites listed here allowyou not only to search for and/or purchase books online, but to peruse ratings andreviews posted by other readers. Some even let you search within the text of a book.Book Search, Purchase, ReviewsAmazon (great for reviews) Barnes and Noble BookSense Indigo (Canadian)BookFinder aLibris eBay (new and used)In-text SearchGoogle Books Amazons Search Inside the BookPrice ComparisonsAddall BookWormer AAA Book Search & price comparison BookFinder4URare and Out of Print BooksInternational Leagure of Antiquarian Booksellers Rare Books & Manuscripts: ALAABE Books BiblioFindTextbooksDirect Textbook (metasearch) Varsity BooksSite contents Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone. All rights reserved.Web Directories, Web Indices, & Subject TreesSerious researchers may also want to investigate our invisible web searchtools(Librarians Index to the Internet (look for Databases) Digital Librarian Library ofCongress Online Catalog CompletePlanet Union Institute A-Z Database List NewYork Public Library Databases Online SearchSystems Public Records DirectoriesGeniusFind InfoMine Turbo 10 IncyWincy Search Invisible-Web.net Gary PricesDirect Search MedNets Medical Database Gateway MedBioWord: Science &Medical Journals & Databases Argus Clearinghouse ProFusion PooGee ) andscholarly and academic research resources. (Searchable Journal Articles)Google Scholar, Musselman Library: Journals vs. Magazines, InfoMine,FindArticles.com, MagPortal, HighBeam, Ingenta, Eric Database, Periodicals.Net,SciBase, InfoTrieve, Stanford University, Columbia University e-Guides, NewJour,GoldRush, AllAcademic JournalSeek, JSTOR, Project Muse Journals, UNCGJournalFinder, WorldCAT, Pinakes, Launchpad, (multi-disciplinary) Silver Platter, 47
  • 48. National Academy Press, SearchEbooks, SearchEdu, Canada Institute for Scientific& Technical Info, Jake …Science and MedicineBioMedNet MedBioWord: Science & Medical Journals & Databases Yale MedicalJournal Search The Lancet Medical Journal Search New England Journal ofMedicine Medical Matrix SciCentral Scirus Medsite Journal Manager National Libraryof Medicine ScienceResearch.com WebLens Medline LinksLibrary GatewaysLibDex U.S. Library of Congress Library of Congress Resources for ResearchersLibrary Catalogue Gateway National Library of Canada Smithsonian LibrariesNational Library of Medicine Academic Libraries on the Web BookWire Libraries byState Lib-Web-Cats OCLC WorldCat OCLC Periodical Index Library Spot SchoolLibraries on the Web Yahoo LibrariesTheses & DissertationsDissertation.com Digital Dissertations DissertationsAndTheses.com Theses.orgOther ResourcesUnion Institute Research Resources Union Institute A-Z DatabasesSite contents Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone. All rights reserved.)Web directoriesAlso known as web indices or subject trees — are often confused with search engines.A typical directory offers search capability, but it is essentially a hierarchical list ofweb sites, organized into categories. Each category has others below it, withcontents listed alphabetically. Unlike search engines, directories are hand-compiledby human beings, rather like a library catalog. Sites must apply to be listed, and eachis reviewed by a human evaluator. This means you can usually count on amanageable list of high quality links on any topic. To locate information in a directory,drill up and down the subjects until you find what you are looking for. (Tip: drill part-way down a directorys tree structure, and then use its search feature, for morefocused results.) There are millions of directories on the Web; many exist just to buildlink popularity for sites trying to improve search engine standing. The list below isbrief because we have concentrated on quality directories with substantial content.Below are some of the most popular. Try them all, as each lists different content. Andif youre looking for a specialized directory or link collection on a single topic, trylocating a jumplist.Yahoo, Yahoo Directory, (no site clutter) Allestra, LookSmart, DMOZ (OpenDirectory), With1Click, Icy Spicy, 4Anything, Zeal, JoeAnt, Librarians Index to theInternet, Gimpsy (task-oriented), Galaxy, MavicaNet, Hoppa, JumpCit,y SunSteam,Shadowood, NoSearch, Linkopedia, Yahoo Canada ….Copyright © 1994-2005 Pam Blackstone.Internet Gateways, Jumplists, & Specialized Link CollectionsGateways and jumplists are the buried treasure of the Web. These resourcesfunction like doorways to massive collections of information on a common theme.Once you find such a resource, your job is done. Thats because you have let 48
  • 49. someone else do your legwork for you. Jumplists are massive collections of links onvarious aspects of a single subject. (This web site is essentially a jumplist on thetopic of Internet research.) Although the two terms are often used interchangeably,gateways are often database-driven. They typically lead to a concentrated collectionof information stored at one location, or branch out to a finite set of similar sites. TheInternet abounds with gateways: to airports, schools, libraries, museums, hospitals,art galleries, corporations, government, and more. Below are some examples, alongwith tools for ferreting out these useful resources.Some Typical JumplistsInternet Mental Health Links, Web Page Design for Designers Link List, Sheryls StarTrek Links…Some Typical GatewaysLibrary of Congress Library Search Gateway, ThePaperboy Newspaper Gateway,Americas Job Bank State Government Gateway, ASAE Association Gateway…Finding Jumplists & GatewaysYahoo (look for "Web Directories") Teoma (see "Expert Links") Argus Clearinghousewww.invisible-web.netThe DIRECTORY LIST – visit siteOther notable Invisible Web resources include:AlphaSearch<http://www.calvin.edu/library/searreso/internet/as/>AlphaSearch is an extremely useful directory of "gateway" sites that collect andorganize Web sites that focus on a particular subject.Created and maintained by the Hekman Library at Calvin College, its bothsearchable and browsable by either subject discipline or descriptor.The Big Hub<http://www.thebighub.com/>The Big Hub maintains a directory of over 1,500 subject specific searchabledatabases in over 300 categories. Listings for each database feature bothannotations and search forms to directly access the database. While these areuseful for quick and dirty searches, Big Hubs search forms omit most advancedsearching features offered by each database on their own site.Infomine Multiple Database Search<http://infomine.ucr.edu/search.phtml>Infomine might be called an "academic" search engine, focusing on scholarlyresource collections, electronic journals and books, online library card catalogs, anddirectories of researchers. Unlike many Invisible Web search tools, Infomine allowssimultaneous searching of multiple databases. 49
  • 50. WebData.com<http://www.webdata.com/>WebData is a database portal, specializing in finding, categorizing and organizingonline databases, and providing annotated links with quality rankings.As fast as the Web has been growing over the past ten years, its likely that itsgrowth rate is accelerating, perhaps exponentially.Speaking at the NetWorld+Interop conference in May 2000, Inktomi CEO DavidPeterschmidt said he expected the Web to grow to more than 8 billion documents bythe end of the year - more than a fivefold increase from its current size.The major search engines have done a creditable job of scaling with the visible Web.For the near future, however, valuable resources that are part of the Invisible Webwill be beyond their reach. Fortunately, we have other skillful tools that can help usnavigate the portion of the Web that the search engines cant see.Saving pages with Microsoft Internet ExplorerIf you are using the Internet Explorer web browser:1. On the File menu, click Save As.2. Double-click the folder you want to save the page in.3. In the File name box, type a name for the page.4. In the Save as type box, select a file type.5. Then select one of the following:Web Page, complete to save all of the files needed to display this page, includinggraphics, frames, and style sheets. This option saves each file in its original format.Web Archive to save all of the information needed to display this page in a singleMIME-encoded fileWeb Page, HTML only to save just the current HTML page without the graphics,sounds or other files.Text only, to save just the text from the current web pagePeer-to-Peer ComputingOne of the most exciting developments has been the use of peer-to-peer computing.This is the technology used by companies such as Napster (http://www.napster.com),Pointera (http://www.pointera.com), and Gnutella (http://gnutella.wego.com). Whilstits best-known use is as a means of sharing music files, it has much more potentialthan that. The technology enables direct searching of PC hard drives, and opens upnew possibilities for internet searching. The direct linking and searching of PC to PCaround the world to find information hidden away on other people’s hard drives isincredible.EducationAssociation of MBAs 50
