Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
2   Facilitating Diversity in Learning Course Resource Book
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

2 Facilitating Diversity in Learning Course Resource Book


Published on

Second in a series of courses that comprise the PRIME Teacher Training Program. Here we look at the Theory of Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles and how it impacts facilitating learning for …

Second in a series of courses that comprise the PRIME Teacher Training Program. Here we look at the Theory of Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles and how it impacts facilitating learning for ALL students.

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Pragmatics Predictability Performance Perception Practical Resources Recognition Realia Resolve Relevant Imagination Investigation Inclusion Insight Integrated Multiple Mystery Motivation Media Intelligences Meaningful Energy Enthusiasm Extension Engagement Enriching C O M M U N I C AT I O N I N E N G L I S H A Modern Approach to Facilitating the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language Facilitating Diversity in Learning William Tweedie Part 2 of the PRIME Teacher Training Program
  • 2. Facilitating Diversity in Learning Making Learning Fun through Understanding Multiple Intelligences Course Reference Book William Tweedie © 2005 - 2010 Kenmac Educan International & William M Tweedie TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
  • 3. FACILITATING DIVERSITY .................................................................................................................4 HOW WE LEARN..............................................................................................................................4 IT'S NOT HOW SMART YOU ARE - IT'S HOW YOU ARE SMART!..........................................................6 THE NINE TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE...................................................................................................7 GARDNER’S EIGHT CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING INTELLIGENCE..........................................................8 LEARNING STYLES AND YOUR STUDENTS.........................................................................................9 WHAT ARE “MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES”?.......................................................................................12 NEW AND EMERGING THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE.........................................................................14 THE THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES.....................................................................................17 VARIATIONS OF THINKING STYLES.................................................................................................22 MATCHING TEACHING STYLES WITH LEARNING STYLES IN EAST ASIAN CONTEXTS..........................24 HELPING STUDENTS IDENTIFY LEARNING STYLES............................................................................31 INFORMATION AND QUESTIONNAIRES FOR ASSESSING LEARNING STYLES AND PREFERENCES...........................................................................33 MAKE LEARNING FUN THROUGH MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES...........................................................44 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION ...................................................................................................50 EIGHT SMARTS IN DESIGNING ELT MATERIALS ..............................................................................52 CLEAR RUBRICS MOVE STUDENTS BEYOND APATHY TO UNDERSTANDING ....................................57 ASSESSMENTS THAT RECOGNIZE AND ENHANCE DIVERSITY ..........................................................59 CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING...................................................................................62 ENTHUSIASM RATING....................................................................................................................65 “CATCH A HUMAN STAR AND . . .” ................................................................................................66 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES RESOURCES...........................................................................................69 Articles are the property of the authors and copyright owners. Permission is granted for reproduction. Please site the authors and source if reproducing. 3
  • 4. Facilitating Diversity Making Learning Fun through Multiple Intelligences (MI) by William M. Tweedie Part 1 - Introduction to MI Theory A. What are learning styles? B. What are thinking styles? C. What are Multiple Intelligences? D. What is the relationship between the two concepts? E. What are your intelligence strengths? a. Survey of your strengths. b. Does it affect your teaching style? c. Circle of Knowledge Activity i. What are the Nine Intelligences? ii. What are three characteristics of learners using each? Part 2 - Theory into Practice A. MI and Motivation B. The seven levels of engagement C. Helping students identify their learning styles – a first step to engaging the psychological and emotional ‘selves’ of students a. Assessments D. Making Learning Fun through MI a. An example activity for MI group building – It’s in the Bag Part 3 - Lesson Plans A. Sample MI Lesson Plan a. Developing a Lesson Plan Group Activity b. The case for rubrics Part 4 - Summary and Conclusion A. Characteristics of effective teaching – a model based on the Teaching Behaviors Inventory created by Harry Murray at the University of Western Ontario. B. How enthusiastic are YOU? “Go with your cousin Courage and his sister Success will not be far behind.” How We Learn 4
  • 5. By ALISON GOPNIK New York Times: Published: January 16, 2005 o here's the big question: if children who don't even go to school learn so easily, why do children who go to school seem to have such a hard time? Why can children solve problems that challenge computers but stumble on a third-grade reading test? When we talk about learning, we really mean two quite different things, the process of discovery and of mastering what one discovers. All children are naturally driven to create an accurate picture of the world and, with the help of adults to use that picture to make predictions, formulate explanations, imagine alternatives and design plans. Call it ''guided discovery.'' If this kind of learning is what we have in mind then one answer to the big question is that schools don't teach the same way children learn. As in the gear-and-switch experiments, children seem to learn best when they can explore the world and interact with expert adults. For example, Barbara Rogoff, professor of psychology at the University of California at Santa Cruz, studied children growing up in poor Guatemalan Indian villages. The youngsters gradually mastered complex skills like preparing tortillas from scratch, beginning with the 2-year-old mimicking the flattening of dough to the 10-year-old entrusted with the entire task. They learned by watching adults, trying themselves and receiving detailed corrective feedback about their efforts. Mothers did a careful analysis of what the child was capable of before encouraging the next step. This may sound like a touchy-feely progressive prescription. But a good example of such teaching in our culture is the stern but beloved baseball coach. How many school teachers are as good at essay writing, science or mathematics as the average coach is at baseball? And even when teachers are expert, how many children ever get to watch them work through writing an essay or designing a scientific experiment or solving an unfamiliar math problem? Imagine if baseball were taught the way science is taught in most inner-city schools. Schoolchildren would get lectures about the history of the World Series. High school students would occasionally reproduce famous plays of the past. Nobody would get in the game themselves until graduate school. But there is another side to the question. In guided discovery -- figuring out how the world works or unravelling the structure of making tortillas -- children learn to solve new problems. But what is expected in school, at least in part, involves a very different process: call it ''routinized learning.'' Something already learned is made to be second nature, so as to perform a skill effortlessly and quickly. The two modes of learning seem to involve different underlying mechanisms and even different brain regions, and the ability to do them develops at different stages. Babies are as good at discovery as the smartest adult -- or better. But routinized learning evolves later. There may even be brain changes that help. There are also tradeoffs: Children seem to learn new things more easily than adults. But especially through the school-age years, knowledge becomes more and more engrained and automatic. For that reason, it also becomes harder to change. In a sense, routinized learning is less about getting smarter than getting stupider: it's about perfecting mindless procedures. This frees attention and thought for new discoveries. The activities that promote mastery may be different from the activities that promote discovery. What makes knowledge automatic is what gets you to Carnegie Hall -- practice, practice, practice. In some settings, like the Guatemalan village, this happens naturally: make tortillas every day and you'll get good at it. In our culture, children rich and poor grow highly skilled at video games they play for hours. But in school we need to acquire unnatural skills like reading and writing. These are meaningless in themselves. There is no intrinsic discovery in learning artificial mapping between visual symbols and sounds, and in the natural environment no one would ever think of looking for that sort of mapping. On 5
  • 6. the other hand, mastering these skills is absolutely necessary, allowing us to exercise our abilities for discovery in a wider world. The problem for many children in elementary school may not be that they're not smart enough but that they're not stupid enough. They haven't yet been able to make reading and writing transparent and automatic. This is particularly true for children who don't have natural opportunities to practice these skills, learning in chaotic and impoverished schools and leading chaotic and impoverished lives. But routinized learning is not an end in itself. A good coach may well make his players throw the ball to first base 50 times or swing again and again in the batting cage. That will help, but by itself it won't make a strong player. The game itself -- reacting to different pitches, strategizing about base running -- requires thought, flexibility and inventiveness. Children would never tolerate baseball if all they did was practice. No coach would evaluate a child, and no society would evaluate a coach, based on performance in the batting cage. What makes for learning is the right balance of both learning processes, allowing children to retain their native brilliance as they grow up. Alison Gopnik is co-author of ''The Scientist in the Crib'' and professor of psychology at the University of California at Berkeley. It's Not How Smart You Are - It's How You Are Smart! 6
  • 7. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences What parent can not see gleaming rays of genius in their child? And yet, how many children come to school and demonstrate their own unique genius? There was a time when it might have been a joke to suggest "Every parent thinks their kid's a genius." But research on human intelligence is suggesting that the joke may be on educators! There is a constant flow of new information on how the human brain operates, how it differs in function between genders, how emotions impact on intellectual acuity, even on how genetics and environment each impact our children’s' cognitive abilities. While each area of study has its merits, Howard Gardner of Harvard University has identified different KINDS of intelligence we possess. This has particularly strong ramifications in the classroom, because if we can identify children's different strengths among these intelligences, we can accommodate different children more successfully according to their orientation to learning. Thus far Gardner has identified nine intelligences. He speculates that there may be many more yet to be identified. Time will tell. These are the paths to children's learning teachers can address in their classrooms right now. Teachers are now working on assimilating this knowledge into their strategies for helping children learn. While it is too early to tell all the ramifications for this research, it is clear that the day is past where educators teach the text book and it is the dawn of educators teaching each child according to their orientation to the world. By Walter McKenzie copyright 1999 Walter McKenzie The Nine Types of Intelligence 7
  • 8. • VISUAL/SPATIAL - children who learn best visually and organizing things spatially. They like to see what you are talking about in order to understand. They enjoy charts, graphs, maps, tables, illustrations, art, puzzles, costumes - anything eye catching. • VERBAL/LINGUISTIC - children who demonstrate strength in the language arts: speaking, writing, reading, and listening. These students have always been successful in traditional classrooms because their intelligence lends itself to traditional teaching. • MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL - children who display an aptitude for numbers, reasoning and problem solving. This is the other half of the children who typically do well in traditional classrooms where teaching is logically sequenced and students are asked to conform. • BODILY/KINESTHETIC - children who experience learning best through activity: games, movement, hands-on tasks, building. These children were often labeled "overly active" in traditional classrooms where they were told to sit and be still! • MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC - children who learn well through songs, patterns, rhythms, instruments and musical expression. It is easy to overlook children with this intelligence in traditional education. • INTRAPERSONAL - children who are especially in touch with their own feelings, values and ideas. They may tend to be more reserved, but they are actually quite intuitive about what they learn and how it relates to them. • INTERPERSONAL - children who are noticeably people oriented and outgoing, and do their learning cooperatively in groups or with a partner. These children may have typically been identified as "talkative" or " too concerned about being social" in a traditional setting. • NATURALIST - children who love the outdoors, animals, field trips. More than this, though, these students love to pick up on subtle differences in meanings. The traditional classroom has not been accommodating to these children. • EXISTENTIALIST - children who learn in the context of where humankind stands in the "big picture" of existence. They ask "Why are we here?" and "What is our role in the world?" This intelligence is seen in the discipline of philosophy. By Walter McKenzie copyright 1999 Walter McKenzie Gardner’s Eight Criteria for Identifying Intelligence 8
  • 9. 1. Isolation of Brain Function - as medicine studies isolated brain functions through cases of brain injury and degenerative disease; we are able to identify actual physiological locations for specific brain functions. A true intelligence will have its function identified in a specific location in the human brain. 2. Prodigies, Idiot Savants and Exceptional Individuals - human record of genius, such as, Mozart being able to perform on the piano at the age of four and Dustin Hoffman's "Rainman" character being able to calculate dates accurately down to the day of the week indicate that there are specific human abilities which can demonstrate themselves to high degrees in unique cases. Highly developed examples of a true intelligence are rare occurrences. 3. Set of Core Operations - there is an identifiable set of procedures and practices which is unique to each of the true intelligences. 4. Developmental History with an Expert End Performance - as clinical psychologists continue to study the developmental stages of human growth and learning, a clear pattern of developmental history of the human mind is being documented. A true intelligence has an identifiable set of stages of growth with a Mastery Level which exists as an end state in human development. We can see examples of people who have reached the Mastery level in each of the intelligences. 5. Evolutionary History - as cultural anthropologists continue to study the history of human evolution, there is adequate evidence that our species has developed intelligence over time through human experience. A true intelligence can have its development traced through the evolution of Homosapiens. 6. Supported Psychological Tasks - clinical psychologists can identify sets of tasks for different domains of human behaviour. A true intelligence can be identified by specific tasks which can be carried out, observed and measured. 7. Supported Psychometric Tasks - the use of psychometric instruments to measure intelligence (such as I.Q. tests) have traditionally been used to measure only specific types of ability. However, these tests can be designed and used to identify and quantify true unique intelligences. The Multiple Intelligence theory does not reject psychometric testing for specific scientific study. 8. Encoded into a Symbol System - humans have developed many kinds of symbol systems over time for varied disciplines. A true intelligence has its own set of images it uses which are unique to it and are important in completing its identified set of tasks. Remember, everyone has ALL the intelligences. The intelligences are not mutually exclusive - they act in consort. MI Theory was not developed to exclude individuals, but to allow all people to contribute to society through there own strengths! -Walter McKenzie Learning Styles and Your Students 9
  • 10. Summary by William M. Tweedie, adapted from a variety of sources If you've ever watched a group of students interact, you've probably noticed that different students like to do different things. Why is this? Many educators and student psychologists believe that each student has a particular learning style that affects how he or she most effectively interacts with the world to learn and grow. Knowing the learning styles of your students can help you choose activities that will help your students learn and grow most effectively. The study of Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences (Frames of Mind - Gardner, 1983) is still developing and there are different interpretations of the two concepts and the relationship between them. For now, it is important to simply recognize that not everybody learns or acquires a second language through a single method or set of techniques. The following summary presents ideas accepted by most educators. Learning Styles: What They Are Simply put, a learning style is the preferred way a person acquires knowledge. It is not what a person learns, but how a person learns. A student’s learning style is a reflection of the development of his intelligences at any given moment. Eight different intelligences have been identified through the work of Howard Gardner. Although we are capable of using them all, it seems most of us rely on only one or two. As a result, we develop our own particular approach to learning (and in many cases to teaching) based on our favoured learning style(s). Educators and psychologists commonly define the eight different learning styles as follows: Verbal - Linguistic - Linguistic learners relate to language in both its written and spoken form. They learn best through poetry, storytelling, grammar, abstract reasoning, metaphors, similes, etc. Logical - Mathematical - Logical-mathematical learners focus on different types of reasoning and logic. They like to make observations, draw conclusions, make judgments, and formulate hypotheses. Visual - Spatial - Spatial learners like to deal with visualization and imagery. Students with this learning style learn well through painting, drawing, sculpturing, designing, etc. Intrapersonal - Intrapersonal learners focus on situations that require them to reflect upon themselves. They like higher-order thinking and reasoning, self-reflection, spirituality, and the awareness and expression of feelings. Interpersonal - Interpersonal learners engage in verbal and nonverbal communication with others. They learn best when working in groups cooperatively, reacting to others' moods and feelings, and understanding the perspective of others. Bodily - Kinaesthetic - Bodily Kinaesthetic learners like physical movement. They learn well when involved in physical exercise and in forms of expression like dance, mime, drama, or role-playing. Musical - Rhythmical - Musical learners have the capacity to recognize rhythm and tone patterns, and sensitivity to sounds from the human voice and musical instruments. They like to interact with music. Naturalist/Environmental - A relatively new category of style, the outdoor learner is inspired to learn in natural surroundings. Their curiosity is aroused by the earth’s physical characteristics and beauty. Verbal - Linguistic - Linguistic learners relate to language in both its written and spoken form. They learn best through poetry, storytelling, grammar, abstract reasoning, metaphors, similes, etc. Learning Styles: How to Use Them Understanding that your students’ have individual learning styles can help you support what they do in the classroom. By providing activities that suit their learning styles, you provide optimum opportunities for them to learn. For example, you might want to teach mathematical concepts in ways best suited to your students’ learning styles. If a student is a more musical learner, singing number songs might be useful. 10
