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Early Literacy And Reading Course


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An introduction to critically important elements foreign English language teachers should know in helping students become 'literate' in English. The .pptx presentation here does not include the many …

An introduction to critically important elements foreign English language teachers should know in helping students become 'literate' in English. The .pptx presentation here does not include the many sound and video files used to support the concepts, nor does it include the many handouts and other material developed for the course. Intended for teachers of young learners, the program upon which this course is based has also been adapted for young adult English language learners. Contact the author for further information. (Contact email is given at the end of the presentation.)
Feedback is encouraged and welcome!

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  • 1. Early Literacy &Reading Instruction
    Developed by
    William M. Tweedie
    As your colleagues are settling in, write on a separate sheet of paper as many words as you know about the topic of
    Turn your sheets in at the end of the first half of this
    session. Write clearly and neatly. You need not sign
    your paper.
  • 3. Early Literacy and Reading Instruction
    A 5 Part Course
    Setting Goals, Objectives and the Stage for Action
    Using Computer Based Programs
    Teaching in the Regular Classroom – Text, Print & The Alphabetic Code
    Teaching in the Regular Classroom Phonological Awareness & The Alphabetic Principle
    Teaching in the Regular Classroom Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension
  • 4. Session One
    Setting Goals and the Stage for Action
    The Most Important Principles of Early Childhood Pedagogy
    Love, appreciate, praise students to build confidence, curiosity, and independence
    Set clear rules, expectations, and routines - Be consistent
    Stimulate a love of learning - Focus on literacy
    Facilitate and participate in appropriate activities
    Help make meaningful connections with the world
    Help develop social and personal skills and abilities
    Involve students in planning their learning
    Be a positive role model
    Laugh – a lot
    Adapted from A Summary of Early Childhood Education Principles Into Practice:
    A Kindergarten to Grade 3 Needs Assessment, Saskatchewan Learning, February 2006
  • 5. Session One continued
    Literacy in Rompin
    Setting Goals per School and District
    What is Early Literacy?
    What is Reading?
    Early Literacy Instruction Theory
    Predominant Methods
    Whole Language
    What Are the Elements of Early Reading Instruction?
    Screening, Assessment, Evaluation
  • 6. Session One continued
    Literacy in Rompin
    Setting Goals
    Review your numbers
    Set a realistic goal and specific objectives to guide you to achieve it.
    Share your course learning with your colleagues
    Review of Numbers
    Goals and Objectives
  • 7. Setting Class & School Goals
    School Example
    realistic goal
    list of the objectives
    Session One continued
  • 8. District
    Review of numbers
    Goals and Objectives
    Session One continued
    Insert Graph
    Insert Text
  • 9. Session One continued
    What is Early Literacy?
    It’s a complex topic involving many issues:
    The ability to communicate through Reading and Writing
    New Literacies: Visual, Computer Literacy
    Whole Language vs. Phonics Approaches
    Pace & Elements of Child Development
    Home, School, Community environment
    Direct Teaching or Implicit Learning
    Assessment, Intervention, etc.
  • 10. Session One continued
    What is Early Literacy?
    It is a tool; a way to learn about the world and a means to participate more fully in the technological society of the 21st century. Rafferty (1999)
    Practical, Relevant, Integrated, Meaningful and Enriching (PRIME ©) use of Communication in context within a print-rich environment. Skills and strategies are taught in these meaningful contexts rather than in isolation.
    Tweedie (1999)
  • 11. What is Reading?
    Four Definitions:
    Bringing meaning to text to get meaning from it
    Learning to identify words and get their meaning
    Learning to pronounce words
    All of the above definitions and developing learning skills in the context of authentic, balanced reading and writing activities.
    adapted from
    Session One continued
  • 12. Early Reading Instruction
    Predominant Methods
    Whole Language
    Analytic Phonics
    Synthetic Phonics
    Session One continued
  • 13. Whole Language
    Is a meaning-centered method based on the
    following principles:
    people learn best when actively involved in learning
    not all children will learn the same things, much less learn them at the same time, no matter how we teach
    educational assessment of learning should both focus on and promote continued learning
    Session One continued
  • 14. Session One continued
    Children learn to read and write by being supported in actually reading and writing whole texts.