  • 51. http://www.mba.org.uk. The Association represents the interests of MBA studentsand graduates, leading business schools and MBA employers. The site includes afacility to search for an MBA programme http://www.studylink.com/mba.OECD Education Databasehttp://www.oecd.org/scripts/cde/viewdb.asp? and then select the “Education”heading. The OECD online education database provides internationally comparabledata on key aspects of the education systems.RhymeZonehttp://rhyme.lycos.com. RhymeZone is an online tool for writers to find words. It canbe used to find rhymes, synonyms, anonyms, definitions, homophones, similarsound, same consonants, and related words.QuotationsXreferhttp://www.xrefer.com contains encyclopedias, dictionaries, thesauri and books ofquotations.Ready ReferenceCambridge Dictionaries Onlinehttp://dictionary.cambridge.org/ has searchable dictionaries of English, AmericanEnglish, idiom and phrasal verbs.Encartahttp://www.encarta.msn.com/. Default.asp Encarta is a learning resource witheducational content and tools.Encyclopedia Britannicahttp://www.britannica.comLexis-Nexis Source Locatorhttp://www.lexis-nexis.com/lncc/sources/. The source locator covers an annotatedlisting of over 31,000 Lexis-Nexis sources.Telecom Acronym Referencehttp://www.tiaonline.org/resources/acronym.cfm contains over 2300 acronyms.In order to keep abreast of developments I would particularly recommend the internetdiscussion lists of the FreePint bar (http://www.freepint.com/bar) and also BUSLIB-Lbusiness librarians discussion list (http://listserv.boistestate.edu/archives/buslib-L.html); ResearchBuzz (http://www.researchbuzz.com) which covers the field ofinternet research; Danny Sullivan’s Search Engine Watch(http://www.searchenginewatch.com) and Greg Notess’s Search Engine Showdown(http://www.searchengineshowdown.com).Then there is peer to peer computing which will have a dramatic effect on thecapacity of individuals to find real nuggets of information because they are searchingthousands of hard drives of internet searchers, rather than a centralised web server.Up to now it has been primarily used to search for and or swap music tracks. But it 51
  • 52. has infinitely greater potential than that. Services such as Gnutella and Pointera aremaking use of peer to peer computing.UNESCO Libraries PortalAn international information gateway for librarians and library usersWWW Virtual Library(UK mirror site) - guides to Internet resources in particular subject areas.About.com - A Portal network of guides to a wide variety of subjectsAlex - A Catalog of Electronic Texts on the InternetLabyrinth - A global information network providing access to electronic resources inmedieval studiesThe Online Books Page DirectorySubject-orientated search servicesBiotechfind, a directory and search engine in the field of biotechnologiesEduseek, a UK directory of teaching and learning resources classified by age rangeINFOMINE a scholarly Internet resource collectionMedical World Search, a WWW search engine developed especially for the medicalfieldPort, a subject gateway with a maritime focusSciNet Science Search, a science and nature directory and search engineAdditional information about search engines, their use, and how they find resourcesBare Bones 101: A Very Basic Web Search Tutorial, written by the Head Librarian atthe University of South Carolina (USA) (available as a separate document)Direct search, a site offering access to the invisible web, resources that generalsearch tools do not always findGuide to Effective Searching of the Internet, an overview of how to conduct effectiveand successful online queriesSearch Engine Showdown, a site offering reviews, analysis, statistics and strategiesfor many of the major search enginesSearch Engine Watch, for information about world-wide search engines and theiroperationWebSite-Watcher, helps you monitor changes to websitesData services requiring registrationThese services require prior registration and a payment (in most cases). 52
  • 53. American National Biography - Covering biographical information on people from alleras who have influenced and shaped American history and culture - Access isavailable for education sites that have subscribed to the CHEST/OUP agreement.The British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC) - document supply andinterlibrary loan service.BIDS (ingenta) - a UK-based provider of bibliographic data services aimed primarilyat the UK academic community. Databases available include INSPEC andingentaJournals.BioOne - for access to a collection of bioscience research journalsChemical Database Service (CDS) - for access to a wide range of chemicaldatabases and related software. (Users must register but there is no fee for membersof UK universities.)DataStar - a Web interface to the information service from The Dialog Corporation,giving access to over 350 databases of worldwide business and technical informationDerwent World Patents Index - provided via the Institute of Physics PublishingsAxiom service, the Index contains over 10 million records - patent documents areprocessed and English language abstracts are added. Access is available for sitesthat have subscribed to the CHEST Axiom-Derwent World Patents Index agreement.Dialog - a Web interface to the online information research service from The DialogCorporation, giving access to a range of material from a diverse spectrum ofdisciplinesDIMDI - a German service providing access to information in all fields of the lifesciences and social sciencesEDINA - data, information, and research resources, from Edinburgh University DataLibrary - Currently offers access to the BIOSIS Previews database and thePeriodicals Contents Index.Emerald Fulltext - Access to academic and professional journals from Emerald -Access is available for sites that have subscribed to the CHEST/Emerald Fulltextagreement. Emerald Management Reviews (formerly Anbar Intelligence) - Articlesfrom international journals in management.Emerald Reviews (formerly Anbar Intelligence) - Articles from international journals inmanagement, computer science and civil engineering. Access is available for sitesthat have subscribed to the CHEST/MCB agreement.Faculty of 1000 - the database highlights and reviews paper published in thebiological sciences. Access is available to UK education sites via the CHEST/Facultyof 1000 agreement.FAME - a database of UK company information. Access is available to UK educationsites via the CHEST/BVD agreement.FirstSearch - online reference service from OCLC Provides access to over 80databases including: OCLCs WorldCat, ArticleFirst, ContentsFirst; plusABI/INFORM, ERIC, MEDLINE; and journal titles from the Electronic CollectionsOnline service. 53