  • 11. Linguistic learners might best learn mathematical concepts from stories in which numbers figure prominently. Interpersonal learners might benefit from more social activities such as cooking from a recipe. Once you recognize (ideally, through formal analysis as well as informal observation) a variety of the learning styles in your students, provide activities that will reinforce them. In doing so, it will be important to show how things related to their careers are evident in all sorts of different activities, including music, art, and literature. In that way you can ensure that your students’ interests are tapped and still focus on important educational points. Learning Styles: Things to Think About As you start to think about your students’ learning styles, you might want to keep these points in mind: Your students may have several different learning styles that work best for each of them. Although a particular learning style may be dominant in any individual or group of students, it is still important that you provide a variety of activities. In that way, you will continue to develop their other intelligences and aspects of personalities. Learning styles can be used both to teach and reinforce concepts. Try using one approach to teach your students a concept, and then use a different one to reinforce it. For example, you might want to use a linguistic approach, such as a story, to teach the vocabulary or idea of some aspect of their career studies or other interests, and then have your students draw a picture that reflects the concept in art. Regardless of your students’ ages and ability levels, your course content and objectives, or the focus of an individual lesson, it is important to keep in mind the fact that everyone of us has a different style or combination of styles that best facilitates learning anything. As language is such a vital personal tool linked directly with our emotional and psychological selves, having the awareness of and doing your best to accommodate your students’ learning styles is perhaps more important for you as language learning facilitators than for ‘teachers’ of other subjects. What These Learners Like to Do, Are Good At, What Works For Them The Linguistic Learner likes to: read, write and tell stories; is good at: memorizing names, places, dates and trivia; learns best by: saying, hearing and seeing words. Logical/Mathematical Learner likes to: do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask questions and explore patterns and relationships; is good at: math, reasoning, logic and problem solving; learns best by: categorizing, classifying and working with abstract patterns/relationships. Spatial Learner likes to: draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at pictures/slides, watch movies and play with machines; is good at: imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles and reading maps, charts; learns best by: visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye and working with colors/pictures. Musical Learner likes to: sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument and respond to music; is good at: picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms and keeping time; learns best by: rhythm, melody and music. Bodily/Kinaesthetic Learner likes to: move around, touch and talk and use body language; is good at: physical activities (sports/dance/acting) and crafts; learns best by: touching, moving, interacting with space and processing knowledge through bodily sensations. Naturalistic Learner likes to: be outside, with animals, geography, and whether; interacting with the surroundings; is good at: categorizing, organizing a living area, planning a trip, preservation, and conservation; learns best by: studying natural phenomenon, in a natural setting, learning about how things work. Interpersonal Learner likes to: have lots of friends, talk to people and join groups; is good at: understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating, manipulating and mediating conflicts; learns best by: sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing. 11
  • 12. Intrapersonal Learner likes to: work alone and pursue own interests; is good at: understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, following instincts, pursuing interests/goals and being original; learns best by: working alone, individualized projects, self-paced instruction and having own space. SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE YOUR LEARNING STYLE: Draw, Write, Calculate, Scribble, Make music, Consider the space, Talk about this space with friends, Plan your next vacation! What are “Multiple Intelligences”? By William M. Tweedie, adapted from a variety of sources 12
  • 13. Multiple Intelligences are eight different intellectual abilities and sets of skills. What are these intellectual abilities and skills? Visual/Spatial Intelligence The ability to perceive the visual: These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies. Their skills include: puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images. Possible Career Paths: Navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence The ability to use words and language: These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures. Their skills include: listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humour, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage. Possible Career Paths: Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator Logical/Mathematical Intelligence The ability to use reason, logic and numbers: These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learners ask lots of questions and like to do experiments. Their skills include: problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes Possible Career Paths: Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians Bodily/Kinaesthetic Intelligence The ability to control body movements and handle objects skilfully: These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (E.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information. Their skills include: Dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body Possible Career Paths: Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence 13
  • 14. The ability to produce and/or appreciate music: These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps). Their skills include: Singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music Possible Career Paths: Musician, disc jockey, singer, composer Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to relate to and understand others: These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation. They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others. Their skills include: seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counselling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non- verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people. Possible Career Paths: Counsellor, salesperson, politician, business person Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being: These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses. Their Skills include: Recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others Possible Career Paths: Researchers, theorists, philosophers Environmental/Naturalistic Intelligence The ability to appreciate and learn from the environment and nature: These learners have the ability to understand and appreciate the physical properties and wonders of the natural world. Their Skills include: Geography - categorizing animals, plants, rocks, etc. They understand and organize for conservation and preservation. They are usually very aware of the relationships between people and the environment. Possible Career Paths: Forest rangers, meteorologists, conservationists, biologists, geologists New and Emerging Theories of Intelligence 14
  • 15. Originally prepared by: Kristin Garrigan and Jonathan Plucker (fall 2001) Revised Indiana State University: Introduction You cannot pick up a magazine today without seeing an article regarding intelligence or intelligences. The study of intelligence has proved to be a continuously evolving, dynamic field, with the breadth of the field expanding rapidly over the past 25 - 30 years. Many individuals, such as Gardner, Naglieri, and Goleman, argue that our view of human intelligence is far too narrow, leading the way to an expanded view of what intelligence is and what constitutes an intelligence. Several of the new and emerging intelligences are noted in the following sections. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences In the early 1980s, Howard Gardner opened the window to multiple intelligences (MI). Prof. Gardner claimed that MI theory illuminates the fact that humans exist in a multitude of contexts and that these contexts both call for and nourish different arrays and assemblies of intelligence. Many psychologists have expounded on this notion and today the number of quantifiable intelligences extends beyond that of Gardner's initial seven multiple intelligences. Sternberg's Conceptions Robert J. Sternberg has devoted much of his career to the study of various conceptions of human intelligence. Starting with his Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (Sternberg, 1985), he has expanded on his view of human ability and success. Successful intelligence is defined as that set of mental abilities used to achieve one's goals in life, given a socio-cultural context, through adaptation to, selection of, and shaping of environments. Successful intelligence involves three aspects that are interrelated but largely distinct: analytical, creative, and practical thinking (Sternberg, 1998). Practical Intelligence is the ability to size up a situation well, to be able to determine how to achieve goals, to display awareness to the world around you, and to display interest in the world at large (Sternberg, 1990; Sternberg et al., 2000; Wagner, 2000). Prof. Sternberg is working on several projects that examine the interrelation of his various conceptions of ability in applied settings. Moral Intelligence Moral Intelligence is the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. Broadly conceived, moral intelligence represents the ability to make sound decisions that benefit not only yourself, but others around you (Coles, 1997; Hass, 1998). Social Intelligence Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand other people: what motivates them, how they work, how to work cooperatively with them. Successful salespeople, politicians, teachers, clinicians, and religious leaders are all likely to be individuals with high degrees of interpersonal intelligence. At the same time, social intelligence probably draws on specific internal (Gardner would say intrapersonal) abilities. For example, in a recent study of incompetence, Kruger and Dunning (1999) found that incompetent people assessed themselves as being highly competent. This lack of ability to self-assess may be due to a combination of internal (poor metacognition) and external factors (poor ability to compare oneself to others). Social intelligence appears to be receiving the most attention in the management and organizational psychology literatures (e.g., Hough, 2001; Riggio, Murphy, & Pirozzolo, 2002). Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence, on the other hand, "is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to 15
  • 16. guide one's thinking and actions" (Mayer & Salovey, 1993, p. 433). According to Goleman (1995), "Emotional intelligence, the skills that help people harmonize, should become increasingly valued as a workplace asset in the years to come." (p. 160). EL may subsume Gardner's inter- and intrapersonal intelligences, and involves abilities that may be categorized into five domains (Salovey & Mayer, 1990): • Self-awareness: Observing yourself and recognizing a feeling as it happens. • Managing emotions: Handling feelings so that they are appropriate; realizing what is behind a feeling; finding ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger, and sadness. • Motivating oneself: Channelling emotions in the service of a goal; emotional self control; delaying gratification and stifling impulses. • Empathy: Sensitivity to others' feelings and concerns and taking their perspective; appreciating the differences in how people feel about things. • Handling relationships: Managing emotions in others; social competence and social skills. Additional perspectives on EI are available in Bar-On and Parker (2000). Summary In this Hot Topic, we attempted to provide a brief overview of the major categories of new and emerging conceptions of intelligences. This list is not meant to be exhaustive, and we refer interested readers to the recent special issue of the journal, Roeper Review (April 2001), which addressed these and other new conceptions. References Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (Eds.) (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Coles, R. (1997). The moral intelligence of children: How to raise a moral child. New York: NAL/Dutton. Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267-285. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences. New York: BasicBooks. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Hass, A. (1998). Doing the right thing: Cultivating your moral intelligence. New York: Hardcover. Hough, L. M. (2001). I/Owes its advances to personality. In B. W. Roberts & R. Hogan (Eds.), Personality psychology in the workplace. Decade of behaviour (pp. 19-44). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121-1134. Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442. Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., & Pirozzolo, F. J. (Eds.). (2002). Multiple intelligences and leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 16
  • 17. Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211. Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Principles of teaching for successful intelligence. Educational Psychologist, 33, 65-71. Sternberg, R. J. (1990). Handbook of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sternberg, R. J., Forsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J. A., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., Snook, S. A., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wagner, R. K. (2000). Practical intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 380-395). New York: Cambridge University Press. Prepared by Kristin Garrigan and Jonathan Plucker. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Originally prepared by: Kristin Garrigan and Jonathan Plucker (fall 2001) Revised Indiana State University: Development of MI Theory 17
  • 18. After years of research, Howard Gardner proposed a new theory and definition of intelligence in his 1983 book entitled Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. The basic question he sought to answer was: Is intelligence a single thing or various independent intellectual faculties? Gardner is Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He also holds an adjunct faculty post in psychology at Harvard and in neurology at Boston University School of Medicine. He is best known for his work in the area of Multiple Intelligences, which has been a career-long pursuit to understand and describe the construct of intelligence (Gardner, 1999a; Project Zero Website, 2000). Gardner describes his work with two distinct populations as the inspiration for his theory of Multiple Intelligences. Early in his career, he began studying stroke victims suffering from aphasia at the Boston University Aphasia Research Center and working with children at Harvard's Project Zero, a laboratory designed to study the cognitive development of children and its associated educational implications (Gardner, 1999a). In Intelligence Reframed, Gardner states, Both of the populations I was working with were clueing me into the same message: that the human mind is better thought of as a series of relatively separate faculties, with only loose and unpredictable relations with one another, than as a single, all-purpose machine that performs steadily at a certain horsepower, independent of content and context. (p.32) Gardner concluded from his work with these two populations that strength in one area of performance did not reliably predict comparable strength in another area. With this intuitive conclusion in mind, Gardner set about studying intelligence in a systematic, multi-disciplinary, and scientific manner, drawing from psychology, biology, neurology, sociology, anthropology, and the arts and humanities. This resulted in the emergence of his Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI Theory) as presented in Frames of Mind (1983). Since the publication of that work, Gardner and others have continued to research the theory and its implications for education in general, curriculum development, teaching, and assessment. For the purposes of this Hot Topic, the focus will be on a description of the theory, major criticisms, and the implications for assessment. Definition of MI Theory According to Gardner (1999a), intelligence is much more than IQ because a high IQ in the absence of productivity does not equate to intelligence. In his definition, "Intelligence is a bio- psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture" (p.34). Consequently, instead of intelligence being a single entity described psychometrically with an IQ score, Gardner's definition views it as many things. He endeavoured to define intelligence in a much broader way than psychometricians. Gardner established several criteria to achieve this goal (1983; 1999a). In identifying capabilities to be considered for one of the "multiple intelligences" the construct under consideration had to meet several criteria rather than resting on the results of a narrow psychometric approach. To qualify as ”intelligence" the particular capacity under study was considered from multiple perspectives consisting of eight specific criteria drawn from the biological sciences, logical analysis, developmental psychology, experimental psychology, and psychometrics. The criteria to consider "candidate intelligences" (Gardner, 1999a, p. 36) are: 1) the potential for brain isolation by brain damage, 2) its place in evolutionary history, 3) the presence of core operations, 4) susceptibility to encoding, 5) a distinct developmental progression, 6) the existence of idiot-savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, 7) support from experimental psychology, and 8) support from psychometric findings (Gardner, 1999a). 18
  • 19. To illustrate the specifics of these criteria, a brief description and example of each is provided. The potential for brain isolation by brain damage means that one "candidate intelligence" (Gardner 1999a, p.36) can be dissociated from others. This criterion came from Gardner's work in neuropsychology. For example, stroke patients who are left with some forms of "intelligence" intact despite damage to other cognitive abilities such as speech. From an evolutionary perspective, the candidate intelligence has to have played a role in the development of our species and its ability to cope with the environment. In this case, Gardner (1999a) uses inference to conclude that spatial abilities were critical to the survival of our species. Early hominids had to be able to navigate diverse terrains using spatial abilities. The pressure of the environment then resulted in selection for this ability. Both of these criteria emerged from the biological sciences. From the perspective of logical analysis, an intelligence must have an identifiable core set of operations. Acknowledging the fact that specific intelligences operate in the context of the environment, Gardner (1999a) argues that it is crucial to specify the capacities that are central to the intelligence under consideration. For example, linguistic intelligence consists of core operations such as recognition and discrimination of phonemes, command of syntax and acquisition of word meanings. In the area of musical intelligence, the core operations are pitch, rhythm, timbre, and harmony. Another criterion related to logical analysis states that an intelligence must be susceptible to encoding in a symbol system. According to Gardner, (1999a) symbol systems are developed versus occurring naturally, and their purpose is to accurately and systematically convey information that is culturally meaningful. Some examples of encoding include written and spoken language, mathematical systems, logical equations, maps, charts and drawings. Gardner (1999a) established two criteria from developmental psychology. The first is the presence of a developmental trajectory for the particular ability toward an expert end-state. In other words, individuals do not necessarily exhibit their "intelligence" in its raw state. Rather, they prepare to use their intelligence by passing through a developmental process. Thus, people who want to be mathematicians or physicists, spend years studying and honing their logical/mathematical abilities in a distinctive and socially relevant way. The second criteria borrowed from the discipline of developmental psychology, is the existence of idiot-savants, prodigies and exceptional people. Gardner (1999a) refers to these as accidents of nature that allow researchers to observe the nature of a particular intelligence in great contrast to other average or impaired abilities. One example of this type of highlighted intelligence is the autistic person who excels at numerical calculations or musical performance. Finally, Gardner (1999a) draws his last two criteria from traditional psychology and psychometrics to determine if candidate intelligence makes it onto the list of specific abilities he calls Multiple Intelligences. There must be support from experimental psychology that indicates the extent to which two operations are related or different. Observing subjects who are asked to carry out two activities simultaneously can help determine if those activities rely on the same mental capacities or different ones. For example, a person engaged in working a crossword puzzle is unlikely to be able to carry on a conversation effectively, because both tasks demand the attention of linguistic intelligence, which creates interference. Whereas, the absence of this sort of competition allows a person to be able to walk and converse at the same time suggesting that two different intelligences are engaged. In spite of the fact that Gardner proposed his theory in opposition to psychometrics, he recognizes the importance of acknowledging psychometric data (1999a). Gardner (1983; 1999a) defined seven intelligences using the preceding eight criteria. Logical- mathematical intelligence is the ability to detect patterns, think logically, reason deductively and carry out mathematical operations. Linguistic intelligence involves the mastery of spoken and written language to express oneself or remember things. These first two forms of intelligence are typically the abilities that contribute to strong performance in traditional school environments and to producing high scores on most IQ measures or tests of achievement. Spatial intelligence involves the potential for recognizing and manipulating the patterns of both wide spaces such as those negotiated by pilots or navigators, and confined spaces such as those encountered by sculptors, architects or championship chess players. Musical intelligence consists of the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, rhythms, and patterns and to use them for performance or composition. Bodily- Kinaesthetic intelligence involves the use of parts of the body or the whole body to solve problems or 19