    Phonics (Alphabetic Principle) has always been at the heart of whole language, acknowledged and taught as one of the three major language cueing systems (i.e., semantic, syntactic, and graphophonic) that must be orchestrated as one reads
    (Mills, O'Keefe, & Stephens, 1992; Powell & Hornsby, 1993; Wagstaff, 1994).
    (NCREL)North Central Regional Education Laboratory
  • 15. Session One continued
    Analytic Phonics (whole to part)
    Involves development of phonemic awareness (recognising the sounds in speech) and analysis of whole words to detect phonetic (sound) or orthographic (spelling) patterns, then splitting them into smaller parts to help with decoding.
    For example: onset and rime - onset (vowel sound(s)) at the beginning of a word or syllable and rime (always beginning with a vowel to form the remainder of that word or syllable).
    Basics normally take 2+ years in L1 & ESL contexts
  • 16. An awareness of sounds is introduced after sight reading has begun. Letter sounds are taught through alliteration.
    big, boy, ball, bag
    Beat, Bit, Bait, Bat, Boot
    Session One continued
  • 17. Session One continued
    Synthetic Phonics (part to whole)
    Involves the development of phonemic awareness from the outset with action.
    The reader learns up to 44 phonemes and their related graphemes
    One phoneme can be represented by various graphemes, e.g. ‘y’, ‘ie’, ‘i’ ‘ye’ ‘igh’ ‘eye’.
    The reader is expected to recognise each grapheme, sound out each phoneme in a word, blending the sounds together to pronounce the word phonetically.
    Works well with phonetically regular words.
    Basics take 1 – 3 years in L1 and ESL contexts
  • 18. Letters and their sounds are taught before reading commences as preparation for teaching reading through sounding out letters and blending sounds
    b b b b
    u u u u
    s s s s …
    b u s… bus
    Session One continued
  • 19. Session One continued
    Comparing Methods
    Which describes what?
    Students are given words that contain the phoneme and must extract the similar sound in each word (usually in the initial position).
    Phonemes are taught in isolation using sound associations and illustrations. Students then learn to blend phonemes to form words.
    Students ‘read’ levelled picture books and decode inferentially.
  • 20. Session One continued
  • 21. Session One continued
    __oot, phone _______
    cat, __ey, du___
    horn _______ _______
    pig _______ _______
    sun, city _______
    top _______ _______
    chair, match _______
    shell, wish _______
    thump _______ _______
    wheel _______ _______
  • 22. Session One continued
    foot, phone hissing cat
    cat, key, duck clock pendulum
    horn huffing of a runner
    pig corn popping
    sun, city hissing snake
    top typewriter keys
    chair, match chugging train
    shell, wish prompt to be quiet
    thump pound desk
    wheel whistling
  • 23. Session One continued
    saw, ball, taught something’s too bad
    moon, chew wailing ghost
    book, put doing push-ups
    cow, house when you get hurt
    boy, oil pogo stick spring
    car howling dog
    fork seal
    spur, her, work, fur growling dog
  • 24. Session One continued
    Read this sentence:
    Now count aloud the ' F' s in that sentence.
    Count them ONLY ONCE; do not go back and count them again.
  • 25. Session One continued
    Whole Word?
    I see fit to discuss fate if I let you bat with a boot the book that has notes about a boy whois boring but saw a car full of roses with the door shut and a man inside who shouts: “Ice!” toa crowd of people standing by, waving, who said “Bye!”. No Lie! © 1995 W. M. Tweedie
    Draw a picture to illustrate this story.
  • 26. Session One continued
    Break Time!
    Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and
    return it to me after the break. Thanks.
  • 27. Session One continued
    Early Literacy Instruction
    Alphabetic Code
    Text/Print Awareness
    Phonology(answer the phone)
    Phonemic awareness(individual sounds)
    Phonological awareness(larger chunks)
    Alphabetic Principle
    Alphabetic understanding
    Phonological recoding
    What is Phonics?
    Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension
  • 28. Session One continued
    What is this word?