  • 54. ISI Web of Science - a collection of databases that includes the Science, SocialSciences, and Arts & Humanities Citation IndexesJSTOR® - electronic access to journal archives (a UK mirror site) - UK academicsites will need to join the agreement (negotiated by JISC and administered byCHEST) to obtain access to the service.Keesings Worldwide - for coverage of world events since 1758 –Knovel - Engineering and scientific handbooks and databases online.Lexis.com - full text information service from LEXIS®-NEXIS®, providing legal, news,and financial informationPCI Full Text - from Chadwyck-Healey - An online archive of digitized arts,humanities and social science periodical articles.STN Easy - a WWW interface to scientific, technical and chemistry databases fromSTN International.ZETOC - a web interface to the British Librarys Electronic Table of Contentsdatabase of article titles (and conference papers) derived from worldwide researchjournals (dating back to 1993).Data services with unrestricted accessAmerican Mathematical Society - Repository for both scholarly and professionalinformation of interest to mathematicians, other scientists, and the organizations thatsupport themThe British Library - BLs web server - A guide to the collections and servicesavailable from the UKs national libraryBUBL - the BUBL Information Service - User-friendly subject-based access to theInternet, an Internet current awareness service, and specialist service to the UKLibrary and Information Science CommunityCARL - information about databases and library catalogues from the CARLCorporation (some commercial databases require registration).ChemSpy.com - offers access to chemistry and chemical engineering related webdatabases for professionals, scientists and students. .The Data Archive - at the University of Essex - Social sciences and humanities data -Includes access to BIRON, the Archives catalogueDevline - Information services and systems for development professionals andothers, covering issues of economic, social, and sustainable development - A servicefrom the UKs Institute of Development StudiesESToC - the Elsevier Science Tables of Contents service - This service is updatedweekly and gives the tables of contents of more than 1,000 Elsevier Science primaryand review journalsEUROPA - A WWW server run by the European Union offering information on theEUs goals and policies. Provides access to publications, statistics, and the WWWsites of other EU bodies 54
  • 55. HELIX - access to over 50,000 images for educational use by the UK highereducation communityiCDL - International Centre for Distance Learning - A database of information,collected by the Open University, about distance learning, with details of courses,institutions, and literature.Internet Grateful Med - the US National Library of Medicines service offering accessto a number of databases including MEDLINE, AIDSLINE, BIOETHICSLINE,ChemID, HISTLINE, and TOXLINENatureServe - conservation status, taxonomic, and distribution information for over50,000 plants, animals, and ecological communities in the USA and CanadaOn-line Books Page - access to electronic books - An index to hundreds of novels,plays and poetry with links to the texts themselves.Oxford Text Archive - archive and dissemination facilities for electronic textsProject Gutenberg - an ever increasing selection of electronic textsUNESCO - WWW site for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and CulturalOrganization - Includes directories and indexes of UNESCO publicationsUS Patent and Trademark Office - part of the US Governments Department ofCommerce.William Shakespeare - The Complete Works of William Shakespeare - A WWWserver with html versions of the textsSearch EnginesAllTheWeb, this search engine lets you specify the type of searchAltaVista, a web index - also a simplified graphic-free text search form interfaceAnanzi, a search engine with a focus on South AfricaANZWERS Search Centre, a guide to Australian and New Zealand InternetresourcesThe Argus Clearinghouse, a selective guide to the Internet (no longer activelymaintained)Ask Jeeves, a knowledgebase which can be interrogated with plain English questionsAussieseek, a search engine and message board service with a focus on AustraliaClick2UK, an established UK-based search engineDogpile, searches Google, Yahoo!, MSN and AskEspotting, a pay for placement search engine with a European focusExcite, a search engine based in the USEz2www.com, a meta search engineFast Search: All the Web, All the Time, a search engine built to accommodatemultimediaFazzle.com, a meta search engine, formerly called Search Online 55
  • 56. flemiro - the international version of a German search engineGo - an international web directoryGodado - a UK and Europe search engine including a pay to promote facilityGoogle, a search engine which aims to offer high quality information on the Web (animage search feature is available via the advanced search option)HotBot (a Lycos site), a comprehensive index of the WWWIxquick, a metasearch engine that queries twelve other search enginesLookseek, a US-based search engineLycos (UK site), search the database of Internet information resources (world-wide orUK and Ireland only) . The main Lycos site is in the USA.Mamma.com, a meta search engine that queries ten other search enginesMetaCrawler, a search tool that queries other Web search enginesMetaEureka, a graphics-free meta search engineOpen Directory Project, a human-edited directory of the WebOverture, a pay-for-placement search siteProFusion, a search engine that allows simultaneous searches of many other searchengines and related resourcesRambler, a search engine with a focus on RussiaSearch Europe, a search engine with a focus on European informationSearchMalta.com, a search engine with a focus on the Maltese IslandsSuchknecht.at - an Austrian search engine (interface in German)WebCrawler, a database indexed by content of WWW pagesWoYaa!, a guide to Internet sites in AfricaWWW Virtual Library, the CERN directory of WWW servicesYahoo, a directory of Internet sitesEuropean search engines, directories and lists listed by countrySearch Engine Colossus, a directory of search engines in countries world-wideSubject-orientated search servicesBiotechfind, a directory/search engine in the field of biotechnologies.Eduseek, a UK directory of teaching and learning resources classified by age rangeINFOMINE a scholarly Internet resource collectionMedical World Search, a WWW search engine developed especially for the medicalfieldPort, a subject gateway with a maritime focusSciNet Science Search, a science and nature directory and search engine 56
  • 57. Dictionaries and ThesauriA collection of dictionariesCovering over 15 languagesAltaVista Babel Fish TranslationOnline translations of text or complete web pagesArtLexA dictionary of visual artBibliomania - Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable(from 1894 edition)Dictionary.comOffers various online dictionary and language services.Encarta Dictionary From MicrosoftEnglish-French dictionaryFrom the ARTFL ProjectEnglish-Spanish Library and Information Studies DictionaryThis is a compilation of the terminology, both general and specific, that students andprofessionals generally encounter when reading library and information literature -89,215 entries.Glossary AgentAccess to glossaries in insurance, finance, law and healthcareGrove Dictionary of Art OnlineA subscription service (available to UK education via a CHEST agreement)lexicool.com, directory of bilingual and multilingual dictionariesMerriam-Webster OnlineAccess to Websters American English dictionary and thesaurusOneLook DictionariesSearch or browse general and subject-specific glossaries and dictionariesThe On-line Medical DictionaryProvided by CancerWEBOxford English Dictionary OnlineThe online version of the OED (Access is via http://athens.oed.com/ for educationsites that have taken up the CHEST OED agreement.)Rogets Thesaurus (version 1.02)From the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago .Swedish-English DictionaryFrom Lexin (Swedish National Agency for Education)Thesaurus of Geographic NamesFrom the Getty Information InstituteTravlangs Translating DictionariesA service from the US company travlang 57