  • 20. create products. Athletes, dancers, surgeons and craftspeople are likely to have highly developed capacity in this area. The last two intelligences are the personal intelligences: interpersonal and intrapersonal. Interpersonal intelligence indicates a person's ability to recognize the intentions, feelings and motivations of others. People who possess and develop this quality are likely to work well with others and may choose fields like sales, teaching, counselling or politics in order to use them. Intrapersonal intelligence is described as the ability to understand oneself and use that information to regulate one's own life. According to Gardner each of these seven "intelligences" has a specific set of abilities that can be observed and measured (1999a, 1983). More recently, Gardner (1998) has nominated three additional candidate intelligences: Naturalist, Spiritual and Existential intelligence and evaluated them in the context of the eight criteria he established in his research and outlined earlier in this paper. He defines a naturalist as a person "who demonstrates expertise in recognition and classification of the numerous species - the flora and fauna - of her or his environment." (1998, p. 115). Gardner is comfortable with declaring that a Naturalist intelligence meets the criteria he set forth, however he is less sure about how to define and incorporate Spiritual and Existential intelligences. "…the monopoly of those who believe in a single general intelligence has come to an end." (Gardner, 1999a, p.203) Criticism of MI Theory When reviewing criticism of Multiple Intelligences theory, addressing the historically ever-present question of whether intelligence is one thing or many things is unavoidable. The fundamental criticism of MI theory is the belief by scholars that each of the seven multiple intelligences is in fact a cognitive style rather than a stand-alone construct (Morgan, 1996). Morgan, (1996) refers to Gardner's approach of describing the nature of each intelligence with terms such as abilities, sensitivities, skills and abilities as evidence of the fact that the "theory" is really a matter of semantics rather than new thinking on multiple constructs of intelligence and resembles earlier work by factor theorists of intelligence like L.L. Thurstone who argued that a single factor (g) cannot explain the complexity of human intellectual activity. According to Morgan (1996), identifying these various abilities and developing a theory that supports the many factors of intelligence has been a significant contribution to the field. Furthermore, he believes that MI theory has proven beneficial to schools and teachers and it may help explain why students do not perform well on standardized tests but it in Morgan's opinion it does not warrant the complete rejection of g. Gardner (1995) admittedly avoided addressing criticism of his theory for nearly a decade after the publication of Frames of Mind. However, in a 1995 article that appeared in Phi Delta Kappan he responds to several "myths" about the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. These myths provide a summary of the major commentary on and criticism of Gardner's theory. The first myth is that if there are seven intelligences we must be able to measure them with seven specific tests. Gardner is vocal about his disdain for a singularly psychometric approach to measuring intelligence based on paper and pencil tests. Secondly, he responds to the belief that an intelligence is the same as a domain or a discipline. Gardner reiterates his definition of an intelligence and distinguishes it from a domain which he describes as a culturally relevant, organized set of activities characterized by a symbol system and a set of operations. For example, dance performance is a domain that relies on the use of bodily- kinaesthetic and musical intelligence (Gardner, 1995). Other criticisms include the notion that MI theory is not empirical, is incompatible with inheritability, and environmental influences, and broadens the construct of intelligence so widely as to render it meaningless. Gardner (1995) staunchly defends the empiricism of the theory by referring to the numerous laboratory and field data that contributed to its development and the ongoing re- conceptualization of the theory based on new scientific data. Regarding the claim that Multiple Intelligences theory cannot accommodate g, Gardner argues that g has a scientific place in intelligence theory but that he is interested in understanding intellectual processes that are not explained by g. In response to the criticism that MI theory is incompatible with genetic or environmental accounts of the nature of intelligence, Gardner states that his theory is most concerned with the interaction between genetics and the environment in understanding intelligence. Finally, the notion that MI theory has expanded the definition of intelligence beyond utility produces a strong reaction from Gardner. He argues passionately that the narrow definition of intelligence as equal to 20
  • 21. scholastic performance is simply too constrictive. In his view, MI theory is about the intellectual and cognitive aspects of the human mind. Gardner is careful to point out that MI theory is not a theory of personality, morality, motivation, or any other psychological construct (1995, 1999a, 1999b). Implications for Assessment The two most widely used standardized tests of intelligence are the Wechsler scales and the Stanford-Binet. Both instruments are psychometrically sound, but Gardner believes that these tests measure only linguistic and logical/mathematical intelligences, with a narrow focus within content in those domains. According to Gardner, the current psychometric approach for measuring intelligence is not sufficient. In his view, assessment must cast a wider net to measure human cognitive abilities more accurately. Gardner (1993) proposes several improvements for the development of intelligence measures. Before enumerating those improvements, it is important to understand how Gardner defines assessment. In his view, the purpose of assessment should be to obtain information about the skills and potentials of individuals, and provide useful feedback to the individuals and the community at large. Furthermore, Gardner (1993) draws a distinction between testing and assessment. Assessment elicits information about an individual's abilities in the context of actual performance rather than by proxy using formal instruments in a de-contextualized setting. Gardner argues for making assessment a natural part of the learning environment. Assessment is then built into the learning situation much like the constant assessment of skills that occurs in apprenticeship or the self-assessment that occurs in experts who have internalized a standard of performance based on the earlier guidance of teachers. The ecological validity of assessment is also at issue according to Gardner (1993). Predictive validity of traditional intelligence tests may be psychometrically sound, but its usefulness beyond predicting school performance is questionable. Therefore, prediction could be improved if assessments more closely approximated real working conditions. Instruments for measuring intelligence should also be "intelligence-fair" (1993, p.176). Consequently, we need to reduce the bias toward measuring intelligence through logical/mathematical and linguistic abilities and move toward looking more directly at a specific intelligence in operation (e.g., assessing for spatial intelligence by having an individual navigate his or her way around unfamiliar territory). Gardner acknowledges that this approach to assessment may be difficult to implement. Gardner (1993) emphasizes two additional points about assessment that are critical. The first is that the assessment of intelligence should encompass multiple measures. Relying on a single IQ score from a WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) without substantiating the findings through other data sources does the individual examinee a disservice and produces insufficient information for those who provide interventions. Secondly, all assessments and resulting interventions must be sensitive to individual differences and developmental levels. Finally, Gardner is in favour of assessment for the primary purpose of helping students rather than classifying or ranking them. While these views about assessment are intuitively sensible, Sternberg (1991) argues that the naturalistic approach is a "psychometric nightmare" (p. 266). Quantifying performance on these sorts of assessments is difficult, objectivity is questionable, and cultural bias is still a problem. Hard data is the scientific "gold standard" and psychometric soundness is a prerequisite. Therefore, Sternberg (1991) hesitates endorsing this approach to assessment on the basis that we would simply be replacing one flawed system of measurement with an approach that is equally problematic. Recent research on MI Theory-based assessments provides evidence in support of Sternberg's concern about psychometric quality (e.g., Plucker, Callahan, & Tomchin, 1996). Future Research Directions The future research agenda for MI Theory and intelligence is likely to encompass a multidisciplinary approach. While intelligence is usually researched through the lens of psychology, future discoveries are likely to come from the cross-pollination of ideas in neuroscience, cellular biology, genetics, and anthropology to name a few (1999a). Gardner (1999a) also favours gathering ethnographic data and cross-cultural information to see intelligence in action and in context. The use of information processing techniques and computer simulations is another relevant approach for gaining new insight 21
  • 22. into human intellectual capacities. At this point in history, the study of intelligence has moved well beyond the realm of psychometrics. As Gardner (1999a) writes, "The theory of multiple intelligences has helped break the psychometricians’ century long stranglehold on the subject of intelligence." (p. 203) References Gardner, H. (1999a). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1999b, February). Who owns intelligence? Atlantic Monthly, 67-76. Gardner, H. (1998). Are there additional intelligences? The case for naturalist, spiritual, and existential intelligences In J. Kane (Ed.), Education, information, and transformation (pp. 111-131) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall. Gardner, H. (1995). Reflections on multiple intelligences Phi Delta Kappan, 77(3), 200-208. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Morgan, H. (1996). An analysis of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences Roeper Review 18, 263-270 Plucker, J., Callahan, C. M., & Tomchin, E. M. (1996) Wherefore art thou, multiple intelligences? Alternative assessments for identifying talent in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged students Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 81-92 Sternberg, R. J. (1991). Death, taxes and bad intelligence tests Intelligence, 15, 257-269 (2000). Biographical data on Howard Gardner Principle Investigators, Project Zero Website. (1999). NEA Today Online, Meet Howard Gardner: All kinds of smarts. Prepared and submitted for the intelligence website by Lynn Gilman, M.S. Variations of Thinking Styles (Excerpts from Sternberg, 1997) The following are brief excerpts from the book "Thinking Styles" by Robert J. Sternberg. Readers are encouraged to read the book for detailed coverage of thinking styles, and of the "Theory of Mental Self-Government." PRINCIPLES OF THINKING STYLES  Styles are preferences in the use of abilities, not abilities themselves.  A match between styles and abilities creates synergy that is more than the sum of its parts.  Life choices need to fit styles as well as abilities.  People have profiles (or patterns) of styles, not just a single style.  Styles are variable across tasks and situations.  People differ in the strength of their preferences. 22
  • 23.  People differ in there stylistic flexibility.  Styles are socialized.  Styles can vary across the life span.  Styles are measurable.  Styles are teachable.  Styles valued at one time may not be valued at another.  Styles valued in one place may not be valued in another.  Styles, on average, are not good or bad -- it's a question of fit.  We confuse stylistic fit with levels of ability. FUNCTIONS OF THINKING STYLES Legislative Style Legislative people like to do things their own way. They like creating, formulating, and having things. In general, they tend to be people who like to make their own rules. Legislative people enjoy doing things the way they do them. They prefer problems that are not restructured for them, but rather that they can structure for themselves. Legislative people also prefer creative and constructive planning-based activities, such as writing papers, design projects, and creating new business or educational systems. Executive Style People with the executive style are implementers: they like to do, and generally prefer to be giving guidance as to what to do or how to do what needs to be done. Executive people also like to enforce rules and laws (their own or others'). Executive people prefer problems that are given to them or structured for them and like to do and take pride in the doers - in getting things done. Executive people tend to gravitate toward occupations that are quite different from those to which legislative people are attracted. Executive people will tend to the valued by organizations that want people to do things in a way that appears to a set of rules or guidelines. Judicial Style People with a judicial style like to evaluate rules and procedures and to judge things. Judicial people also prefer problems in which they can analyze and evaluate things and ideas. They like to judge both structure and content. Legislative and judicial people can work well together in a team. For example, selection procedures tend to be largely judicial, and are well suited to people who like to evaluate. The legislative person may well not be ideal to read the applications and judge them, for lack of interest in dealing with the job the way it should the done. FORMS OF THINKING STYLES Monarchic Style People who are predominantly monarchic style tend to be motivated by a single goal or need at a time. Monarchic people also tend to be single-minded and driven by whatever they are single-minded about. They have a tendency to see things in terms of their issues. Monarchic people often attempt to solve problems, full speed ahead, damn the obstacles. They can be too decisive. Hierarchic Style People with a hierarchic style tend to be motivated by a hierarchy of goals, with the recognition that not all of the goals can be fulfilled equally well and that some goals are more important than others. They thus tend to be priority setters who allocate carefully. They tend to be systematic and organized in their solutions to problems and in their decision making. 23
  • 24. Oligarchic Style In oligarchy, several individuals share power. Individuals with the oligarchic style tend to be motivated by several, often competitive goals of equal perceived importance. They have trouble deciding which goals to give priority to. The result is that they may have trouble allocating resources. Anarchic Style People with an anarchic style tend to be motivated by a wide assortment of needs and goals that are often difficult for others, as well as for themselves, to sort out. They tend to be not so much asystematic as antisystematic. LEVELS, SCOPE, AND LEANINGS OF THINKING STYLES Global Style-Local Style Global people prefer to deal with relatively larger and often abstract issues. They tend to focus on the forest, sometimes at the expense of the trees. Their constant challenge is to stay grounded and not to get lost on cloud nine. Local people prefer to deal with details, sometimes minute ones, and often ones surrounding concrete issues. They tend to focus on the trees, sometimes at the expense of the forest. Their constant challenge is to see the whole forest, and not just its individual elements. Internal Style-External Style People with an internal style tend to be motivated, task-oriented, sometimes aloof, and socially less sensitive than other people. At times they also lack interpersonal awareness, if only because they do not focus on it. People with an external style, in contrast, tend to be more extroverted, people-oriented, outgoing, socially more sensitive, and interpersonally more aware. Liberal Style-Conservative Style Individuals with a liberal style like to go beyond existing rules and procedures and seek to maximize change. They also seek or are at least comfortable with ambiguous situations, and prefer some degree of unfamiliarity in life and work. Individuals with a conservative style like to adhere to existing rules and procedures, minimize change, avoid ambiguous situations where possible, and prefer familiarity in life and work. Matching Teaching Styles with Learning Styles in East Asian Contexts The Internet TESL Journal Vol. VII, No. 7, July 200 Rao Zhenhui Foreign Languages College, Jiangxi Normal University (Nanchang, China) Examples of Mismatches between Teaching and Learning Styles Liu Hong, a third-year English major in Jiangxi Normal University, China, was in David's office again. After failing David's oral English course the previous year, Liu Hong had reenrolled, hoping to pass it this year. Unfortunately, things were not looking promising so far, and she was frustrated. When David asked why she was so unhappy in his class, she said: “I am an introverted, analytic and reflective student. I don't know how to cope with your extroverted, global and impulsive teaching style?" 24
  • 25. Jenny, an American teacher from California, sat in Dean's office again, feeling perplexed by the students' negative responses to her kinaesthetic and global styles of teaching. Despite Jenny's persistent efforts to convince the students of the advantages of her teaching styles, she was told by her Vietnamese colleagues that her attempts were in opposition to the prevalent teaching styles in Vietnam. Jenny had specialized in applied linguistics for a long time and was well trained in the TESOL area in U.S.A. But all of a sudden, it seemed that all her teaching competence and experience had become useless in such a country where she had never been before. Analyzing the Examples The above statements are representative of serious mismatches between the learning styles of students and the teaching style of the instructor. In a class where such a mismatch occurs, the students tend to be bored and inattentive, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the course, and may conclude that they are not good at the subjects of the course and give up (Oxford et al, 1991). Instructors, confronted by low test grades, may become overtly critical of their students or begin to question their own competence as teachers, as exemplified by the Jenny's case above. To reduce teacher-student style conflicts, some researchers in the area of learning styles advocate teaching and learning styles be matched (e.g. Griggs & Dunn, 1984; Smith & Renzulli, 1984; Charkins et al, 1985), especially in foreign language instruction (e.g. Oxford et al, 1991; Wallace & Oxford, 1992). Kumaravadivelu (1991:98) states that: "... the narrower the gap is between teacher intention and learner interpretation, the greater are the chances of achieving desired learning outcomes". There are many indications (e.g. Van Lier, 1996; Breen, 1998) that bridging the gap between teachers' and learners' perceptions plays an important role in enabling students to maximize their classroom experience. Purpose of this Article This article describes ways to make this matching feasible in real-life classroom teaching in East Asian and comparable contexts. The assumption underlying the approach taken here is that the way we teach should be adapted to the way learners from a particular community learn. But before exploring how the teaching styles and learning styles can be matched, let us first examine traditional East Asian students' learning style preferences in dealing with language learning tasks. Traditional East Asian Learning Styles Traditionally, the teaching of EFL in most East Asian countries is dominated by a teacher-centered, book-centered, grammar-translation method and an emphasis on rote memory (Liu & Littlewood, 1997). These traditional language teaching approaches have resulted in a number of typical learning styles in East Asian countries, with introverted learning being one of them. In East Asia, most students see knowledge as something to be transmitted by the teacher rather than discovered by the learners. They, therefore, find it normal to engage in modes of learning which are teacher-centered and in which they receive knowledge rather than interpret it. According to Harshbarger el al (1986), Japanese and Korean students are often quiet, shy and reticent in language classrooms. They dislike public touch and overt displays of opinions or emotions, indicating a reserve that is the hallmark of introverts. Chinese students likewise name "listening to teacher "as their most frequent activity in senior school English classes (Liu & Littlewood, 1997). All these claims are confirmed by a study conducted by Sato (1982), in which she compared the participation of Asian students in the classroom interaction with that of non-Asian students. Sato found that the Asians took significant fewer speaking turns than did their non-Asian classmates (36.5% as opposed to 63.5%). The teacher-centered classroom teaching in East Asia also leads to a closure-oriented style for most East Asian students. These closure-oriented students dislike ambiguity, uncertainty or fuzziness. To avoid these, they will sometimes jump to hasty conclusions about grammar rules or reading themes. Many Asian students, according to Sue and Kirk (1972), are less autonomous, more dependent on authority figures and more obedient and conforming to rules and deadlines. Harshbarger at al (1986) noted that 25