  • 29. William’s Reading Pyramid
    Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
    Standard Two
    Standard One
    Standard One
    Standard One
  • 30. Session One continued
    Alphabetic Code –
    Letter knowledge has been identified as a strong predictor of reading success
    (Ehri & Sweet, 1991) 
    While teaching children letter names does not in itself result in success in learning to read* it can facilitate memory for the forms or shapes of letters and can serve as a mnemonic for letter-sound associations or phonics.**
    *(Jenkins, Bausell, & Jenkins, 1972), **(Adams, 1990)
  • 31. A different ABC song:
    A is an apple
    B is a bear
    C is a cat – without any hair
    D is a duck
    E is an egg
    F is a fish – stuck on a peg
    G is a gorilla
    H is a house
    I is an iguana – playing with a mouse
    Session One continued
  • 32. Session One continued
    J is a jungle
    K a kangaroo
    L is a lion – with only one shoe
    M is a monkey
    N is a nurse
    O is an ostrich – with a big purse
    P is a penguin
    Q is a queen
    R is a rabbit – with a big bean
  • 33. S is a silly snake
    T is a tiger
    U is an umbrella – caught on fire!
    V is a vampire
    W is a whale
    X is a fox – with a bushy tail
    Y is a yak
    Z is a zoo
    And that’s the alphabet – just for you!
    © 2007 William M. Tweedie
    Session One continued
  • 34. Session One continued
    Not knowing letter names is related to children's difficulty in learning letter sounds and in recognizing words.
    Children cannot understand and apply the alphabetic principle until they can recognize and name a number of letters.
    Texas Education Agency (2002)
  • 35. Session One continued
    Instruction in the Alphabetic Principle does not follow the order of the alphabet.
    It usually follows the frequency of letter usage and the graduation of ease and ability to decode words in the reading process.
    Different ‘phonics’ programs follow different orders.
  • 36. Session One continued
    One way of introducing the idea of capitals and lower case letters is to describe the capital as the name of the letter and the lower case as the sound of the letter
    Talking about when we use capitals – names, beginning of sentences etc. – will help students differentiate between the two
  • 37. Session One continued
    letter + picture
    letters + pictures + songs +
    actions +
    Try to give your students as many ‘tabs’ as possible
  • 38. Text Print Awareness(mechanics of text)
    Children need to know:
    Parts of a book
    Texts are written from left to right
    Spaces between words matter
    There is a one-to-one correspondence between writing and speaking
    Teach parts, directionality & vocabulary using:
    Big Books
    Total physical response
    Use realia and kinaesthetic activities
    Daily review of concepts of print
    Small group instruction if needed
    Session One continued
  • 39. OOOO /K/A/
    Session One continued
    Phonemic Awareness (PA)
    is the ability to manipulate the smallest
    units of sound that make up spoken
    language: phonemes
    A child who possesses phonemic awareness can segment sounds in words
    blend strings of isolated sounds together to form recognizable word forms
    manipulate sounds to create words
  • 40. Session One continued
    PA is auditory and does notinvolve words in print
    Without phonemic awareness, phonics instruction makes little sense
    Essential to learning to read in an alphabetic writing system
    A strong predictor of children who experience early reading success
    Rhyming & Alliteration precedes Isolation, Segmentation, Blending and Manipulating abilities
  • 41. Session One continued
    The cat sat to pat his rat! (picture)
    What’s the first sound in Cat?
    How many sounds in cat ? /k/ /a/ /t/
    What’s the word if you take out the /k/?
    What is this word: /p/ /aaaa/ /t/ ?
    What is the word if you put /r/ in front of /at/ ?
  • 42. Session One continued
    Phonological Awareness
    In addition to Phonemic Awareness
    Phonological Awareness encompasses
    larger units of sound, such as syllables,
    body/coda, onsets/rimes, prefixes, and
    Sta te Sta le Sta ll Sta ff (body) / (coda)
    S ay D ay M ay W ay L ay (onset) / (rime)
    Rea / d Pai / d Be/ d Li / d Trie / d (body) / (coda)
    F / at - F / ate (onset) / (rime)
    Con struc tion (prefix) (root) (suffix) (syllables)
  • 43. Session One continued
    The Alphabetic Principle
    is the understanding that there are systematic
    and predictable relationships between written
    letters and spoken sounds. There are 2 aspects:
    Alphabetic Understanding:
    Words are composed of letters that represent sounds.
    Phonological Recoding
    Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words (Reading & Writing)
  • 44. Beginning decoding is the ability to:
    read from left to right, simple, unfamiliar regular words
    Listen to and generate the sounds for all letters
    blend sounds into recognizable words
    Beginning encoding (spelling/writing) is the ability to:
    translate speech to print using phonemic awareness and knowledge of letter-sounds (Alphabetic Principle)
    Session One continued
  • 45. What is Phonics?