  • 58. Wordsmyth Educational Dictionary-ThesaurusAn American English resourceXerox Language IdentifieryourDictionary.com(formerly Web of On-line Dictionaries) provides links to many dictionaries, thesauriand other language resources.Reference WorksAcronym DatabaseA source of general acronyms and abbreviations, based in Ireland.Acronym FinderFor computer, technology, telecommunications, and military acronymsAcronym SearchA source of general acronyms and abbreviations.AllRefer.comEducational resource provides a comprehensive collection of reference,encyclopedia, health, gazetteer, country studies, and educational databases.Includes more than 150,000 articles on topics covered under health, history, science,people, places, arts, sports, plants, animals, technology, philosophy, religion,literature, and more.AllRefer ReferenceBrowse articles in all areas of topics within Earth & Environment, History, Literature &Arts, Health & Medicine, People, Philosophy & Religion, Places, Plants & Animals,Science & Technology, Social Science, Law, Sports, Everyday Life, and more.Includes Country Studies and North America GazetteerBartleby.com(Reference section) - online versions of reference works (including 1918 edition ofGrays Anatomy of the Human Body)Bartletts Familiar QuotationsSearch this database of quotations based on the original collection by John BartlettBritannica.comIncludes Encyclopædia BritannicaCalculation of the Ecclesiastical CalendarDates for Orthodox and Western EasterThe Catholic EncyclopediaAn online version (not yet complete) of the 1913 printed editionClassic 164 Currency ConverterA service from OANDA.comDe Imperatoribus RomanisAn online encyclopedia of the rulers of ancient Rome1911 Encyclopedia BritannicaAccess to the articles from the 1911 edition 58
  • 59. Encyclopedia.comA first-stop internet encyclopediaEncyclopedia of Astronomy and AstrophysicsA subscription service from the Nature Publishing Group (available to UK educationvia a CHEST agreement) .Encyclopedia of Life Sciences - a subscription service from the Nature PublishingGroup (available to UK education via a CHEST agreement)Encyclopedia MythicaAn encyclopedia on world-wide mythology, folklore and magicInternational Dialing CodesA table listing of telephone country codes and international prefixesInternet FAQ ArchivesA compilation of Usenet Frequently Asked Questions postingsThe Internet Grammar of EnglishAn online course in English grammar from University College LondonMeasuring Units Conversion TablesFor conversion from/to metric and imperial and US measurement systems.The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy A widely used general medical text(April 1999 edition)Oxford Reference Online: the Core Collection Cross-searchable resource includingdictionaries, thesauri, language reference works, subject dictionaries and generalreference works, from Oxford University Press. (Available to UK education atsubsidized rates)Tododiccionarios.comA directory of reference works in English or SpanishThe PC Technology GuideA guide to the technology underlying the personal computers major components andperipheralsPerpetual CalendarA perpetual (Gregorian) calendar for the Western WorldPlace Name Servers on the InternetLinks to resources world-widePortals to the WorldLinks to information about the countries of the world, from the Library of CongressPostcode FinderLets you find postcodes in the UK, from Royal Mail.The Quotations PageA US service with a search facilityRefdesk.comA US service offering a single source for facts via the InternetStanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyAn ongoing dynamic online resource from Stanford University 59
  • 60. UN Atlas of the OceansAn internet portal providing information relevant to the sustainable development ofthe oceansUniversal Currency ConverterConvert currencies from one to another using a simple formV.E.R.A.The Virtual Entity of Relevant Acronyms lets you search for computer-relatedacronyms and other terms.xreferAn online reference engine incorporating encyclopedias, dictionaries, thesauri andmoreWebopediaA dictionary and reference site for computer and Internet technology information.whatis.comA reference site for a range of information about computing and the Internettimeanddate.comDisplays local time in key locations world-wideWorld Factbook(published by the CIA) The information for each country includes total area,boundaries, climate, disputes, population, political system and economy.WORLDTIME - rotate an image of the globe to see which parts are in daylight andalso discover local timeGeneral Tips for Searching the WebCarefully Select Your Search TermsBroad or general terms will return thousands of possible sites. Try to use terms thatare more specific to your topic. To narrow your terms, look at sites that you alreadyhave found and that are relevant to your topic. Identify possible search terms fromthose sites. You also can combine terms, using Boolean Operators.Framing your search strategyTo get a successful search result, you must ask the right search question. Framing agood question requires you to think strategically about exactly what you need.In the book Find It Online (Tempe, AZ: Facts on Demand Press, 2004) 73, Alan M.Schlein discusses guidelines developed by Nora Paul to help you formulate aneffective search question.Paul, who is Director of the Institute for New Media Studies at the University ofMinnesota, says, "By taking the time to identify key phrases and visualize the idealanswer, you will be more likely to recognize that answer when you find it online."Her guidelines are based on the standard journalist approach of "who, what, when,where, why and how" reporting and include these tips, among others: 60
  • 61. Who: • Who is the research about: a politician, a businessperson, a scientist, a criminal? • Who is key to the topic you are researching? Are there any recognized experts or spokespersons you should know about?What: • What kind of information do you need: statistics, sources, background? • What kind of research are you doing: an analysis, a backgrounding report, a follow-up? • What would the ideal answer look like?When: • When did the event being researched take place? This will help determine the source to use, particularly, which information source has resources dating far enough back. • You know you should stop searching?Where: • Where did the event you are researching take place? • Where have you already looked for information? • Where might there have been previous coverage: newspapers, broadcasts, trade publications, court proceedings, discussions?Why: • Why do you need the research: seeking a source to interview, surveying a broad topic, pinpointing a fact? • Why must you have the research: to make a decision, to corroborate a premise?How: • How much information do you need: a few good articles for background, everything in existence on the topic, just the specific fact? • How are you going to use the information: for an anecdote, for publication?"Today," Schlein says, "so much data is available that, without a plan, you can easilyfind yourself swimming in an ocean of information…A good, clear question will saveyou hours of work." Find Pauls complete checklist and other good searchsuggestions from Schlein in Find It Online.Become a power searcher in 6 easy stepsImproving search engine technology means that online research — even for highlyspecialized and hard-to-find information — gets easier every day. But did you knowthat you can improve your own search technique to boost your ability to find what you 61