  • 26. Korean students insist that the teacher be the authority and are disturbed if this does not happen. Japanese students often want rapid and constant correction from the teacher and do not feel comfortable with multiple correct answers. That is why Asian students are reluctant to "stand out" by expressing their views or raising questions, particularly if this might be perceived as expressing public disagreement (Song, 1995). Perhaps the most popular East Asian learning styles originated from the traditional book-centered and grammar-translation method are analytic and field-independent. In most of reading classes, for instance, the students read new words aloud, imitating the teacher. The teacher explains the entire text sentence by sentence, analyzing many of the more difficult grammar structures, rhetoric, and style for the students, who listen, take notes, and answer questions. Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995) states that the Chinese, along with the Japanese, are often detail-and precision-oriented, showing some features of the analytic and field-independent styles. They have no trouble picking out significant detail from a welter of background items and prefer language learning strategies that involve dissecting and logically analyzing the given material, searching for contrasts, and finding cause-effect relationship. Another characteristically East Asian learning style is visual learning. In an investigation of sensory learning preferences, Reid (1987) found that Korean, Chinese and Japanese students are all visual learners, with Korean students ranking the strongest. They like to read and obtain a great deal of visual stimulation. For them, lectures, conversations, and oral directions without any visual backup are very confusing and can be anxiety-producing. It is obvious that such visual learning style stems from a traditional classroom teaching in East Asia, where most teachers emphasize learning through reading and tend to pour a great deal of information on the blackboard. Students, on the other hand, sit in rows facing the blackboard and the teacher. Any production of the target language by students is in choral reading or in closely controlled teacher-students interaction (Song, 1995). Thus, the perceptual channels are strongly visual (text and blackboard), with most auditory input closely tied to the written. Closely related to visual, concrete-sequential, analytic and field-independent styles are the thinking- oriented and reflective styles. According to Nelson (1995), Asian students are in general more overtly thinking-oriented than feeling oriented. They typically base judgement on logic and analysis rather than on feelings of others, the emotional climate and interpersonal values. Compared with American students, Japanese students, like most Asians, show greater reflection (Condon, 1984), as shown by the concern for precision and for not taking quick risk in conversation (Oxford et al, 1992). Quite typical is "the Japanese student who wants time to arrive at the correct answer and is uncomfortable when making guess" (Nelson, 1995:16). The Chinese students have also been identified to posses the same type of thinking orientation by Anderson (1993). The final East Asian preferred learning style is concrete-sequential. Students with such a learning style are likely to follow the teacher's guidelines to the letter, to be focused on the present, and demand full information. They prefer language learning materials and techniques that involve combinations of sound, movement, sight, and touch and that can be applied in a concrete, sequential, linear manner. Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995) discovered that Chinese and Japanese are concrete- sequential learners, who use a variety of strategies such as memorization, planning, analysis, sequenced repetition, detailed outlines and lists, structured review and a search for perfection. Many Korean students also like following rules (Harshbarger et al, 1986), and this might be a sign of a concrete-sequential style. It is worth noting that the generalizations made above about learning styles in East Asia do not apply to every representative of all East Asian countries; many individual exceptions of course exist. Nevertheless, these seemingly stereotypical descriptions do have a basis in scientific observation. Worthley (1987) noted that while diversity with any culture is the norm, research shows that individuals within a culture tend to have a common pattern of learning and perception when members of their culture are compared to members of another culture. Matching Teaching Styles with Learning Styles From the descriptions and scientifically observed data reviewed above, it is legitimate to conclude that there exist identifiable learning styles for most East Asian students. We can assume, therefore, that any native English speaker engaged in teaching English to East Asian students is likely to confront a teaching-learning style conflict. This is illustrated by the two examples cited at the very beginning of 26
  • 27. this paper and further confirmed by Reid's (1987) and Melton's (1990) studies. Such style differences between students and teachers consistently and negatively affect student grades (Wallace and Oxford, 1992). It is when students' learning styles are matched with appropriate approaches in teaching that their motivation, performances, and achievements will increase and be enhanced (Brown, 1994). In what follows, I give examples of how teacher's teaching style can be matched with students' learning style in East Asian settings. I obtained these ideas from several sources, including descriptions in books and published articles; responses to a recent questionnaire I sent to selected overseas students from Japan, Korea and China in Australia; and my own teaching experience in China. The approaches are classified in the following categories: 1. Diagnosing learning styles and developing self-aware EFL learners 2. Altering the teaching style to create teacher-student style matching 3. Encouraging changes in students' behaviour and fostering guided style-stretching 4. Providing activities with different groupings Diagnosing Learning Styles and Developing Self-aware EFL Learners Effective matching between teaching styles and learning styles can only be achieved when teachers are, first of all, aware of their learners' needs, capacities, potentials and learning style preferences in meeting these needs. To this end, teachers may use assessment instruments such as the Myers- Briggs Type Indications Survey (Myers and McCaulley, 1985), the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (Keirsey & Bates, 1984) and the Classroom Work Style Survey (Kinsella, 1996). These instruments are sensitive to the kinds of style differences that are affected by culture. Although this kind of assessment is not comprehensive, it does indicate students' preferences and provide constructive feedback about advantages and disadvantages of various styles. Before a survey is administered, the teacher should give a mini-lecture, trying to:  establish interest: what learning styles are  define general terms: for example, survey, questionnaire, perceptual, tally  discuss how learning styles are determined and used by students and teachers  explain how to tally results of surveys  persuade students of the benefits of identifying their learning styles Following the lecture, the teacher can ask students to work in pairs to share notes from the mini- lecture. By doing this, they can expect to further clarify the concept of survey taking and have a more specific idea of what learning styles are. While the pair-work is in process, the teacher should be prepared to answer any questions that may arise. Then, students are ready to complete the questionnaire. If students have questions or need assistance, the teacher can have a mini conference with them individually. Finally, students can start summarizing their individual style results in the survey. The next step is for the teacher to organize a whole-class discussion of the style assessment results. The teacher can write the major learning styles on the blackboard and ask the students to write their names under their major styles in a list. Then, in a full-class discussion, everybody is aware that the class is indeed a mixture of styles and full of similarities and differences in learning style preferences. This discussion helps eliminate some of the potential of a teacher-student "style war" if the teacher talks about his or her own style during this time. I have found students are intensely interested in talking about their own style and the styles of their peers and teachers. When such style discussions are constructive, students' initial interest in self-awareness is rewarded and deepened. Furthermore, based on these style assessment results, the teacher can build classroom community by asking students to find several other students whose major learning style matches their own, and sit in a group with those students. They follow instructions (written on the blackboard or on a transparency) to share their summarized results and analyze those results. This discussion often starts slowly, but it becomes increasingly animated as students discover similarities and differences. In addition, teachers can use the survey results to identify style patterns among various groups of students in their classes, which they should consider when designing learning tasks. 27
  • 28. There are, however, dangers if learning assessment, diagnosis, and prescription are misused. We can, at least, list three shortcomings of existing self-assessment instruments: 1. the instruments are exclusive. (i.e. they focus on certain variables); 2. the students may not self-report accurately; and 3. the students have adapted for so long that they may report on adapted preferences. In order to ensure a reliability of such learning style instruments, Doyle and Rutherford (1984) call for taking into account the nature of the learning tasks, the relationship between teacher and student, and other situational variables. Further, Reid (1987:102) warns: "Both teachers and students involved in identifying and using information on learning styles should proceed with caution and be aware that no single diagnostic instrument can solve all learning problems" For all of these reasons, I recommend using diaries as a supplemental tool. By reflecting the processes that go on inside the writers' minds, they open up fields that are normally not accessible to researchers, and are thus able to provide an important complement to other research tools. Before students start keeping diaries, they should be issued with a set of guidelines about how to keep their diaries and what to look out for. Each student is asked to keep a journal of their reactions to the course, their teachers, their fellow students and any other factors which they consider are having an effort on their learning. Students are told to describe only those events which they think are of interest. Also to be included in the diary are the problems students have found in their encounter with the foreign language, and what they plan to do about it. The language in which these records have to be kept is not necessarily specified, but it is better for them to use the target language. The diaries are collected in at regular intervals, photocopied and then returned immediately to the diarists. The students are assured that the material in their diaries will be treated in full confidentiality. For the analysis of these diaries, Bailey (1990) recommends a five-stage procedure, in which the researcher first edits the diary and then looks for recurring patterns and significant events. Altering the Teaching Style to Create Teacher-Student Style Matching In all academic classrooms, no matter what the subject matter, there will be students with multiple learning styles and students with a variety of major, minor and negative learning styles. An effective means of accommodating these learning styles is for teachers to change their own styles and strategies and provide a variety of activities to meet the needs of different learning styles. Then all students will have at least some activities that appeal to them based on their learning styles, and they are more likely to be successful in these activities. Hinkelman and Pysock (1992), for example, have demonstrated the effectiveness of a multimedia methodology for vocabulary building with Japanese students. This approach is effective in tapping a variety of learning modalities. By consciously accommodating a range of learning styles in the classroom in this way, it is possible to encourage most students to become successful language learners. In addition, EFL teachers in East Asia should consider culturally related style differences as they plan how to teach. Following is a list of activities for East Asian learners that could be tried for each style: Visual learning style preference 1. Read resources for new information. 2. Use handouts with activities. 3. Keep journals of class activities to reinforce vocabulary or new information. 4. Watch an action skit. Write narrative of events. 5. Take notes on a lecture. Outline the notes to reinforce ideas and compare with others. (Melton, 1990:43) Analytic learning style preference 1. Judge whether a sentence is meaningful. If the sentence is not meaningful, the student changes it so that it makes sense. 2. Give students a list of related vocabulary words (such as a list of foods, animals, gifts, etc.) and ask them to rank these words according to their personal preferences. 28
  • 29. 3. Give students questions to which two or three alternative answers are provided. Students' task is to choose one of the alternatives in answering each question. 4. Ask students to express their opinions as to agree or disagree with a given statement. If they disagree, they reword the statement so that it represents their own ideas. The prospect of altering language instruction to somehow accommodate different learning styles might seem forbidding to teachers. This reaction is understandable. Teaching styles are made up of methods and approaches with which teachers feel most comfortable; if they try to change to completely different approaches, they would be forced to work entirely with unfamiliar, awkward, and uncomfortable methods. Fortunately, teachers who wish to address a wide variety of learning styles need not make drastic changes in their instructional approach. Regular use of some the instructional techniques given below should suffice to cover some specified learning style categories in most East Asian countries.  Make liberal use of visuals. Use photographs, drawings, sketches, and cartoons to illustrate and reinforce the meanings of vocabulary words.  Show films, videotapes, and live dramatizations to illustrate lessons in text.  Assign some repetitive drill exercises to provide practice in basic vocabulary and grammar, but don't overdo it.  Do not fill every minute of class time lecturing and writing on the blackboard. Provide intervals for students to think about what they have been told; assign brief writing exercises.  Provide explicit instruction in syntax and semantics to facilitate formal language learning and develop skill in written communication and interpretation. Encouraging Changes in Students' Behaviour and Fostering Guided Style-stretching For example, an important aspect of instructional style for many Korean students might involve weaning them from rote repetition, slowly guiding them into real communication in authentic language situation. An effective instructional style for dealing with many Chinese students might include paying attention to the individual, creating a structured but somewhat informal classroom atmosphere to ease students out of their formality, introducing topics slowly, avoiding embarrassment, and being consistent. The following are examples of teaching activities that guide East Asian students to alter their learning behaviours, stretch their learning styles and enable them to improve their language performance.  Groups of four or five learners are given cards, each with a word on it. Each person describes his word in the foreign language to the others in the group without actually using it. When all students have described their word successfully, the students take the first letter of each and see what new word the letters spell out. (Puzzle parts might also depict objects in a room; in this case, when all the words have been guessed, the group decides which room of the house has been described.)  Class members are placed in pairs or in larger groups. Each student has a blank piece of paper. He listens to his partner or the group leader who has a picture to describe (the teacher can provide the picture or students can choose their own). As his partner describes the picture, the student tries to draw a rough duplicate according to the description he hears. Providing Activities with Different Groupings In a class made up of students with various learning styles and strategies, it is always helpful for the teacher to divide the students into groups by learning styles and give them activities based on their learning styles. This should appeal to them because they will enjoy them and be successful. For example, the group made up of the extroverted may need the chance to express some ideas orally in the presence of one or many class members. On the other hand, the group made up of the introverted may need some encouragement to share ideas aloud and may want the safety of jotting down a few notes first and perhaps sharing with one other person before being invited or expected to participate in a group discussion. In addition to trying style-alike groups for greatest efficiency, the teacher can also use style-varied groups for generating greatest flexibility of styles and behaviours. Teachers should avoid grouping introverts with each other all the time. It is often helpful to include open students and closure-oriented students in the same group; the former will make learning livelier and more fun, while the latter will 29
  • 30. ensure that the task is done on time and in good order. But before students are divided into groups, they should be aware of the divisions and understand what they are doing and why they are doing it. Wu (1983) concludes that Chinese students usually respond well to activities when they realize what the purposes behind them are. Finally, no matter how students are to be grouped, teachers should make a conscious effort to include various learning styles in daily lesson plan. One simple way to do this is to code the lesson plans so that a quick look at the completed plan shows if different learning styles have been included. Putting "A" or "V" beside activities that denote whether they are primarily appealing to the analytic learner or the visual learner will serve as a reminder that there is a need for mixture of both kinds of activities. Meanwhile, simply designating various parts of the lesson plan with letters (I for individual, P for pair, SG for small group, LG for large group) and other symbols reminds the teacher to pay attention to learning styles. The coding is not meant to be extra work for the teacher or to make classes seem artificial or not spontaneous. If the coding system is used on a regular basis, it becomes very natural to think in terms of being inclusive, or providing the setting and the activities by which all learners can find some portion of the class that particularly appeals to them. Conclusion In this article I have discussed the significance of matching teaching and learning styles in East Asian countries and provided some empirical evidence to indicate that East Asian students exhibit distinctive learning style characteristics. To understand and respect individual's diverse learning styles, I suggest that teachers employ instruments to identify students' learning styles and provide instructional alternatives to address their differences, and that teachers plan lessons to match students' learning styles while at the same time encouraging students to diversify their learning style preferences. By doing this we can assist our students in becoming more effective language learners. References o Anderson, J. 1993. Is a communicative approach practical for teaching English in China? Pros and cons. System, 21/4, 471-480. o Bailey, K.M., 1990. The use of diary studies in teacher education programs. In Richards, J.C., Nunan, D. (Eds.), Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 215-226. o Breen, M.P. 1998. Navigating the discourse: on what is learnt in the language classroom. In Freeman, D., Richards, R. (Eds.), Learners and Language Learning. SEAMEO Regional Language Center, Singapore, 115-143. o Brown, H. 1994. Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. o Charkins, R.J., O'Toole, D.M., &Wetzel, J.N. 1985. Linking teacher and student learning styles with student achievement and attitudes. Economic Education, spring, 111-120. o Condon, J. 1984. With respect to the Japanese. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press o Doyle, W., & Rutherford, B. 1984. Classroom research on matching learning and teaching styles. Theory into Practice, 23, 20-25. o Griggs, S.A., and Dunn. R.S. 1984. Selected case studies of the learning style preferences of gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28/3, 115-119. o Harshbarger, B., Ross, T., Tafoya, S & Via, J. 1986. Dealing with multiple learning styles in the ESL classroom. Symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, San Francisco, CA. o Hinkelman, D.W. & Pysock, J.M. 1992. The need for multi-media ESL teaching methods: A psychological investigation into learning styles. Cross Currents, 19/1, 25-35. o Kinsella, K. 1996. Designing group work that supports and enhances diverse classroom work styles. TESOL Journal, 6/1, 24-31. o Keirsey, D. & Bates, M. 1984. Please understand me. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Press. o Kumaravadivelu, B., 1991. Language-learning tasks: teacher intention and learner interpretation. English Language Teaching Journal, 45/2, 98-107. o Liu, N. F. and Littlewood, W. 1997. Why do many students appear reluctant to participate in classroom learning discourse? System, 25/3, 371-384. 30
  • 31. o Melton, C.D. 199O. Bridging the cultural gap: A study of Chinese students' learning style preferences. RELC Journal, 21/1, 29-47. o Myers, I. & McCaulley, M. 1985. Manual: a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. o Nelson, G. 1995. Cultural differences in learning styles. In Reid, J. (ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom, 3-18. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. o Oxford, R. L. & Burry-Stock, J. A. 1995. Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with ESL/EFL version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). System, 23/2, 153-175. o Oxford, R., Ehrman, M, and Lavine, R. 1991. Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In S. Magnan, (Ed.), Challenges in the 1990's for College Foreign Language Programs. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. o Oxford, R. L., Hollaway, M. E. & Murillo, D. 1992. Language learning styles: research and practical considerations for teaching in the multicultural tertiary ESL/EFL classroom. System, 20/4, 439-445. o Reid, J. 1987. The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21/1, 87-111. o Sato, C. 1982. Ethnic styles in classroom discourse. In Mary, E.H. & William, R (Eds.). On TESOL '81. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. o Smith, L. and Renzulli, J. 1984. Learning style preference: A practical approach for classroom teachers. Theory into Practice, 23/1, 45-50. o Song, B. 1995. What does reading mean for East Asian students? College ESL, 5/2, 35-48. o Sue, D. W. & Kirk, B. A. 1972. Psychological characteristics of Chinese-American students. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 19, 471-478. o Van Lier, L., 1996. Interaction in the language classroom: Awareness, Autonomy and Authenticity. Longman, Harlow. o Wallace, B., and Oxford, R. L. 1992. Disparity in learning styles and teaching styles in the ESL Classroom: Does this mean war?" AMTESOL Journal, 1, 45-68. o Worthey, K. M. 1987. Learning style factors of field dependence/independence and problem- solving strategies of Hmong refugee students. Unpublished master' thesis. University of Wisconsin, Stout, WI. o Wu, Jing-yu. 1983. Quchang Buduan --- A Chinese view of foreign participation in teaching English in China. Language Learning and Communication, 2/1, 111-116. Helping Students Identify Learning Styles Adapted from the web site by William M. Tweedie The first step in teaching students to become aware of how they think is to understand how you as a teacher think. Completing a Multiple Intelligence survey (there are many available on the Internet for free) is a beginning in helping teachers understand their own learning style(s). With this knowledge you are better equipped to teach students about theirs. 31