    – a method of teaching children to read(not something they need to learn)
    Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language.
    It teaches children to use these relationships to read and write words.
    It is NOT Phonemic awareness.
    Session One continued
  • 46. What Is Fluency?
    Fluency (automaticity) is reading words with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point of over-learning. Fundamental skills are so "automatic" that they do not require conscious attention.
    Fluency is not an end in itself but a critical gateway to comprehension. Fluent reading frees resources to process meaning.
    Session One continued
  • 47. Session One continued
    For students to develop fluency, they must:
    perform the task or demonstrate the skill accurately
    perform the preskills of the task quickly and effortlessly.
    Research says successful readers:
    rely on the letters not context or pictures
    process virtually every letter
    use letter-sound links to identify words
    have a strategy for decoding words
    read words repeatedly (Hasbrouck, 1998)
  • 48. Session One continued
    What Is Having Vocabulary?
    The ability to understand (receptive)
    and use (expressive) words to
    acquire and convey meaning
    Vocabulary refers to the words we must understand to communicate effectively
    Vocabulary plays a fundamental role in the reading process, and contributes greatly to a reader's comprehension
    It is the CORE(Central Operating Resource for Engagement)in an EFL Early Literacy program
  • 49. Session One continued
    Primary focus of instruction in grades K-3 should be on developing criticalreading skills
    Read storybooks to younger children to develop vocabulary – every day!
  • 50. Session One continued
    What Is Reading Comprehension?
    The complex cognitive process involving
    the intentional interaction between reader
    and text to convey meaning
    the essence of reading
    active and intentional thinking in which the meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader (Durkin, 1973)
    The content of meaning is influenced by the text and by the contribution of the reader's prior knowledge
    (Anderson & Pearson, 1984)
  • 51. Session One continued
    Screening, Evaluation and Assessment
    Program readiness
    Evaluation? - ongoing
    Monitoring of Progress
    – daily, weekly
    Assessment? - cumulative
    Degree of Success at end of a section/Program
    Final Assessment
  • 52. Translation, Adaptation,
    Modification Exercises
    GRTR Screening
    Development Phases in Print Awareness
    Skill Assessment Sheet
    Examine your handouts
    Session One continued
  • 53. Session One continued
    Teaching the Elements
    Introduction and Overview
    Focused, Personal, Intensive, Explicit, Systematic, and Patient (FPI/ESP)
    Related to Text
    Computer Based
    Mainstream Classroom Based
    “Up until the age of 8, children are in the Acquisition Stage of
    literacy learning. During this stage, a child's reading potential is
    developing and can be affected positively by systematic,
    intentional instruction.”- NAEYC
  • 54. Session One continued
    Summary of Session One
    Teaching the fundamental elements as the essential components of a balanced approach to the teaching of reading, at any stage, alongside:
    promoting a positive attitude to reading for pleasure and for information
    motivating readers to read for themselves, not just for school purposes
    teaching sight vocabulary
    teaching of comprehension strategies and how, when and why to apply them
    actively raising awareness and appreciation of the writer's craft
  • 55. Session One continued
    Complete the Minute paper and hand it in.
    Read the first part of each section of the Text and use the CD to Review and Clarify this Session
    Submit a Copy of Your Goals and Objectives by the END of the Course
    Revise and Translate the ‘Tests’ by the END of THIS WEEK. You will use them after the course to identify your students who need specific intervention strategies.
    Finish your ABC song flashcards.
  • 56. Session Two
    Teaching the Elements Using Computer Based Programs
    Review of the Elements
    Look for the Elements and how they are learned as you experiment with each of the following two Programs
    Think about the differences in Managing Computer Based Learning vs. Regular Classrooms
  • 57. Computer Based Programs
    Part 1 – On-disk program
    CD Program: Hooked on Phonics
    Complete the Muddiest Point form – return it
    Part 2 – On-line program
    On-line Program: Starfall
    Complete the Minute paper – return it
    Session Two continued
  • 58. Session Two continued
    Preview the Activity Resources for teaching the Alphabet, Text Awareness, you’ll find in the files section (Early Literacy) in the Connecting the Dots in Rompin Group site or that I send to you via email:
    Print the documents and Prepareto present
    one of the activities during the next session.