  • 62. need?In the Technology Horizons in Education article "The Art of Effective WebSearching"(Gale Group, 2005, Volume 33, Issue 2), 32, DeWitt Clinton offers thefollowing advanced search skills that will make you a power user:Search from the outside in. Start with broad search terms and use the "minus"operator in the search query to selectively eliminate sets of results. This lets thepower user quickly scan through the list of results and subtract entire categories ofpages with quick modifications to the query, ending up with only the desired matches.Comparison search. The Web is so large, no single search engine can crawl morethan a fraction of it. The solution is to keep bookmarks handy for the big engines...and be prepared to check all of them on particularly challenging searches.Server-side bookmarks. Bookmarks can be saved on a dedicated bookmark serversuch as del.icio.us (del.icio.us) or LookSmarts Furl (www.furl.net), or one of theadvanced search engines such as A9 (a9.com) or Yahoo!, via their toolbars. Many ofthese new services also support the capability to tag individual bookmarks withkeywords or add extended diary entries that annotate your personal Web as yousearch.Tabbed browsing. Web browsers such as Firefox (www.mozilla.org/firefox) andSafari (www.apple.com/safari) support tabbed browsing, which hides new pages inthe background of the same window until you need them. This allows the power userto perform a search and preload all of the interesting results in tabs while they workdown the list.Search histories. A permanent, searchable history is invaluable when performingserious research on the Web...(because it) helps the user remember how and whereshe found the page and helps her retrace those steps in the future.Vertical search. No one general search engine will ever be able to fully capture therichness and complexity of the Web. Medical databases, travel information, andlibrary catalogs are a few examples of vertical search engines that contain highlyspecialized data in narrow domains. Search syndication protocols such asAmazon.coms OpenSearch (opensearch.a9.com) are helping specialized verticalsearch engines... surface their results to other sites to help maximize theiraccessibility.International Educational Research LinksThe Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) facilitates contactbetween educational researchers and encourages and actively lobbies fordevelopment of all aspects of educational research.The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) provides state-of-the-art educational research, products and services. 62
  • 63. The American Educational Research Association (AERA), is concerned withimproving the educational process by encouraging scholarly inquiry related toeducation and by promoting the dissemination and practical application of researchresults.The British Educational Research Association (BERA) aims to sustain andpromote a vital research culture in education.The Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) is the largestorganization of professors, students, researchers and practitioners in education inCanadaeducation.au is an Australian agency which collaborates with numerousstakeholders in education and training communities working across the earlychildhood, schooling, vocational education and training, adult and communityeducation, and university sectors, helping to develop and manage online servicesthat are of benefit to the education and training sector and are national in scope.The European Association for Research on Learning andInstruction (EARLI) with membership from 40 countries promotes exchange anddiscussion ideas on instructional and educational research, as well as research onindustrial training.The European Educational Research Association (EERA) is an association ofnational educational research associations.The Global Gateway is a one-stop shop for international partnerships, where youcan find schools from all over the world, and which will also help with teachingresources and policy guidance for internationalism in schools.The National Educational Research Forum (NERF) was an independentorganisation in the UK. Its role was to oversee the development of a coherentstrategy for educational research and its use. NERF came to an end on 31st March2006, however their website is being maintained as a place to access many of theuseful reports and notes of activities undertaken.The UKs National Foundation for Educational Research is the largestindependent educational research institution in Europe, whose mission is to improveeducation and training nationally and internationally by undertaking research,development and dissemination activities and by providing information services.The Netherlands Educational Research Association (NERA), or -in Dutch-Vereniging voor Onderwijs Research (VOR), is the official professional associationfor educational research in The Netherlands.The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), together withscientists, (inter)national organisations and companies develops and funds top-quality research programmes.The Nordic Educational Research Association - NERA. The aim of NERA is tosupport educational research in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway and Sweden), with specific reference to the scientific traditions that are vitalto these regions.The Scottish Research in Education Centre (SCRE) functions are to conducteducational research of the highest quality and to support the use of researchoutcomes through the dissemination of findings. 63
  • 64. The Swiss Co-ordination Centre for Research in Education SCCRE contributesto strengthening educational research in SwitzerlandThe Swiss Council for Educational Research (CORECHED) encouragescooperation between government, administration, practitioners and researches in thefield of education.The New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) is an independent,educational research organisation that provides educators, students, parents, policymakers, and the public with innovative and independent research, analysis, andadvice.The New Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE) is anassociation that welcomes all those with an interest in educational research. It aimsto foster a high standard in the practice of educational research through conferences,newsletter, a journal, and awards. It also supports development of educationalresearchers, including post-graduate students.Education databasesThe Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) sponsored by the Institute ofEducation Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education, produces anextensive worldwide database of journal and non-journal education literature.Educationalists.co.uk is a UK based education contact database dedicated toinclusive and innovative aproaches to education development.EdNA Online is an Australian educational database network of education resources,events and headlines.The World Education Database is a resource designed to enable institutions ineducation to disseminate ideas, projects, donations, research and requests to theirpeers. There are databases for Ministries of Education, Education Portals andschool lists.Teaching websitesAmerican Federation of TeachersUK TeachernetOther organizationsThe Centre for the Future of Teaching and Learning based in California US, is apublic, not-for-profit organization dedicated to strengthening teacher developmentpolicy and practice.Education International is a Global Union Federation, representing educationworkers in every corner of the globe, and unites all teachers and education workersno matter where they are.Europa, activities of the European Union in education, training and youthThe Global Gateway the gateway to educational partnerships between schools andcolleges across the worldKorea education and research information service (KERIS), their mission is toresearch on e-Learning and develop information related to education and research 64