  • 32. The process of thinking and learning needs to be made an explicit part of classroom activities. Any learning activity provides the potential for process awareness. It is helpful to take a few minutes from a lesson for a discussion of the strategies students are using. You might ask students to gather in groups to discuss how they would approach a particular problem, say for example, a writing project. It gives students a chance to see how others are thinking, within the actual activity. They can then go back to work with a new set of insights that they can test and apply. As students become aware of the strategies they use to learn, you can help them assess their own learning styles. If the environment is one of support, and students are not threatened with judgement or criticism, their own curiosity can be a powerful motivator. If, for example, a student has trouble remembering spoken instructions but can follow written directions, it can be an exciting revelation to discover that the visual system works better for some tasks than does the auditory system. With this information, you can help a student develop strategies which use the stronger systems and help strengthen the weaker ones. If a learner doesn't comprehend spoken instruction well but knows he easily understands those that are written, he can ask the teacher to write them out on the board. Helping students identify their learning styles gives them tools that can be used in many subjects in school and beyond. Studying becomes more than a way of passing a class; it becomes an opportunity to develop thinking skills. In teaching to whole classrooms, it is helpful for teachers to introduce information so it can be processed by the three ways (i.e. hearing, seeing, and doing). For example, if the task is to learn how to write a book report, the teacher can first explain the process, followed by a written description of the process or an example of a completed book report, followed by actually setting up a plan for producing a book report. This provides a student with an initial auditory summary of the instructions, followed by the same thing in written form and an example, a visual summary of the instruction and a visual summary of the layout, followed by hands on preparation of an outline which makes use of both visual and kinaesthetic modes of learning. Multimodal teaching can become an automatic process for teachers if they have an awareness of learning styles and differences that exist between students. Likewise, it is important for a teacher to understand the developmental difference in learning styles, for example a very young child may rely heavily on tactile/kinaesthetic processes for learning about objects; an infant may pick up a toy, look at it, touch it, move it around, taste it, and shake it, all of which go together to create that child's understanding of the object. A teenager may use a similar set of strategies to learn about an object. Take, for example, learning how to use a VCR. A VCR is much more complicated than the infant's toy and requires many more skills to learn how to use it. The teenager may choose to read the owners manual, may just start playing with the buttons to see what happens, or may ask an experienced user to explain or show how to operate it. In the case of the teenager, the strategies used will depend on the learning style preferred and the ability to read and understand or listen and understand (verbal), the ability to remember sequences of button pressing (kinaesthetic), and the ability to remember seeing a sequence of button presses through a demonstration by an experienced user (visual). It is likely that all modes will be used but likely in varying degrees depending on learning style preference. In children with learning disabilities one mode may be eliminated altogether. If the learner has difficulty reading or comprehending spoken language, for example, learning to operate a VCR may rely totally on kinaesthetic or visual modes of learning. In such a case, a teacher, or parent demonstrates first, followed by hands on practice for the learner, thus making use of the stronger ways of learning, visual and kinaesthetic modes. The teacher may then demonstrate the use of the owner’s manual by looking for particular operations that are not familiar, using it as a backup means of learning. 32
  • 33. The bottom line is if the learner understands which way of learning works best, frustration can be avoided by making use of stronger ways first followed by backup learning through weaker ways. You, as a teacher, will experience more of the satisfaction of all your students’ successes. The next article in this book of resources provides you with additional information, other ways of looking at learning preferences and styles, and more formal, practical ways of assessing them in your students. Information and Questionnaires for Assessing Learning Styles and Preferences Part One - Learning Preferences Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic (Motor) A summary of these learning preferences with some implications for teaching and learning is provided below. Samples of three different questionnaires that can be used to help students determine their learning preference are also included. Visual Auditory Kinaesthetic 33
  • 34. The visual learner needs to see, The auditory learner The tactile-kinaesthetic learner needs to do, observe, record and write. needs to talk and to touch, be physically involved. listen. See information: Listen and respond Needs structured, hands-on activity, such as to information. building a replica of the Houses of Parliament, • Diagram or using a salting process to feel the corrosion • Chart of metals. • List See meaning: Dialogue and Needs to be involved with "doing" activities, discuss. such as acting out an event. • Through imagined visualization • Interpretive illustration See content: Hear lecture and Needs to touch what is being considered, such debate. as holding and examining a model, visiting a • Reading factory, or making a product. • Through written description See possibilities: Talk out ideas, Needs to immerse in the trial and error of interests, problems, experimentation, such as designing and • Through written possibilities. making a new product. brainstorming, such as webbing, mind mapping. Questionnaire 1 BARSCH LEARNING STYLE REFERENCE FORM Developed by Ray Barsch The series of questions on the next three pages is designed to determine your relative learning style (visual, auditory, or tactile). No style of learning is better than another. However, each style makes its own demands on the environment of the learner. What does a tutor perceive to be the learning style of his student? How can he help that student learn, given that particular style? Place a check on the appropriate line after each statement. Then score, following the directions after the questionnaire. Often Sometimes Seldom 1 Can remember more about a subject through listening than reading. ____ ____ ____ 2 Follow written directions better than oral directions. ____ ____ ____ 3 Like to write things down or take notes for visual review. ____ ____ ____ 4 Bear down extremely hard with pen or pencil when writing. ____ ____ ____ 5 Require explanations of diagrams, graphs, or visual directions. ____ ____ ____ 6 Enjoy working with tools. ____ ____ ____ 7 Am skilful and enjoy developing and making graphs and charts. ____ ____ ____ 8 Can tell if sounds match when presented with pairs of sounds. ____ ____ ____ 34
  • 35. 9 Remember best by writing things down several times. ____ ____ ____ 10 Can understand and follow directions using maps. ____ ____ ____ 11 Do better at academic subjects by listening to lectures and tapes. ____ ____ ____ 12 Play with coins and keys in pockets. ____ ____ ____ 13 Learn to spell better by repeating the letters out loud than by writing the word on paper. ____ ____ ____ 14 Can better understand a news article by reading about it in the paper than by listening to the radio. ____ ____ ____ 15 Chew gum, smoke, or snack during studies. ____ ____ ____ 16 Feel the best way to remember is to picture it in my head. ____ ____ ____ 17 Learn spelling by "finger spelling" the words. ____ ____ ____ 18 Would rather listen to a good lecture or speech than read about the same material in a textbook. ____ ____ ____ 19 Am good at working and solving jigsaw puzzles and mazes. ____ ____ ____ 20 Grip objects in my hands during learning period. ____ ____ ____ 21 Prefer listening to the news on the radio rather than reading about it in a newspaper. ____ ____ ____ 22 Obtain information on an interesting subject by reading relevant materials. ____ ____ ____ 23 Feel very comfortable touching others, hugging, handshaking, etc. ____ ____ ____ 24 Follow oral directions better than written ones. ____ ____ ____ VISUAL AUDITORY TACTILE No. Pts. No. Pts. No. Pts. 2 _____ 1 _____ 4 _____ 3 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ 8 _____ 9 _____ 10 _____ 11 _____ 12 _____ 14 _____ 13 _____ 15 _____ 16 _____ 18 _____ 17 _____ 19 _____ 21 _____ 20 _____ 22 _____ 24 _____ 23 _____ __________ __________ __________ VPS = APS = TPS = VPS = Visual Preference Score APS = Auditory Preference Score TPS = Tactile Preference Score Questionnaire 2 HELPING STUDENTS IDENTIFY THEIR LEARNING PREFERENCE (Visual, Auditory or Motor) The questionnaire can be done in a small group or individually with the instructor reading the questions and the student selecting the answer that best suits him or her. The instructor should discuss the results with the student using the following questions: 1. Under which column did you check the most answers? 2. What kind of learning preference does it appear you have? 3. What learning or teaching methods do you think would best suit your preference? 4. What learning or teaching methods might not suit your preference as well? (Instructors may need to offer suggestions like lectures, films, reading aloud, etc. for questions 3 and 35
  • 36. 4.) Given below are a number of incomplete sentences and three ways of completing each sentence. In each case, select the way which most frequently represents your personal preference. In each case, make only ONE choice. A B C 1 When you keep up with read the newspaper listen to the radio Quickly read the paper current events do you: thoroughly? and/or watch TV and/or spend a few news? minutes watching TV news? 2 When you dress, are a neat dresser? a sensible dresser? a comfortable dresser? you: 3 When you are reading like descriptive scenes; enjoy dialogue and prefer action stories and novels, do you: stop to imagine the scene; conversation; "hear" are not a keen novel take little notice of the characters talk? reader? pictures? 4 When you spell, do try to see the word? use the phonetic write the word down to you: approach? find if it "feels" right? 5 When you are angry, clam up, seethe, give let others know quickly storm off, clench your do you: others the "silent" and express it in an fists, grit your teeth or treatment? outburst? grasp something tightly? 6 When you are free and watch TV, go to the listen to records or the do something physical have spare time, would cinema or theatre, read? radio, go to a concert (sport, DIY)? you rather: or play an instrument? 7 When you forget forget names but forget faces but remember best what something, do you: remember faces? remember names? you did? 8 When you have to prefer face-to-face use the telephone? talk it out during another conduct business with meeting or writing letters? activity (walking or another person, do you: having a meal)? 9 When you enjoy the like paintings? like music? like dancing? arts, do you: 10 When you are talking, talk sparingly, but dislike enjoy listening but are gesture a lot and use do you: listening for too long? impatient to talk? expressive movements? 11 When you are at a come prepared with enjoy discussing want to be somewhere meeting, do you: notes? issues and hearing else and spend the time other points of view? doodling? 12 When you are with facial expressions? voice quality? general body tone? others, might they interpret your emotions from your: 13 When you visualize, do see vivid detailed think in sounds? have few images that you: pictures? involve movement? 14 When you are distracted by untidiness or distracted by sounds or distracted by concentrating, are you: movement? noises? movement? 15 When you are praised, like written comments? like oral comments? like a physical action do you: such as a pat on the back or a hug? 16 When you need to temporarily isolate the reason with the child use "acceptable" forms 36
  • 37. discipline a child, do child from the others? and discuss the of corporal punishment you think the best situation? (a smack)? approach is to: 17 When you try to primarily look at their listen to their tone of watch their body interpret someone's facial expression? voice? movements? mood, do you: 18 When you are inactive,look around, doodle, talk to yourself or other fidget? do you: watch something? people? 19 When you are learning,like to see like verbal instructions, prefer direct involvement do you: demonstrations, talks and lectures? (activities, role-playing)? diagrams, slides, posters? 20 When you go on a new, get the route from a book talk to someone to get get out maps, etc. and long journey, do you: (AA/RAC guide)? the information? make a plan? TOTAL: _____________ _____________ _____________ Questionnaire 3 LEARNING CHANNELS INVENTORY Place the number 1, 2, or 3 on the line after each statement that best indicates your preference. (Please use: 3 - Often; 2 - Sometimes; 1 - Seldom) 1 I can remember something best if I say it aloud. _____ 2 I prefer to follow written instructions rather than oral ones. _____ 3 When studying, I like to chew gum, snack and/or play with something. _____ 4 I remember things best when I see them written out. _____ 5 I prefer to learn through simulations, games, and/or role playing. _____ 6 I enjoy learning by having someone explain things to me. _____ 7 I learn best from pictures, diagrams and charts _____ 8 I enjoy working with my hands. _____ 9 I enjoy reading, and I read quickly. _____ 10 I prefer to listen to the news on the radio rather than read it in the newspaper. _____ 11 I enjoy being near others. (I enjoy hugs, handshakes and touches.) _____ 12 I listen to the radio, tapes and recordings. _____ 13 When asked to spell a word, I simply see the word in my mind's eye. _____ 14 When learning new material, I find myself sketching, drawing and doodling. _____ 15 When I read silently, I say every word to myself. _____ In order to get an indication of your learning, preference, please add the numbers together for the following statements. Visual Preference Score: 2 ___, 4 ___, 7 ___, 9 ___, 13 ___ = _______ Auditory Preference Score: 2 ___, 4 ___, 7 ___, 9 ___, 13 ___ = _______ K/T (Kinaesthetic/Tactual) Score: 2 ___, 4 ___, 7 ___, 9 ___, 13 ___ = ______ The highest score indicates that my learning preference is ____________________. Now that I know which is my dominant learning style, I can learn better by: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ This inventory was developed by Max Coderre, publisher of Teaching Today Magazine in Edmonton, Alberta, and is designed to help you better understand your own unique learning styles. 37
  • 38. Part Two - Learning Styles It is important to recognize that different researchers have different ways of defining learning styles and thus often use different terms to refer to the Ways people prefer to perceive and process information. Three different descriptions of learning styles are included here. The first one has a specific questionnaire that will assist the instructor in matching a learner's style with one of the described styles. The second description provides general information about four learning styles. A specific questionnaire has not been developed to match these styles. The third description relates more specifically to Aboriginal learning styles. General questionnaires have been provided to help the instructor match learners with a learning style. The Gregory definitions of learning styles have not been included because instructors may have difficulty obtaining his questionnaires. Learning Styles - Summary I Physically Centred Learner 1. Learns by watching, learns by doing. 2. The learner does not need a lot of verbal instruction. 3. Needs enough time to practice and complete the activity. 4. The content of the activity must be practical and useful to the learner's life. 5. Learns well in cooperation with others. Emotional/Relational Learner 1. Learns by listening to others. 2. Learns by talking about the activity with other learners. 3. Learns by relating the activity to his/her personal life. 4. Learns in a relaxed atmosphere. 5. Can divide attention amongst many different activities when learning something new. 6. Learns in a creative atmosphere. 7. Often does not know what he/she knows until he/she says it out loud to others. Mentally Centred Learner 1. Focuses on the idea or theory of the activity. 2. Learns what he/she values. 3. Learns independently. 4. Enjoys talking about ideas with others. 5. Concentrates deeply on one thing and cannot divide attention to listen or watch other things at the same time. Learning Styles Assessment Questionnaire The following pages provide an assessment tool for you to better understand your learning styles. If you understand your learning style, it will better help you understand your teaching style. Go through the questions, marking the answers that best reflect your learning. When you have completed your assessment, go back over the questions and answers to see if you can find a pattern or dominant learning style. Look at the answer key only after you have attempted to determine your learning style on your own. 1. How do you usually learn best? • _____ from working on my own and taking my own time. 38
  • 39. • _____ from an instructor's lecture. • _____ from an instructor who works personally with me. • _____ from working in a small group of people I feel comfortable with. • _____ from seeing practical application. • _____ from following written directions. • _____ from a small group of people with an instructor available to answer questions. 2. What most helps your learning? (Check as many as you want; rank in order of importance.) • _____ having my own routine. • _____ talking with others while learning. • _____ being able to take my time. • _____ having fun while learning. • _____ being able to practice what I am learning. • _____ getting support and encouragement from instructors/people at home. 3. Think of three things you have enjoyed learning: they can be anything and don't have to be related to school. What are they and why did you enjoy them? How did you learn them? 4. What occurs to you first when you are learning something? • _____ remembering something you did once that was similar. • _____ thinking up a picture of how something ought to be. • _____ getting as much information as you can about the topic. 5. What is the easiest part or stage of learning for you? • _____ beginning something. • _____ working on the details and practicing. • _____ completing something. 6. What is the most difficult part of learning for you? • _____ beginning something. • _____ working on the details and practicing. • _____ completing something. 7. In putting something together, I: • _____ read instructions first, and then look at the pieces. • _____ look at the pieces, then read the instructions. • _____ look at the instructions but make up my own way of putting the pieces together. • _____ try to put pieces together first, then if it doesn't work, look at the instructions. 8. In what order do the following skills come in your learning process? (Rank 1-2-3) • _____ thinking • _____ assessing • _____ doing 9. How do you best learn mechanical or technical things? • _____ tinkering • _____ having someone explain it to me • _____ reading instructions • _____ watching someone work, then doing it myself 10. When is it important to you to be able to talk about what you are doing? 39
  • 40. 11. How do you best learn ideas and theories? • _____ talking about them • _____ working on applying them • _____ reading about them 12. How do you know when you have really learned something? (Check one) • _____ I feel comfortable doing it again. • _____ I show or tell my family and friends what I can do. • _____ other: __________________________________ Evaluation Key P = physically centred (concrete) M = mentally centred (abstract) E/R = emotional/relational 40
  • 41. 1 P; M; E/R; E/R; P; P; M; E/R; P 2 E/R; M; E/R; P; E/R; P; E/R 3 N.A. 4 E/R; P; M 5 E/R; P; M 6 P; M; E/R 7 M; P; E/R; P; M; P 8 M; E/R; P 9 E/R; M; P 10 N.A. 11 E/R; P; M 12 P; E/R; M 41
  • 42. Learning Styles - Summary II Four Major Learning Styles: ONE: Imaginative Learner • perceives information concretely. • processes information by thinking about it. • likes to listen and share information to learn. • believes in his/her own experiences and integrates experience with their selves. • needs to be personally involved. • sees all sides. • has trouble making decisions. • struggles to connect content with reality. • seeks harmony. TWO: Analytic Learner • perceives information abstractly. • processes information by thinking about it. • needs to know what experts think. • values sequential thinking. • needs details. • is thorough and industrious. • loves ideas, enjoys ideas more than people. • is highly skilled verbally. • loves traditional classrooms. • integrates their observations into what they already know. THREE: Common Sense Learner • perceives information abstractly. • processes by doing. • is a problem solver. • is skills oriented. • likes to experiment and tinker with things. • needs to know how things work. • wants to work on real problems. • wants to apply learning to real purposes. FOUR: Dynamic Learner • perceives information concretely. • processes information by doing. • learns by trial and error. • likes change. • excels where flexibility is needed. • is a risk-taker. • is not sequential. • pursues interests in diverse ways. Adapted from the work of David Colb. Aboriginal Learning Styles - Summary III 42