  • 59. Teaching the Elements in the
    Regular Classroom
    Pay Attention to Attention Training
    Strategies and Activities
    Alphabetic Code
    Text and Print Awareness
    Session Three
  • 60. Attention Training
    Classroom rules
    Getting students' attention
    Focusing students' attention
    Keeping students on-task during seat work
    Maintaining students' attention
    Review your handouts
    Session Three continued
  • 61. Session Three continued
    Alphabetic Code
    Research shows it is important for young children to be able to:
    Recognize and name letters
    Recognize beginning letters in familiar words (especially their own name)
    Recognize both capital and lowercase letters
    Relate some letters to the specific sounds they represent
  • 62. Strategies and Activities for
    Teaching the Alphabet
    Writing & Spelling (beginnings)
    Refer to your handouts
    Session Three continued
  • 63. Session Three continued
    Sight recognition
    Hearing the sound
    Practicing vocabulary
    Connecting sounds and words with objects
    Visual, Aural/Oral, & Kinaesthetic
  • 64. Session Three continued
    Large flashcards can be used for whole class teaching – smaller ones for group work
    Activities can be teacher led – “b for …?” or students can ask each other to find particular cards, either by their initial sound or by their picture
    If you have separate pictures and sounds, memory and matching games can be played
    Flashcards provide good cues for talking about objects, their uses, colours, size and characteristics
  • 65. Session Three continued
    Text & Print Awareness
    Teach Children About Books:
    Know how to handle the book appropriately
    Recognize book features such as the front and back covers, and the top and bottom, of the book
    Understand that a book has a title, an author, words and pictures
    Recognize that printed letters and words run from left to right and from top to bottom
  • 66. Teach Children About Text:
    We see text in a variety of settings and
    Field Trips:
    Around school
    In the community
    Text Collecting & Display Activities
    Shopping lists
    Product wrappings, etc.
    Session Three continued
  • 67. Session Three continued
    Break Time!
    Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and return it to me after the break. Thanks.
  • 68. Session Three continued
    Strategies & Activities for
    Teaching Text and Print
    Refer to your handouts
  • 69. Session Three continued
    Complete the Minute paper – return it.
    Download and review the Phonological and
    Alphabetic Principle files from the CtDiR
    Group site or that I send to you via email.
    Begin preparation of large flashcards of
    words from the text and for things in your
    Bring the Handouts to the next session
  • 70. Classroom Based Learning
    Strategies and Activities
    Phonological Awareness
    Phonemic Awareness
    Alphabetic Principle
    Alphabetic Understanding
    Phonological Recoding
    Session Four
  • 71. Phonemic Awareness
    As children begin to learn to read, it becomes necessary for them to be able to explicitly identify the smaller units of speech (i.e. phonemes) in order to be able to make the connections between orthographic representations and the sounds that they represent.
    Individuals who have developed phonemic awareness will be able to identify the “beginning sound” of please as /p/, and to segment the word into its component phonemes: /p/–/l/–/i/–/z/.
    Session Four continued
  • 72. Session Four continued
    Strategies and Activities for
    Teaching Phonemic Awareness
    Refer to your handouts
  • 73. Session Four continued
    Break Time!
    Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and
    return it to me after the break. Thanks.
  • 74. Phonological Awareness
    Children, who have been given lots of practice with Phonemic Awareness and onsets and rimes (or body/coda) to generate word families, have a larger bank of words to draw upon and a means to decode many unfamiliar words.
    Over 500 words can be generated from the following 37 rimes or codas!
    Session Four continued
  • 75. Session Four continued
    Adapted From A Handbook Of Effective Instruction In Literacy - Rasinski and Padak
    Kent State University – The / indicates where the body separates the coda.
  • 76. Alphabetic Principle
    Alphabetic Understanding
    Alphabetic Decoding
    Refer to your handouts
    Session Four continued
  • 77. Assignments
    Download and review the Fluency,
    Vocabulary and Comprehension files
    from the CtDiR Group site or that I send to
    you via email.
    Bring the Handouts to the next
    Session Four continued
  • 78. Classroom Based Learning
    Strategies and Activities
    Fluency and Comprehension
    Putting It All Together
    Syllabus and Content
    Outline of Research Project
    Session Five
  • 79. Session Five continued
    Strategies and Activities
    Vocabulary – The Critical Element
    Principles and Practice
    Songs, Chants & Read Alouds
    Questioning Strategies
    Refer to your handouts
  • 80. Session Five continued
    Vocabulary Principles & Practice
    Explicitly teach vocabulary
    Critical to reading comprehension
    Often neglected component of instruction for ELLs
    Scaffold reading by asking frequent Questions to check and clarify
    Critical to mastery
  • 81. Session Five continued
    The Language of Instruction Matters.