  • 65. Megaskills Education Center helps build success for children, parents and teachersthrough books, trainings,conference presentations, and partnerships with schoolsand communities nationally and internationally.Phi Delta Kappa is an international association for professional educatorsJournalsA directory of education journals by GoogleA directory of links to free-access journals and newsletters available on theInternet of relevance to education (compiled by the University of Glasgows SCRECentre).NewslettersChronicle of Higher EducationEdNA Online newslettersThe Danish University of Education QuarterlyInside Higher EducationTimes Educational SupplementTimes Higher Educational SupplementUNESCO Education TodayFinally, from the International Society for Technology in Education theNew Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and StudentsNETS for Teachers 2008 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and CreativityTeachers use their knowledge of subject matter, teaching and learning, andtechnology to facilitate experiences that advance student learning, creativity, andinnovation in both face-to-face and virtual environments. Teachers:a. promote, support, and model creative and innovative thinking and inventiveness. engage students in exploring real-world issues and solving authentic problems usingb. digital tools and resources. promote student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarify studentsc. conceptual understanding and thinking, planning, and creative processes.d. model collaborative knowledge construction by engaging in learning with students, 65
  • 66. colleagues, and others in face-to-face and virtual environments.2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and AssessmentsTeachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences andassessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize contentlearning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in theNETS•S. Teachers: design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools anda. resources to promote student learning and creativity. develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursueb. their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress. customize and personalize learning activities to address students diverse learningc. styles, working strategies, and abilities using digital tools and resources. provide students with multiple and varied formative and summative assessmentsd. aligned with content and technology standards and use resulting data to inform learning and teaching.3. Model Digital-Age Work and LearningTeachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of aninnovative professional in a global and digital society. Teachers: demonstrate fluency in technology systems and the transfer of current knowledge toa. new technologies and situations. collaborate with students, peers, parents, and community members using digital toolsb. and resources to support student success and innovation. communicate relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and peersc. using a variety of digital-age media and formats. model and facilitate effective use of current and emerging digital tools to locate,d. analyze, evaluate, and use information resources to support research and learning.4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and ResponsibilityTeachers understand local and global societal issues and responsibilities in anevolving digital culture and exhibit legal and ethical behavior in their professionalpractices. Teachers: advocate, model, and teach safe, legal, and ethical use of digital information anda. technology, including respect for copyright, intellectual property, and the appropriate documentation of sources. 66
  • 67. address the diverse needs of all learners by using learner-centered strategies providingb. equitable access to appropriate digital tools and resources. promote and model digital etiquette and responsible social interactions related to thec. use of technology and information. develop and model cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging withd. colleagues and students of other cultures using digital-age communication and collaboration tools.5. Engage in Professional Growth and LeadershipTeachers continuously improve their professional practice, model lifelong learning,and exhibit leadership in their school and professional community by promoting anddemonstrating the effective use of digital tools and resources. Teachers: participate in local and global learning communities to explore creative applications ofa. technology to improve student learning. exhibit leadership by demonstrating a vision of technology infusion, participating inb. shared decision making and community building, and developing the leadership and technology skills of others. evaluate and reflect on current research and professional practice on a regular basis toc. make effective use of existing and emerging digital tools and resources in support of student learning. contribute to the effectiveness, vitality, and self-renewal of the teaching profession andd. of their school and community.© 2008 International Society for Technology in Education. ISTE® is a registeredtrademark of the International Society for Technology in Education.NETS for Students 20071. Creativity and Innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students: a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes. b. create original works as a means of personal or group expression. c. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues. 67
  • 68. d. identify trends and forecast possibilities.2. Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students: a. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media. b. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats. c. develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures. d. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.3. Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students: a. plan strategies to guide inquiry. b. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media. c. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks. d. process data and report results.4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students: a. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation. b. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project. c. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions. d. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.5. Digital Citizenship Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. Students: a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and 68
  • 69. technology. b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity. c. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning. d. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.6. Technology Operations and Concepts Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations. Students: a. understand and use technology systems. b. select and use applications effectively and productively. c. troubleshoot systems and applications. d. transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies. © 2007 International Society for Technology in Education. ISTE® is a registered trademarkof the International Society for Technology in Education.GlossaryA to Z Computer/Internet TermsAActiveX -- ActiveX controls are programs that perform special functions in thebrowser window in various types of documents and applications under MicrosoftWindows, including HTML documents. OLE is the mechanism under Windows bywhich ActiveX controls can communicate with a browser. Not all browsers supportthis feature. See also Java.Anonymous FTP -- A file transfer (FTP) service in which any user can copy files bylogging on with the name "anonymous." See also FTP.Applet -- See Java.Archie -- An automated Internet search service - Search for wide range ofinformation on a topic through File Transfer Protocol (FTP). See also Veronica.ADSL -- (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line.) A type of high-speed line thataccesses the internet at a high, fast speed, usually connected to a special modem.(See ISDN)BBrowser -- a networked program that communicates with Web servers, used forretrieving and displaying documents from the World Wide Web - Some well-knownbrowsers are Mosaic, Netscape Navigator, and Internet Explorer.CCGI (Common Gateway Interface) -- This is a feature of Web servers that allowsHTML clients such as browsers to communicate over the Web with scripts installedon the server. HTML forms are often processed by such scripts. CGI scripts can bewritten in any programming language that will run on the server. 69