  • 43. Global: • tends to understand best when overall concept is presented first. • learns best when overview or introduction is emphasized. • needs meaningful context. • sees relationships easily. • benefits from whole language approach. Imaginal: • learns best from images, both concrete and abstract (symbols, diagrams, simile, metaphor). • codes information using images. • has difficulty verbalizing own images but can make them and use them for learning. Concrete: • learns best with support from materials that can be seen, touched, heard (photographs). • "hands-on" approach is effective. • needs examples. Watch - Then Do: (also Think - Then Do or Listen - Then Do) • reflective. • needs time to think answer through. Taken from the work of Arthur J. More, University of British Columbia. Identifying Learning Styles: A Closed-Ended Questionnaire When a group tutor introduces a new word or idea, do you like to: • _____ hear it many times • _____ see it written down • _____ use the word or idea • _____ do something with it How do you like your mistakes to be corrected? • _____ figure it out myself • _____ have the group tutor correct all my mistakes • _____ have the group tutor correct only my big mistakes • _____ have other group members correct me What activities do you like to do most in class? • _____ songs • _____ playing games • _____ doing exercises from workbooks • _____ discussions, debates, presentations • _____ writing: stories, sentences, poems • _____ reading: stories, newspaper articles • _____ listening to cassettes 43
  • 44. • _____ watching videos How do you like to work? • _____ alone • _____ alone with my tutor • _____ with one other person • _____ in a small group • _____ with the whole group How much does it bother you to make mistakes when you're learning? • _____ a lot • _____ some • _____ a bit • _____ not at all How do you like to learn something new? • _____ memorizing • _____ repeating out loud • _____ practicing over and over • _____ learn by rules • _____ watch others doing it • _____ ask or get help from someone • _____ use the skill outside the class IDENTIFYING LEANING STYLES: Open-Ended Interview • Think of a recent learning experience that was good. What made it a good experience? • Think of a recent learning experience that was bad. What made it a bad experience? • How do you learn best? • What makes it difficult to learn something new? • What kinds of activities do you like to do most? Give examples. • What kinds of activities don't you like to do? • How is the way you learn different from others? How can you identify the learning style of others? • Talk with the individual learner. Ask the person his or her ways of doing things and preferences. • Observe what methods and approaches motivate the individual learner. • Use learning styles inventories. • Observe body language, (i.e. use of gestures often indicates a tactile, experiential learner). • Listen to the words the individual uses, (i.e. "I think/feel/believe."). General questionnaires taken from Learning Together by Barbara Fretz and Marianne Paul. Make Learning Fun through Multiple Intelligences 44
  • 45. From Mary Webber’s MITA website To improve listening skills.... give them something worth listening to! Good teachers know that if students can enjoy learning, new information is acquired more easily, and students retain more of what they have learned.. It has long been practice in elementary classes to use rhyming, rhythm, songs and actions to teach letter sounds and to just have children gain an enjoyment of language. Books for the young are full of rich visual images that incorporate art with words. This type of teaching can be extended to older students who also enjoy movement and music, visuals social interaction. Mary Bigler, a long time teacher and entertaining conference presenter, engages her audience the same way that she engages her classroom: with music, visuals, rich language experience that touches the emotions and group participation in movement and rhythm. Mary has been doing this for many years because it is effective teaching. It engages everyone, in spite of differences in ability and style. She used multiple intelligences naturally, long before the formal theory was ever developed. With Mary’s permission, here are a few ideas for teaching language concepts through musical and kinaesthetic activities: My Bonny This song can be used to introduce initial consonants, and is only one example of how such an activity can reinforce sounds for children. Start by standing up, singing the song ‘My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean", to the familiar tune. When the first "B" word is heard, sit down. When the next "B" word is heard, stand up again, for the next, sit down again, and continue in this fashion for each "B" word in the song. It really gets active. It is totally engaging, and there is no trouble remembering what the sound is for the letter "B"! My Bonny lies over the ocean, Bring back, bring back My Bonny lies over the sea, Oh bring back my Bonny to me, to me, My Bonny lies over the ocean, Bring back, bring back, So bring back my Bonny to me. Oh bring back my Bonny to me. Parts of Speech Song Another song that kids will enjoy learning that can help them to remember that usually uninteresting material - parts of speech. It is sung to the tune of "Do Re Mi" from "The Sound of Music" Go, a verb, an action word Noun, a person, place or thing, Me, a pronoun for my name, Prepositions phrases bring, Adjectives can all describe, Adverbs tell how where and when, And and but connect the tribe, Of words we sing again. Oh Oh Oh.. Go and come and walk and run, Town and country, land and air, Big and small or short and tall, Now and then and here and there, In and out and by and for, You and I and everyone, And and but and either, or, The parts of speech are fun! 45
  • 46. An extension activity could be to have the students create a second verse that parallels the first in providing examples of the parts of speech in the same order as the first verse. Add actions to make it even more powerful for remembering. Pronouns - to teach pronouns, take any well known song and start singing it with the class. Every time there is a pronoun in the song, substitute a "hum" for the pronoun. One that works well for this activity is: Let Me Call You Sweetheart Let me call you sweetheart, I’m in love with you. Let me hear you whisper That you love me too. Keep the love light shining In your eyes so blue. Let me call you sweetheart, I’m in love with you. A more contemporary popular may be chosen, but this is a good one near Valentine’s Day! Not every lesson can or should include all of the intelligence areas, but used creatively, more than one way can be found to teach most subject material. Graphic Organizers There are many students, at all grade levels, who find it very difficult to get started putting words on paper, and to recall for tests and exams material that has been previously learned. For these students, whether identified with learning disabilities or not, graphic organizers are essential. There are hundreds of examples of graphic organizers available in books, and there are many good web sites with such organizational tools free to download. Thought Map The advantage of using graphic organizers is that they incorporate the visual/spatial into the language area. The "semantic map” or "word web" is probably the most common form of graphic organizer for generating thoughts before beginning a writing assignment. These can take numerous forms. The most important part of these devices is in what is done with the information after the "brainstorm" has taken place. Sequencing For students who have trouble sequencing, placing numbers beside the thoughts can be helpful. For those who still have trouble arranging the thoughts in a logical way, place a few words to represent each thought on a separate piece of paper. Arrange them into possibilities and orally state the material in sequence. When it makes the most sense, place a number for each thought, and then proceed to the rough draft of writing. Pyramid Organizers After the main brainstorming has been done, another way to organize thoughts is to connect main ideas to supporting details. The top of the pyramid is the topic. Next is an explanation of the main idea. Under that is supporting ideas or further explanation in details - three or four, followed underneath by examples. Do you get it from the description? In all likelihood, a visual will make it more understandable! Using Pictures Instead Of, or Along With Words A powerful way to do a chapter summary for a novel study or a summary of a short story is to place the title in the centre of a blank page, then going in a circle around the centre, sequence the main events through sketches of who, what, why, where, when. This is most effective if
  • 47. done with a group so that there is consensus of recall. Hearing it again and contributing to the group reinforces the learning while using the interpersonal intelligence. The pictures can be done by one group volunteer, or each person can do their own as they create a visual /spatial chart of the story. Words can be added as desired, especially any new vocabulary. A reflection journal following this activity will not only further reinforce the content, but will make use of the intrapersonal intelligence. Some students will need further guidance in how to write about feelings through sentence starters such as: I thought it was interesting when.… Lesson Planning There are two different approaches to using the theory of Multiple Intelligences in lesson planning. One is to provide opportunities for students to use the intelligence area in which they are most comfortable. For students with learning disabilities, whose comfort level in the verbal -linguistic area is usually very low, this can be an opportunity to exercise problem solving and express learning in a way which can be very beneficial to improving the often damaged self-esteem. If a student can make up a rap song or draw an illustration or create a collage that illustrates the concept being taught, then why not? The other approach is to construct lessons that include, as much as possible, the use of each intelligence area in order to promote growth and comfort. There are four stages of development as an intelligence emerges. The first encounter or awareness stage is at the first exposure. If a child hears language, is read to frequently and has many others around her to stimulate language that intelligence will probably be well developed at an early age. This does not mean, however, that a person cannot later in life gain an appreciation for literature and language. Using one of the intelligences, or the employment stage, comes with opportunities available and positive feedback from attempts. Farm children begin to take care of animals at an early age, for example, by working with their parents as chores are performed. The next stage is formal education, or basic training in solving problems and making products. This may be culturally specific, depending upon the values of the culture. If students are required to memorize a great deal of material without a deep understanding of how to use the knowledge, it will soon be disregarded. As intelligence develops fully, it is embraced. An apprentice becomes a master at his craft. Designing and higher order thinking become the expression of the intelligence. In each stage, a person experiences different emotions. At first, discomfort is natural, as is frustration. With further practice, the skill becomes more easily employed. Once ready for education, a person can use the skills learned, make connections, and exercise judgement. In the final stage there is comfort and ease. Teachers need to use their knowledge of student comfort levels when deciding on teaching methodology. Carolyn Chapman in her book If the Shoe Fits describes it this way: "It is especially important that students encountering an intelligence in the early stage experience a classroom that facilitates the development of the various intelligences. Such a classroom is rich with posters, bulletin boards, learning centres, activities, and lessons that promote the development. It does not mean that every room encourages every intelligence all the time. Some teachers use different intelligences to create a monthly theme. Others target one intelligence for the year in each subject. In the upper grades, the discipline, (English, trigonometry) already targets the focus intelligence. In these cases, teachers select one or two supporting intelligences for consistent use in the semester or the year." Chapman,1993, p.9. In order to be effective, teachers need to be able to analyse their own comfort levels when making decisions about which intelligence areas to include when lesson planning. This is even more reason to discover, reflect upon, and expand one's own multiple intelligences. In the next section there will be a sample lesson, and a lesson plan for participants to use in
  • 48. developing lessons. Please share your creations with the others who have joined our discussion. The following lesson plan can be used either to have all students do all activities, or it can be set up to have cooperative groups each take one or two sections. Time considerations may determine which way it is used. Sometimes one or two intelligence areas may be targeted for a particular lesson. It is important to know the students well and to establish good cooperative learning practices when doing group work. Groups should be as heterogeneous as possible, so that each person has an opportunity to use intelligence strengths and to develop further the others.
  • 49. Multiple Intelligences: SAMPLE LESSON PLAN Unit: Developing Communication Skills Lesson Title: Classified Advertising Learner Outcomes 1. Familiar with classified ads as they appear in print media 2. Can identify characteristics of effective advertising Review/ recap: Review the 5 W's and how newspapers use advertising. Activities: All students will be expected to complete all activities with a group. LINGUISTIC: BODILY/KINAESTHETIC: 1. Look at the classified ads in two different 1. In group, create a "frozen tableau" that newspapers. represents the product/service being sold in an ad. 2. Compare and describe similarities and differences in the approach to specific topics. 3. Write a paragraph. 4. Present findings to class. VISUAL/SPATIAL: INTERPERSONAL: Find an unusual or intriguing ad and create an Brainstorm the various ads and their purpose; artistic expression that compliments it (collage, analyse the techniques & devises used to drawing, mime) attract the reader's attention and compile a mind map to share with class. MUSICAL: INTRAPERSONAL: Write, sing, a rap or "jingle" for the product or Each person selects one ad s/he likes, and one service in the ad. s/he dislikes. Reflect on why the ads were chosen and write a journal page on it. MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL: NATURALIST: 1. Research advertising rates in the newspaper 1. Choose three different products advertised and determine the cost of several ads. and determine the possible impact on the environment if everyone started to use it. 2. Present findings in a graph 2. Present in the form of a picture, graph, or paragraph. Materials/resources: Newspapers, scissors, chart paper, markers, tape recorder Assessment: Project check list, rubric, self evaluation. Examples to be provided in Assessment section of this workshop) Follow-up: Television advertising
  • 50. Multiple Intelligences: LESSON PLAN Template Unit: Lesson Title: Learner Outcomes Review/ recap: Activities: LINGUISTIC: BODILY/KINESTHETIC: VISUAL/SPATIAL: INTERPERSONAL: MUSICAL: INTRAPERSONAL: MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL: NATURALIST: Materials/resources: __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Assessment: __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Follow-up: __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Assessment and Evaluation
  • 51. The topic of assessment and evaluation could easily fill an entire course by itself. Any educator who truly wants to be effective must have an understanding of: ♦ what is to be taught (the expected outcomes) ♦ how it is to be taught (instructional methods) ♦ how it will be evaluated (assessment methods) ♦ In a nutshell, it is like the old saying: "How will you know when you get there if you don't know where you're going?" We cannot delve into the theories and academic deliberations of assessment and evaluation within these pages. There are several excellent books on the topic, some of which are listed in the resources section. What we will examine is a brief overview of definitions, some suggestions for ways to assess when using the multiple intelligences, and sharing of experiences. Terminology: Some terms may mean different things to different people. To clarify: Assessment is the process of gathering evidence of what a student can do. Evaluation is the process of interpreting the evidence and making judgements based on it. Grading is assigning a mark based on the interpretation. It is perhaps unfortunate that we are forced to assign specific grades that are supposed to indicate to students and parents where they stand. It is usually a measure of where they fit relative to others, and has little bearing on how they have changed in their own learning. We are not all the same. Grades can have deep emotional affects, either positive or negative. Students usually have a reasonable idea of where they stand, so the teacher's grade must be fair, accurate, and based upon accurate assessment of student performance. The student should never be surprised by the grade. How do we keep our evaluation fair and balanced? It is just as important to use a variety of methods to assess students, as it is to teach in a variety of ways. Formative evaluation to determine what students have to do to achieve thoughtful outcomes is necessary to improve instruction and should not be used to grade students. For example, a teacher may collect a number of writing assignments and determine that certain aspects of writing are to be emphasised in the coming lessons, such as improved sentence structure, using adjectives, or proper punctuation. The students need to know what the expectations are. They can be taught in a variety of ways. (Sentence structure can be taught in a kinaesthetic activity, where each student physically becomes a word in a sentence. They can be moved around to form clauses and to be combined with conjunctions - it's fun!) After a variety of activities are used to teach the concepts, the students may develop, with the teacher, a rubric that establishes the criteria and the indicators for the degree to which the criteria has been met. Self Evaluation Self evaluation can be a powerful motivator for students. They usually think this is the teacher's job, but in reality, the teacher doesn't determine the marks - the student does. Having a student discuss the work and point out the positive, how it could have been better, feelings regarding the work, can motivate greater involvement, thus higher achievement in further efforts. One fast way to accomplish this is through a P.M.I. chart. (See below) Topic: ________________________________
  • 52. Assignment: ___________________________ Plus + Minus – Interesting ? Other assessment tools: Portfolios: An organized collection of a student's work to monitor the growth in knowledge, skills and attitudes in a specific area. It can include not only writing, but videotape, audio selections, art work, checklists and more. The student may select and reflect upon certain pieces to determine progress. Targets: A bull’s-eye with an indicator as to how close a student has come to reaching the target outcome can be a good visual way to illustrate the learning and to see what still needs to be accomplished. Checklists: Checklists can be made up to help the teacher and student monitor progress. They can also be used in conjunction with rubrics, to establish a weekly or monthly evaluation, as there is an overview and a more accurate reflection of progress. (We all have our good and bad days!).On the next page there is a sample rubric, followed by a blank rubric form which can be used to make up your own. Eight Smarts in Designing ELT Materials
  • 53. “Each student is unique and all in individual ways offer valuable contributions to human culture." (Campbell, L., Campbell B. & Dickinson, D.1996) I. INTRODUCTION ESL/EFL teachers very often observe a lot of individual differences among students in terms of their learning. There are some students who can use visual aids or pictures successfully in their learning. There are some who are gifted in writing poems or stories. Some are good at sequencing. Some students find it easy to work with peers, cooperate in activities and understand others' feelings. Others are good at identifying their own strengths, weaknesses, feelings and moods. Some students are really successful in using their body and movement while some others can create melody or rhythm easily. And there are also some students who can do classifications very well. So as teachers how can we plan our lessons and design our materials to address to these different groups of students who have developed different intelligences? Fortunately, there are various strategies and materials teachers can make use of to improve the quantity and quality of learning in their classes. However, teachers should continuously be asking themselves what they know about their students and how they can appeal to individual needs and ways of learning. Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory has shed light on many areas in ELT. According to this theory, people possess varying amounts of eight intelligences, and combine and use them in highly personal ways. Taking this into consideration, teachers should plan their lessons in such a way that students can activate their intelligences and learn in their own most efficient way. One of the most significant components of lesson planning is materials design. Materials are important in the sense that they should provide a clear and coherent structure which guides both the teacher and the learner through a variety of activities to increase the chances of learning. They should also provide opportunities for learners to use their thinking capacities and should appeal to their way of learning. Therefore, it is important for a teacher to look for some ways of integrating Multiple Intelligences into her/his materials. This article presents some tips for EFL/ESL teachers about how to explore the 'Eight Smarts' (Logical-Mathematical/Visual-Spatial/Musical/Verbal-Linguistic/ Bodily-Kinaesthetic/ Naturalist/Interpersonal and Intrapersonal) when designing suitable and effective materials. Initially, the characteristics of the eight intelligences are presented. Secondly, the crucial points that need to be taken into consideration in materials design are discussed. Finally, a checklist is provided for teachers who would like to integrate multiple intelligences into their materials. II. EIGHT INTELLIGENCES Gardner defines intelligence as: • the ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life. • the ability to generate new problems to solve • the ability to make something or offer a service that is valued within one's culture. (Campbell, L., Campbell B. & Dickinson, D.1996) Gardner's eight intelligences are described in Campbell, Campbell & Dickinson (1996, pg. 16) as follows: Verbal-linguistic intelligence consists of the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. This intelligence is best exhibited by poets, journalists, lawyers, speakers, etc.