    TEACH in L1 to TRANSFER and BUILDskills and knowledge.
    Components of L1 are the foundation
    Phonological (Alphabetic Principle) skills transfer regardless of language of instruction
    Word reading and background knowledge require instruction in primary language first
    Reading Rockets/Colorin Colorado 2001
  • 82. Correction
    Technical mistakes should be corrected
    Correct with PRAISE
    Don’t over correct
    DO NOT LABEL students
    Assess individually and OFTEN
    Provide extra instruction time – not less
    Session Five continued
  • 83. Session Five continued
    Give extra time for practice especially for words and sounds as these lay the foundation for literacy development
    Make sure EVERY student ‘gets it’ before increasing the complexity of the learning material
    Start small and simple to build student confidence - PRACTICAL
    Make EVERYTHINGRELEVANT for the learners
    INTEGRATE abilities, content, skills and they will stay MEANINGFULLY ENGAGED (PRIME©)
  • 84. Translating Exercises
    English/L1 –
    Common Alphabet
    Words in Common - Cognates
    Classroom Language & Labels
    Refer to your handouts
    Session Five continued
  • 85. Fluency and Comprehension
    Read Alouds
    Questioning, Assessment
    Focused Review & Practice
    Session Five continued
  • 86. Session Five continued
    Break Time!
    Please fill in the Muddiest Point Form and
    return it to me after the break. Thanks.
  • 87. Session Five continued
    Putting It All Together
    Review of Existing Programs for Content and Syllabus
    Prescriptive and Inflexible
    C-A-T CAT
    Open Court Reading
    Scientifically based and context appropriate
    Tampa Reads • MES-English
    English Raven • RAZ
  • 88. Session Five continued
    The Syllabus
    Content and Sequence
    Alphabetic Code
    Teach letters 4 at a time in sequence
    Teach sounds of letters but not as focus
    Illustrate the letters in pictures, etc.
    Distinguish capital from small letters
    Introduce sight words
    Always explain in L1 for comprehension
    Teach text and word awareness skills (use text)
    Begin copying & writing of letters
    Make sure all students have a complete grasp before moving on
  • 89. Phonological Awareness
    Phonemic Awareness - Teach as focus
    Teach consonants and consonant blends first (Tampa Reads program)
    Teach single vowels with two consonants
    Teach simple sound manipulations
    Always ensure vocabulary understanding
    Assess students as a class and individually often
    Introduce concepts of larger pieces of speech (chunks) and words (syllables)
    Reinforce Alphabetic Code and Concepts of Print (use text)
    Session Five continued
  • 90. Alphabetic Principle
    Teach letter sound identity with written letters including digraphs
    Teach blends, 2 consonant endings, double vowels, vowel blends
    Teach manipulations of letters
    Introduce sight words
    Teach long vowels and silent ‘e’
    Teach ‘r’ controlled vowels
    Know and teach the AP rules as they arise.
    Practice writing and spelling as you go.
    Session Five continued
  • 91. Vocabulary, Fluency Comprehension
    Begin VFC activities from the start
    Always ensure ALL students understand the meaning of the words they are expected to work with except when another skill development which doesn’t require it is in focus.
    Vocabulary and Comprehension are the CORE, fluency activities will help build both.
    Expose students to books from the start
    Make weekly trips to the library with some specific purpose mandatory.
    Elicit the help and cooperation of EVERYONE in the school community.
    Session Five continued
    TEACHER ! Practical, Relevant, Integrated, Meaningful, Enriching
  • 92. Outline of Research Project:
    (designated school)
    1 full class using a computer based program
    ½ of another class receiving intensive Early Reading Instruction
    ½ receiving regular class Instruction (control)
    Other schools may be included
    Year long monitoring with regular progress assessments
    Session Five continued
  • 93. Course Summary
    Community and Parent Involvement
    Schedule of Follow-up Visits
    Session Five continued
  • 94. Early Literacy and Reading Instruction
    For more information PLEASE contact :
    William M. Tweedie
    EFL Education Specialist