  • 70. Client -- A program, such as a browser, that uses HTML and communicates with aWeb server.Counter -- A counter is displayed on a Web page. It shows how many people havevisited the page - A counter is usually made with a CGI script.CPU (Central Processing Unit) -- The main part of a computer control system wherearithmetic and logical operations are performed. It also contains the main memoryand instructions to carry out system control functions.DDomain Name System (DNS) -- This is the way in which the network turns a host orInternet domain (e.g., www.mydomain.com) into an Internet IP address for use withTCP/IP.Dot Matrix Printer -- A type of impact device that uses a column usually of sevenpins to strike the ink ribbon five times for a 5 x 7 dot matrix and for each charactersymbol. With a typical 5 x 7-matrix character display, the exact dot patterns for allcharacters are stored in Read Only Memory (ROM) allowing selection of a number ofoptional character fonts.Download -- Retrieving documents or files from an Internet Web page that is storedon your Computer - See also Uploading.EEmail -- (Electronic Mail) Mail that is sent to other people along the Internet/Intranet,through an Email client or Email server - Usually, Email software comes with abrowser.Ethernet -- A commonly used local area network (LAN) technologyFFinger -- An Internet program that displays information about the users currentlylogged on to a computer.Firewall -- In networking, a firewall is a computer that prevents an intruder (Hacker)from accessing all the computers on a network if he or she manages to break intoone computer somewhere. the firewall usually sits between your inside network andthe outside Internet.Frames -- Some browsers support special elements that let you divide the browserwindow into several sub-windows, called frames, each of them displaying a differentdocument.Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) -- A common type of document on the Internetthat contains a list of questions with hyperlinks to the answers.File Transfer Protocol FTP -- one of the schemes that can be specified in a URL.This has traditionally been one of the most important of the network services. It letsyou pick up a copy of a file from a remote computer, provided that you can connect tothat computer (with TCP/IP, for example).GGIF -- (Graphics Interchange Format) One of the popular standard graphics formatused in HTML documents. This format is owned by CompuServe. See also PNG.Gopher -- A line-mode Internet protocol that predates the Web -Web browsers cannormally communicate with gopher servers. See also Archie. 70
  • 71. HHits -- Hits show how many people have visited a Web page, usually shown in agraphical way by a counter.Home Page -- The top-level document on an organizations Web server, usuallycontaining introductory information and links to other relevant pages.HTML -- Hypertext Markup Language. This is the usual format for documents thatare published on the Web. HTML is an application of SGML.HTTP -- Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This is used to transfer HTML documents overthe network, between a Web server and an HTML browser, while you wait. TheHTTP protocol is implemented by a number of Web servers.Hypertext -- Text that contains links to other HTML documents. Also calledhyperlinks.IInternet -- A network of computers connected together (External net) to shareinformation with others through means of the World Wide Web (WWW). Also oftencalled "surfing," because of its wide range of information you might find yourself"surfing" (For many hours). Other slang words referenced to Internet are I-Net, TheWeb, Cyberspace, The Net (Also a movie) and Netizens (People of the Internet).Intranet -- An internal net where pages are available only on a local server - Anorganization can use Web page HTML, such as browsers, servers, and editors toshare information among its members or employees but these cant be accessedover the WWWIP address -- (Internet Protocol address) The standard way of identifying a computerthat is connected to the Internet, similar to the way a telephone number determines atelephone on a telephone network. The IP address is four numbers separated byperiods, and each number is less than 256 (i.e., 176.132.21.75). Usually your ISP willassign your computer an IP address.IRC -- Internet Relay Chat. Use the special chat software (i.e., mIRC) to chat in real-time such as in AOL (America Online) chat rooms.ISDN -- (Integrated Service Digital Network) Another fast way to access the internet,using an affordable modem, and digital line from the phone company - This is apopular way to gain high access speeds on the internet. (See ADSL)ISP -- Internet Service Provider. A company that provides you with Internet Services(i.e., Netcom, MSN (Microsoft Network), AT&T WorldNet, Geocities, Angelfire...etc.).JJava -- Java is a programming environment that operates in conjunction with certainbrowsers. It lets you refer to a run program, called applets, from an HTML document.Applets perform some special processing in the browser window, such as drawing apicture, playing games, or interacting with the user. The Java programming languageis a platform independent object-oriented language, with some similarities to C andC++. See also ActiveXJavaScript -- JavaScript is a programming language thats similar to Java. Instead ofbeing referred to in a HTML document, as Java applets are, JavaScript code isembedded in the document itself, using the SCRIPT element.JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Export Group) An image format that is commonlysupported by Web browsers. This format is also owned by CompuServe. 71
  • 72. LLAN -- (Local Area Network) A computer network technology that is designed toconnect computers to other computers. A LAN can be connected to the Internet andcan be configured as an intranet.MMIME type -- (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension type) A method used by Webbrowsers to associate files of a certain type with helper applications that display filesof that type.NNews -- The Internet protocol for retrieving files from an Internet news service(Usenet Newsgroups)OOLE -- (Object Linking and Embedding) An object system created by Microsoft. OLElets the author appeal different editor components to create a composite document.See also ActiveX.PPlug-in -- One of a set of software modules that integrates into Web browsers tooffer a wide range of interactive and multimedia capabilitiesPNG -- Portable Network Graphics; pronounced ping - A type of popular imageProxy Server -- If you have a firewall at your site, you cant normally connect directlyto a server on the Internet. You need a helper, a proxy server running on the firewall,to make the connection for you.RRAM (Random Access Memory) -- Refers to types of memory devices whereby anylocation in memory can be found, on average, as quickly as any other location.Computer internal memories and disk memories are random access memories. Datais usually stored in bytes, and the RAM storage capacity is measured in kilobytes.SSearch Engine – An online web search programme for - Search Engines are usuallyfound on Yahoo!, Alta Vista, WebCrawler, Lycos, and Excite, to name a few.Server -- See Web serverSecure Socket Layer (SSL) -- A low-level protocol that enables securecommunications between a server and a browser (i.e., entering Credit CardNumbers).SGML -- (Standard Generalized Markup Language) An international standard fordescribing the markup of structured documents - The basic idea behind SGML is thatinformation can be made independent of particular hardware and software.Sternich -- Electronic pulse that runs through the computer screen and keeps thecolours/colors true.TTCP/IP -- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is the protocol usedby much of the Internet. Its really two protocols; IP packets are sent over a network 72