  • 54. Logical-mathematical intelligence makes it possible to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complex mathematical operations. Scientists, engineers, mathematicians, etc demonstrate strong logical-mathematical intelligence. Visual-spatial intelligence enables one to perceive external & internal imagery, to recreate, transform, or modify images, to navigate oneself and objects through space, and to produce or decode graphic information. Sailors, painters, architects, etc are some examples who have this type of intelligence. Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence enables one to manipulate objects and fine-tune physical skills. Dancers, athletes, etc have this type of intelligence. Musical intelligence is evident in individuals who possess a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Those demonstrating this intelligence include composers, conductors, musicians, etc. Interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand and interact effectively with others. It is evident in successful teachers, social workers, actors, or politicians. Intrapersonal intelligence refers to the ability to construct an accurate perception of oneself and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one's life. Some individuals with strong intrapersonal intelligence specialize as theologians, psychologists, and philosophers. Dr. Gardner added the Naturalist intelligence to his list in 1996. This intelligence has to do with recognizing and classifying plants, minerals, and animals. People who possess this type of intelligence are good at observing, understanding and organizing patterns in the natural environment. Hunters, farmers or biologists can be given as examples of people who develop naturalist intelligence. III. MATERIALS DESIGN Materials design is an on-going process and requires a great deal of effort, time and training. While designing materials, teachers should consider whether • the aims of the material are clear to the learners • the material is relevant to the needs/interests/ level of the learners • the material meets the course objectives • the topic/content of the material is interesting for the learners • the learners can relate to the topic through their own experiences, interests and cultural knowledge • the material includes sufficient number of activities • there is a variety of activities in the material • the activities in the material provide enough practice to develop certain skills • the activities encourage personal involvement of the learners in the learning process • there is a logical progression between the activities • it is easy for the students to follow the material • the texts, exercises and visuals are clearly presented • the layout of the material is easy to follow • the layout is attractive and appealing • the material is at the right level of difficulty Teachers should always be aware of the fact that piloting plays quite a significant role in the production of quality materials. Feedback about materials should be received continuously from the learners and other colleagues and materials should be improved in the light of this feedback. Another main point that should be kept in mind is that it would be quite beneficial and practical for the teachers to use some kind of checklist or set of criteria when designing materials.
  • 55. IV. CHECKLIST FOR MI INTEGRATED MATERIALS After introducing the characteristics of the eight intelligences and discussing the crucial points in materials design, it would be a good idea to share the chart on the next page which includes the eight intelligences and some questions designed according to their main characteristics. It would be helpful for teachers to use this as a checklist to see how they can integrate the intelligences into their materials. LOGICAL- • What kinds of critical thinking or problem-solving activities can I MATHEMATICAL integrate into my material? INTELLIGENCE • Would it be possible to put some puzzles, charts, mind maps into the material? How? VISUAL-SPATIAL • What kind of visual aids (pictures, OHTs, word flashcards, etc.), visualisation and colour can I use? • Where can I locate these visuals on my material? MUSICAL • What kind of music, songs, environmental sounds, and rhythmical patterns can I use? • At what stage of the material can music/songs or poetry be used? VERBAL-LINGUISTIC • What kind of stories, poems, short plays, word games, lectures, etc can I use? • How can I include note-taking and presentation skills in my material? BODILY- • What kind of role-play cards, puzzle cards can I prepare? KINESTHETIC • What kind of hands-on materials can I prepare? NATURALIST • What kind of category charts and diagrams can I use? • How can I encourage students to describe or observe the environment and relate it to the subject in my material? INTERPERSONAL • What kind of pair work/ group work activities can I integrate into my material? • What kind of peer sharing or co-operative learning materials can I use? INTRAPERSONAL • What kind of activities can I cover in my material which would evoke personal feelings or values? • Would it be possible to put a journal component in my material?
  • 56. Teachers have to help learners use the combination of their intelligences to be successful in school and in life. They should support them to use their intelligences in the most efficient way. There is not only one way to learn how to read or how to write. It would not be wise to say that everything should be taught in eight ways. Equally, it would be meaningless to say that all intelligences can be covered in one specific piece of material. That is not the point of the Multiple Intelligences Theory. The theory should be applied gradually. V. CONCLUSION In conclusion, it can be said that teachers have to be extraordinarily imaginative, creative and persistent in helping students understand things better and make learning meaningful. The teacher's role is to encourage learners to use their minds well, and this can be achieved by careful planning and effective materials design.
  • 57. Clear Rubrics Move Students beyond Apathy to Understanding By Ellen Weber, Founder of MITA - The Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Most students are naturally motivated to express knowledge about their worlds. But how can we motivate those few who show lack of interest in class. Clear rubrics, I have found, carry a student from indifference to delightful understanding of any topic. Whether solving a complex problem, or constructing real world products, rubrics show students exactly what is expected, and take guess work out of assignments. Apathy often results from not knowing expectations, so frustrated students simply give up. When the hare scolded Alice for not saying exactly what she meant, she, like some faculty, protested: "I do. At least – at least I mean what I say – that’s the same thing, you know." Like some students the Hatter saw mixed messages and felt confused. "Not the same thing a bit!" said the Hatter. "Why, you might just as well say that, "I see what I eat is the same as I eat what I see." (Lewis Carroll, in Alice in Wonderland). According to Schmoker (1996), rubrics provide three benefits: ⋆ First, they provide good performance by clearly defining that performance and showing that such work is achievable. ⋆ Second, they provide better feedback than the current system by requiring more precision and clarity about criteria for evaluating student work. ⋆ Third, they bring a welcome end to the disheartening experience we have all had: handing in an assignment without really knowing how the teacher will evaluate it and with no idea whether the teacher will think it excellent or shoddy. Motivated students reach forward to solve world problems and backward to tap into wells of past knowledge and experiences. Or, as a brain specialist might say, they activate intelligences or specific domains in their brains. Rubrics provide precise benchmarks for diverse assignments which propel students toward a clear destination. When we create a rubric or indicator with students we offer them tools for success by highlighting grade expectations. Rubrics identify specific criteria expected, show where each benchmark is met and indicate specifically how to improve personal performances. Clear rubrics provide practical checklists which motivate students to move sequentially through an assignment. With rubrics students check off areas of strength, such as: ⋆ identifies relevant and meaningful problem ⋆ creates effective responses or possibilities ⋆ applies specific ideas from the text or research to solve the problem ⋆ contributes data from current interview with one or more people ⋆ displays adaptations for accommodating one's individual abilities ⋆ suggests excellent recommendations for future consideration of the problem ⋆ illustrates communication skills in presenting several perspectives of the problem Rubrics dispel indifference by simply creating pride and excitement. They guide students not only toward quality assignments, but also show how they can achieve quality rewards. You could say that to give students a rubric is to provide them a map and ensure an eventful trip to treasures ahead. While apathy and adventure tend to kill one another off in wars against indifference, rubrics ensure that adventure will win. Schmoker, M. (1996). Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • 58. Rubric for the Assessment of Student Presentations STUDENT NAME(S): TITLE/TOPIC: CRITERIA INDICATORS (observable characteristics describing the levels of performance) LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 Knowledge K student(s) do • student(s) have • solid understanding of •considerable depth not have a clear a basic the topic of knowledge is grasp of the understanding of • knowledge is thorough apparent topic the topic and relatively detailed •student(s) have obviously read • student(s) • student(s) have additional material cannot relate attempted to apply beyond that information knowledge to the real required for the presented to the world assignment real world •clear application information to the real world is evident Interest I student(s) • some interest • student(s) presenting •interest of presenting was evident by topic were clearly presenter(s) was displayed little presenter(s) interested in what they very high interest in the were doing topic • class interest •the audience was not • presenter(s) held couldn’t help but be maintained class interest caught by the throughout enthusiasm of the presentation presenter(s) Coverage and O confusion • information was • major points were •presentation was Organization reigned during rather vague covered clear and covered the presentation • audience was • organization was such all major points somewhat that the •presentation was confused information/ideas uncluttered with • some major presented remained extraneous or points were somewhat unclear to misleading covered but the the audience information main thrust was •presentation was not clear well organized and flowed smoothly •ideas were reinforced and enhanced with appropriate examples Use of Visual A visual aids • visual aids were • visual aids were used Aids were not used •visual aids were used and could be seen used with a high • visual aids were and read by all degree of impact hand done but not very neat or • visual aids were very clear •colour was used on colourful the visual aids to reinforce the main • colour was not points used Rubric for Students Working in Cooperative Groups
  • 59. LEARNING OUTCOME: Students will exhibit interpersonal skills and perform a variety of roles in group situations. CRITERIA INDICATORS (observable characteristics describing the levels of performance) LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 (Limited) (Adequate) (Proficient) (Exceptional) Group Roles G rarely works g communicates a a communicates a a actively helps towards group commitment to the commitment to the identify group goals group goals but group goals and goals and works requires assistance effectively carries out diligently to meet to carry out assigned roles them assigned roles Interpersonal S rarely o participates in o participates in o actively Skills participates in group interaction group interaction promotes group interaction with prompting without prompting effective group g requires w at least on expresses ideas and interaction i constant occasion expresses opinions in a way that i s always prompting and/or ideas and opinions is sensitive to the sensitive to the expresses ideas without considering feelings and feelings and in a way that is the feelings of knowledge base of knowledge base insensitive to the knowledge base of others of others feelings or others knowledge base of others Roles R rarely performs t makes an t effectively performs o effectively more than one attempt to perform two or more different performs multiple role more than one role roles within a group roles within the r performs the but requires r changes roles group same role in the direction within the group from g changes roles group most of the d tends to perform one activity to another from one activity time the same role in the to another group a lot of the t volunteers to time help others once completing role in the group Assessments that Recognize and Enhance Diversity Just as MITA helps faculty engage students’ brains actively, MITA assessment tasks ensure that students tap their diverse backgrounds to understand and apply complex facts. MITA provides assessment tasks that engage diverse students in their own learning in meaningful ways.