  • 73. that uses TCP. Other common variations include SLIP (Serial Line/Internet Protocol),and PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol).Thumbnail -- A small version of an image on a World Wide Web page, oftencontaining a hyperlink to a full-size version of the imageUUploading -- The opposite of Downloading. Instead of retrieving a file, you send afile or document to a person by way of FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or by Email as anAttachment.UNIX -- An operating system typically used on workstations and computers. SomeInternet servers run on UNIX systems.URL -- (Uniform Resource Locator) A URL is the address of a file, written in a formatthat can be interpreted by a Web server, which then retrieves the file. A URL consistsof a filename and, usually, a scheme that tells how the file is to be retrieved. For mostfiles on Web servers, the scheme HTTP is used.VVBScript -- A subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming system - MicrosoftInternet Explorer version 3.0+, along with other browsers, can read VBScriptprograms embedded in HTML pages. VBScript programs can be executed either onthe computer, where the browser is, or the World Wide Web server.Veronica -- An automated Internet search service available through gopher - Seealso Archie.WWAIS (Wide Area Information Service) -- A tool for searching over the Internet.WAN (Wide Area Network) -- A computer network that spans a long distance andthat uses specialized computers to connect smaller networks.Web Server -- A networked program that responds to request from local or remotecomputers for HTML files such as typing in the URL to retrieve the requested Webpage.World Wide Web -- (WWW) Part of the Internet where text and graphics are placedtogether and where information can be easily accessed and shared with others toform a Web Page along with links to different documents or other places (Hypertext).WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) -- Usually a HTML editor to make Webpages for the Internet - (Microsoft FrontPage for example) Instead of typing rawHTML code, the editor lets you see exactly what viewers will see when viewing yourweb pagesZZIP -- A ZIP is a file extension usually on something you download. It would appearas FILENAME.ZIP. You need to get software that "unzips" the program. WinZip isprobably the best way to "unzip" programs for Windows users. Sometimes a file willhave an .EXE (Executable) extension and would appear as FILENAME.EXE that"unzips" by itself when you run the program.Compiled and edited by William M. Tweedie, June 27, 2006 Updated September2011References are cited in the body of the document. 73
  • 74. Appendix AHANDOUTS FOR WEB SEARCH 101Overview: This lesson will help students explore the impact of different Booleansearches upon search results.Purpose: Students often dont realize that certain keywords have multiple meanings,generating many results that do not relate to what they are searching for. This activityhelps them limit their results to the topic of their choice.Objectives: Students will start by thinking about the different results that a singlekeyword can produce, moving on to generate their own sets of keywords (fromconfusing to clear keywords).Website: http://www.boolify.orgActivities:Have students try different keyword combinations. What search terms would they useif they wanted to find information about what dolphins eat?Have pairs of students compete to see which pair can generate the most usefulkeywords to find specific pieces of information (ex: how many species of dolphinscurrently exist? What is the average life span of a bottle nose dolphin? How dodolphins communicate with each other?). Students must use Boolean logic toproduce clear, helpful results.Examples: George Washington (person, bridge or university) orange (fruit or color) present (right now or a gift) 74
  • 75. Wrapping up:Have a few students share the results of their activities to teach each other, asreview, how search results can be clarified through the use of Boolean operators(using a projection device, if available).Spend several minutes discussing how these exercises relate to the researchstudents are doing for class. 75
  • 76. Boolean Logic WorksheetYour Name:Directions:Have you noticed that sometimes, when you enter a keyword into a search engine,you get results that relate to several different things? Try searching for “Dolphin” andyou’ll see that you get results about the football team AND about the marinemammal.So, here’s a challenge for you. Come up with five other keywords that, whensearched, produce results that relate to two or more different things. How would youuse Boolean logic to limit your results to only find web pages about one of thosethings?Hint: Try: “Mercury” or “Jets” and see what you get.KEYWORD WORKSHEETKeyword search #1:Meaning #1 -Meaning #2 -Meaning #3 -Boolean logic to narrow results:Keyword search #2:Meaning #1 -Meaning #2 -Meaning #3 -Boolean logic to narrow results:Keyword search #3:Meaning #1 -Meaning #2 -Meaning #3 -Boolean logic to narrow results:Keyword search #4:Meaning #1 - 76
  • 77. Meaning #2 -Meaning #3 -Boolean logic to narrow results:Keyword search #5:Meaning #1 -Meaning #2 -Meaning #3 -Boolean logic to narrow results:Overview: This lesson will help teach students basic Boolean logic.Purpose: It is important that educators teach students about the use of Boolean logicto refine web searches.Objectives: Students will learn about three different Boolean operators: “and”, “or”and “not”. Students will see models of the operators, and then translate theirmodeling into a visual search engine (Boolify).Website: http://www.boolify.orgActivities:Spend several minutes describing Boolean logic to students, including “and”, “or” and“not.Model the difference between Boolean operators by asking: AND All students wearing blue jeans stand up All students wearing blue jeans AND who are girls stand up All students wearing blue jeans AND who are girls AND with a name that startswith “A” stand up OR All students wearing blue jeans OR t-shirts stand up All students wearing blue jeans AND t-shirts OR caps stand up NOT All students wearing t-shirts but NOT jeans, stand up All students who are boys and NOT wearing sandals, stand upHave the students reflect on the combinations. Can they make up a newcombination, so that only a desired person stands up?Then, jump to the website, Boolify. Describe that a search engine works the sameway. 77
  • 78. For instance, if you want to find all web pages with “dolphins”, you can search for just“dolphin”.But, that also brings up pages about football. How would you eliminate those results,with NOT? (dolphins NOT football)Further ideas:Have students work in pairs, pick a favorite topic (i.e. a favorite animal, band, sport,food, etc.), and search for pages related to that topic. One student should proposekeywords, and the other suggests Boolean operators to limit and refine the searchresults.Have students model Boolean logic on the web, recording the number of results toillustrate how they limited or widened their query, and finally got relevant results.Have students tell you their research topic (if applicable) and explore their thoughtsabout how to generate searches that will get them detailed, relevant information.Wrapping up:Have students share the results of their activity or favored topic (above) and talkabout how the use of “and”, “or” and “not” changed their results. What combinationworked best? Why?Spend several minutes discussing how these exercises relate to the researchstudents are doing for class work. 78

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