  • 60. After posing a good question, setting objectives and identifying specific criteria expected through rubrics, students choose an assessment task to explore lesson topics. Phase four of MITA provides assessment tasks that: a) match related learning approaches b) cover content c) enable students to develop their interests and abilities d) involve authentic events e) solve real world problems; f) create meaningful challenges to students and g) motivate students to explore and probe related knowledge. MITA assessments ensure multiple approaches to any destination by creating choices along converging highways. These tasks might include mock TV interviews, created software programs, experiments, designing learning centers, performing original lyrics, creating a business proposal, presenting ideas to parent groups, or photographing natural patterns and comparisons. The main goal for students is to express their ideas and understandings through various ways of knowing any topic. Students and faculty, through multiple assessment possibilities, become learning partners. The handbook, Student Assessment that Works: A Practical Approach, (Allyn & Bacon, 1999) lists many specific examples of student tasks that will springboard your own ideas and act as segues into your own possibilities. For instance, you may wish to consult page 91 for ideas about assignments for a unit portfolio, page 152 for a chart that helps students identify what they already know about your topic, or page 119 for ideas to create learning contracts. When specific standards for all work are decided ahead, students can select diverse approaches to explore lesson topics. They can better achieve your established benchmarks. Assessment tasks as simple the vehicles to transport students from the known to the unknown and then on to journeys of discovery. If we choose the theme, "Inuit in the Canadian Arctic," and the unit question, "How do Arctic peoples and homelands resemble ours?" assessment tasks might include the following: LINGUISTIC DEMONSTRATION –  Create a story  Write a research paper  Interview an expert  Interpret a chapter of text  Write a poem  Design a book of comparisons  Lecture peers  Read chorally LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL DEMONSTRATION -  Graph climate and temperature changes  Design a web site using scientific principles, laws and theorem  Interview a scientist  Outline a chapter of text  Create a business proposal for an Arctic enterprise  Create schedules  Create hidden messages  Use values to find solutions SPATIAL DEMONSTRATION -  Create a mock-up
  • 61.  Design a building to survive permafrost  Paint  Draw  Build 3-D objects  Create posters to illustrate two sides of an issue  Display bulletin boards  Create a software program BODILY-KINESTHETIC DEMONSTRATION -  Choreograph a dance  Create a tableau  Build MITA learning centers  Travel to museums  Design outdoor learning site  Produce a play  Use body language  Recreate Arctic games and sports MUSICAL DEMONSTRATION -  Create a melody  Integrate music and learning  Demonstrate musical vibrations  Interpret Arctic life through music  Write a song  Create an Arctic music video  Prepare musical backgrounds  Perform solos, duets or trios INTERPERSONAL DEMONSTRATION -  Create a shared story  Interview peers  Team teach a concept  Collaborate with a teacher  Describe Arctic characters  Illustrate ethical choices of leaders  Create an Arctic marketing scheme  Proofread a peer’s essay INTRAPERSONAL DEMONSTRATION -  Create a journal from perspective of an Inuit your age  Write personal reflections on an Arctic issue  Illustrate your personal ethics on a controversial topic  Write personal stories  Design personal portfolio of Arctic projects  Illustrate personal goal-setting strategies  Create an Inuit scrapbook  Publish a personal book NATURALISTIC DEMONSTRATION -  Compare and contrast Arctic environment to your own  Demonstrate research about natural Arctic problems  Complete experiments from nature  Communicate with Arctic environmental specialists over internet
  • 62.  Illustrate Arctic natural phenomena  Sort and categorize information from geographic sites  Write a naturalistic response to a common climactic problem  Compare Arctic hunting patterns today with the past Similar tasks can be adapted to your lesson topics to ensure that students draw from multiple domains to express knowledge. You will note that learning and assessment tasks are at times similar, or even the same in some cases. Your students will also come up with excellent ideas for tasks, which could become segues to excellent discussion about their work, their cultures and their background experiences. The 1999 text, Student Assessment that Works: A Practical Approach, Allyn & Bacon, provides many examples of learning contracts which guide student choices for relevant assessment tasks built to encourage and enhance diversity. Characteristics of Effective Teaching By Peter Saunders, PhD
  • 63. Twelve distinctive behaviours comprise an inventory of qualities found in effective teachers. This list is based on one developed by Harry Murray at the University of Western Ontario. Specific sub behaviours, for each inventory’s behaviour, are defined. 1. Enthusiasm – use of non-verbal behaviour to solicit student attention and interest 2. Clarity – method used to explain or clarify concepts and principles. 3. Interaction – techniques used to foster student’s class participation. 4. Organization – ways of organizing or structuring subject matter. 5. Pacing – rate of information presented, efficient use of time. 6. Disclosure – explicitness concerning course requirements and grading criteria. 7. Speech – characteristics of voice relevant to classroom teaching. 8. Rapport – quality of interpersonal relations between teacher and students. 9. Relevance – bridges made between course content, processes and the world. 10. Learning Centered – focuses squarely on student learning and mastery. 11. Flexibility – openness to change; diverse ways of looking at, approaching material. 12. Leadership – models civil behaviour, intellectual rigor and respect for diversity. 1. ENTHUSIASM: use of non-verbal behaviour to solicit student attention and interest • Speaks in a dramatic or expressive way. • Moves about while lecturing or presenting. • Gestures with hands or arms, yet avoids distracting mannerisms. • Maintains eye contact with students. • Walks up aisles beside students. • Avoids reading lecture verbatim from prepared notes or text. • Smiles while teaching. 2. CLARITY: method used to explain or clarify concepts and principles • Gives several examples of each concept. • Uses concrete everyday examples to explain concepts and principles. • Defines new or unfamiliar terms. • Repeats difficult ideas several times. • Stresses most important points by pausing, speaking slowly, raising voice, etc. • Uses graphs or diagrams to facilitate explanation. • Points out practical applications of concepts. • Answers students’ questions thoroughly. • Suggests ways of memorizing complicated ideas. • Writes key terms on blackboard or overhead screen. • Explains subject matter in familiar colloquial language. 3. INTERACTION: techniques used to foster students’ class participation • Encourages students’ questions and comments during class. • Avoids direct criticism of students when they make errors. • Praises students for good ideas. • Asks questions of individual students. • Asks questions of class as a whole. • Incorporates students’ ideas into presentation. • Presents challenging, thought-provoking ideas. • Uses a variety of media and activities in class. • Asks rhetorical questions. • Listens and responds to students’ contributions and learning. 4. ORGANIZATION: ways of organizing or structuring subject matter • Uses headings and subheadings to organize presentation. • Puts outline on blackboard or overhead screen.
  • 64. • Clearly indicates transition from one topic to the next. • Gives preliminary overview at beginning of class. • Explains how each topic fits into the course as a whole. • Begins class with a review of topics covered last time. • Periodically summarizes points previously made. 5. PACING: rate of information presentation, efficient use of time • Digresses rarely from major theme. • Covers the important material in class sessions. • Asks and confirms if students understand before proceeding to next topic. • Sticks to the point in answering students’ questions. 6. DISCLOSURE: explicitness concerning course requirements and grading criteria • Advises students on how to prepare for tests or exams. • Provides sample exam questions. • Tells students exactly what is expected of them on tests, essays or assignments. • States objectives of each meeting. • Reminds students of test dates or assignment deadlines. • States objectives of course as a whole. 7. SPEECH: characteristics of voice relevant to classroom teaching • Speaks at appropriate volume. • Speaks clearly. • Speaks at appropriate pace. • Leaves pauses in speech silent and avoids "um" or "ah". 8. RAPPORT: quality of interpersonal relations between teacher and students • Addresses individual students by name (to the extent possible in larger classes). • Announces availability for consultation outside of class. • Offers to help students with problems. • Shows tolerance of other points of view. • Talks with students before or after class. • Acknowledges diversity in learners and their culture. 9. RELEVANCE: bridges made between course content, processes and the world • Provides broad (holistic) context for specific learning concepts and skills. • Integrates materials (examples, cases, simulations) from "real world". • Bridges specific learning concepts and skills to learners’ experiences. • Provides learners with access to external sources and experts to validate learning. • Provides opportunities for learners to apply learning to external world. • Provides opportunities for learners to bring external learning into the curriculum. 10. LEARNER CENTERED: focuses squarely on student learning and mastery • Focuses on learning outcomes and growth, not content taught. • Pre/during/post assessments used to ensure learning. • Instructor elicits student discovery and construction of knowledge. • Learners have some control over learning process. • Active, collaborative, and cooperative learning favoured over passive learning. • Instructors are primarily designers and coaches. • Instructors and learners work in teams where appropriate. • Learners are empowered to take over their own learning. • Motivates learners by supporting their self-efficacy – ability to succeed. 11. FLEXIBILITY: openness to change and diverse ways of looking at, approaching material • Teaching appeals to different learning styles.
  • 65. • Awareness of inter-subjective construction of knowledge. • Appreciation of multiple perspectives and intellectual curiosity. • Willingness to "give" responsibility of learning to learners where appropriate. 12. LEADERSHIP: models civil behaviour, intellectual rigor and respect for Diversity • Models and requires a learner’s behaviour that supports teaching and learning. • Models intellectual engagement with ideas, concepts and materials. • Provides intellectual challenge for all levels of learner abilities. • Demonstrates respect for diversity and requires similar respect in classroom. Enthusiasm Rating
  • 66. You can determine just how enthusiastic you are in class by using these eight enthusiasm behaviours. The most effective method would be to videotape one or two lessons and rate yourself. A word of caution: Don't rely too heavily on the results of only one observation. Repeated observations will enable you and your observer to evaluate the level of enthusiasm. Try changing your low-enthusiasm performance to high by practicing behaviours listed in the "High" category below. In general, a score of 8 to 20 indicates dull or unenthusiastic performance; 21 to 42 indicates a moderate level of enthusiasm; and 43 to 56 a very high level of enthusiasm. DEGREE OF PERFORMANCE BEHAVIORS LOW (1) (2) MEDIUM (3) (4) (5) HIGH (6) (7) VOCAL DELIVERY Monotone, minimum Pleasant variations of Great and sudden changes inflections, little pitch, volume, and from rapid, excited speech variation in speech, speed; good to a whisper; varied tone poor articulation articulation and pitch EYES Looked dull or bored; Appeared interested; Characterized as dancing, seldom opened eyes occasionally lighting snapping, shining, lighting wide or raised up, shining, opening up frequently, opening eyebrows; avoids eye wide wide, eyebrows raised, contact; often maintains eye contact while maintains blank stare avoiding staring GESTURES Seldom moved arms Often pointed, Quick and demonstrative out toward person or occasional sweeping movements of body, head, object; never used motion using body, arms, hands, and face sweeping movements; head, arms, hands, kept arms at side or and face; maintained folded rigid steady pace BODY MOVEMENT Seldom moved from Moved freely, slowly, Large body movements, one spot or from sitting and steadily swung around, walked to standing position, rapidly, changed pace; sometimes would unpredictable and "pace" nervously energetic, natural body movements FACIAL Appeared deadpan, or Looked pleased; Showed many expressions, EXPRESSIONS frowned; little smiling, happy or sad if broad smile; quick, sudden lips closed, few situation called for changes in expression descriptors used WORD SELECTION Mostly nouns, few Some descriptors or Highly descriptive, many descriptors or adjectives or repetition adjectives, great variety adjectives; simple or of the same ones trite expressions ACCEPTANCE OF Little indication of Accepted ideas and Quick to accept, praise, IDEAS AND acceptance or feelings, praised or encourage, or clarify; many FEELINGS encouragement; may clarified; some variations in response; ignore students' variations in response, vigorous nodding of head feelings or ideas but frequently repeated when agreeing same ones OVERALL ENERGY Lethargic; appeared Appeared energetic Exuberant; high degree of inactive, dull, or and demonstrative energy and vitality; highly sluggish sometimes, but mostly demonstrative maintained an even keel “Catch a Human Star and . . .”
  • 67. Reprinted from Ellen Weber’s Column in the Wellsville Daily Reporter (February 28, 2000) Did you know a human brain packs ten trillion cells, the number of stars in the Galaxy? Two hundred cell types also equal numbers of different star clusters in our universe. To put our brain’s power-pack to work, we first have to sense the wonder of star-lit vision. Apparently we’ve seen only 130 star clusters. I wonder how many brain cells we see or enjoy in a day. We know that cell power decides what we wear, how we move, and who we confide in. Chemicals called neurotransmitters also jumpstart learning. Just as stars heat, illumine and energize skies, cells boost learning. I find it hard to imagine a three-pound brain with cells equal to stars that blaze the Galaxy. Think of it. A teacher’s words, “Not working to capacity,” might in reality mean fewer stars fired for you in a peer’s less focused moments. An eighth grade teacher called Einstein, “bonehead”, when he failed to move among wider, more distant star clusters with peers. Human intelligence is as complex today as it was for Greeks to explain stellar action centuries ago. But an era of brain breakthroughs is blazing fresh trails for learning opportunities. On July 17th, 1990 George Bush said, “We enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research.” If you catch even one unique star, you could ignite passion for new interests, spark an old friendship, or map out new adventures. A few simple questions will help you to unleash hidden stars within your intellectual universe. Impetus for learning almost anything new sparks if we pump brainpower to jettison us there. Hidden in what you persist at, do well, enjoy, or look forward to, lay amazing God-given gifts that open new possibilities for action. Your tiniest ability or interest could pave pathways toward new vision. We actually have much more brainpower than once thought. Intelligence as a fixed entity that can be measured in an IQ score, has given way to intelligence that grows when challenged. With use, brain cells actually reproduce cells called dendrites. Good news is that dendrite growth continues well into our golden years. Unique talents arise from within everyday dreams that add meaning and beauty to our worlds. Your visions may not equal rocket science in von Braun’s insights for the V-2, or the Wright brother’s genius for powered flight. But when we use our brains, we create a launching pad for original ideas and discoveries. We don’t need the mind-bending vision of Einstein’s “curved space” to project an arc of originality. Your brain may never produce daVinci’s art on chapel ceilings, or Donatelli’s David in chiselled stones. But your own original ideas can soar to new songs, inventions, poetry or scientific projects. You may never write 10,000 words a day as Enid Blyton wrote children’s books in England, but your communication ideas might build a business, or custom-make schedules for family fun. Whatever you create, think of your gifts as worthwhile and seize the brain power to galvanize them. You can do this by identifying four personal tendencies in an inventory to unleash personal abilities. Interest Inventory to Identify Personal Gifts
  • 68. Activities at which You Persist: 1). When you find a free moment you ____________________________. 2). One activity you repeat often is ________________________. 3). Even when time is short you enjoy _____________________________. Activities You Do Especially Well: 1). If asked to____________________ you feel confident to do well with little help. 2). Others say you can ____________________________________. 3). You are pleased with results when you __________________________. Activities You Enjoy: 1). If seeking adventure you ____________________________________. 2). You enjoy _____________________________________ with others. 3). When you relax you like to _____________________________. Activities you look forward to: 1). If you had material resources you would _________________________. 2). Whenever you find time you _________________________________. 3). After a busy day you like to ___________________________________. When we follow dreams, or chase lofty visions we discover amazing solutions for everyday problems. And when we combine personal talents with wishes chased, we beam shining solutions and arc new heights. The opposite is also true. When we ignore dreams, or shut down gifts, human brain cells dim and vision fails. Imagine your unique dreams and special gifts waltzing together today the way millions of stars dance beneath spherical halos in the Galaxy. You might create music like Bob Dylan, solve computer problems like Bill Gates, share wisdom like Judge Judy, or simply master a new way to fund college tuition. In so imagining, we have just taken the first step toward unleashing talents that hitch our wagons to rising new stars.
  • 69. Multiple Intelligences Resources Web Resources SCBE Multiple Intelligence Homepage An excellent site to Learn about MI for students and teachers. Multiple Intelligence Resource A checklist for Teachers Regarding Lesson Balance. Multiple Intelligences This site explains how children would exhibit the different types of multiple intelligence. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Contains an explanation about each of the 7 types of intelligence. San Jose Elem. School Visit the site of Florida's first multiple intelligence's school. Through the use of the multiple intelligences approach defined by Dr. Howard Gardner (Bodily-Kinaesthetic, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Musical, and Spatial) an integrated approach to instruction through thematic units is being utilized. How they are smart continues to be our top priority. Various types special classes are featured. Project Zero With Howard Gardner as the director, Project Zero's mission is "to understand and enhance learning, thinking, and creativity in the arts and other disciplines for individuals and institutions." ERIC This site has links to other multiple intelligences pages, plus abstracts of books and articles on the subject by Thomas Hoerr, Robin Fogarty, Carolyn Chapman, Jean Smerechansky- Metzger, Thomas Armstrong, David Lazear, and others. New City School The New City School in St. Louis, Missouri, is online. Tom Hoerr, author of "Frog Ballets and Musical Fractions"(p. 43), is the director of this MI school. Text Resources The following are only a sample of the publications available on multiple intelligences. The opinions expressed are personal. Feedback and additional resources would be appreciated. Allen, J., B.Mitchell, C.Rollo, B.Tarbuck. (1995) Patterns: An Integrated Cross Curricular Unit Using the Seven Multiple Intelligences. Durham Board of Education, Whitby, ON. (905-666-5500) *This is an outstanding resource for the classroom teacher in the intermediate grades (7-9), and great for students with special needs. It comes with computer discs, so handouts may be modified. Cross-curricular, with a native studies theme Armstrong, Thomas. (1987) In Their Own Way: Discovering and Encouraging Your Child's Personal Learning Style. Los Angeles, CA: Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc. * An interesting book for parents and good explanation of the theory Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences In the Classroom.(1994) A.S.C.D. Alexandria, VA. * This is a great little guide to using the theory in the classroom and explaining it to kids. Armstrong, Thomas. (1993) 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Many Intelligences. Plume Books. * A guide for parents and teachers as to what their intelligence strengths may be, how to use and improve individual strengths and underdeveloped areas. Good for parents. Bromley, Karen, DeVitis, Linda & Medlo, Marcia.(1999) 50 Graphic organizers for Reading, Writing & More. Scholastic: NY. *Wonderful resources: ready to use reproducible templates and easy strategies to support every learner.
  • 70. Campbell, Linda, Bruce Campbell, and Dee Dickenson.(1992) Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. Seattle, Washington: New Horizons for Learning, Seattle, Washington. *Good ideas throughout. Chapman, Carolyn, (1993) If the Shoe Fits...How to Develop Multiple Intelligences in the classroom. IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. *One of the best resources for understanding each intelligence, including cultural references. Lots of classroom suggestions. Chapman, Carolyn, (1994) Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. *Companion to above. Delves into the often murky waters of assessment. Fogarty, Robin. (1991) The Mindful School: How to Integrate the Curricula IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. *This author is also a well known workshop leader who uses integrated curricula along with multiple intelligences. Fogarty, Robin (1994) The Mindful School: How to Teach for Metacognitive Reflection. IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. Gardner, Howard.(1983) Frames of Mind. Basic Books, New York * The basis for the whole thing! Gardner, Howard.(1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. Basic Books, New York. *The further development of the implications for education. Haggerty, Brian (1995) Nurturing Intelligences: A guide to Multiple Intelligences Theory and Teaching. Innovative Learning Publications, Addison Wesley, Menlo Park, CA. *A great overview of how to use the theory in the classroom with examples, checklists and assessment tools. Kagan, Spencer & Kagan, Miguel (199x) The Complete MI Book. Kagan Publishing & Professional Development, US & Canada(800-933-2667) *Read more about Kagan MI products at the Kagan Site Lazear, David. (1991) Seven Ways of Knowing. IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. * Very good guide for the teacher, including personal logs. Best for secondary level. Lazear, David. (1991) Seven Ways of Teaching. IRI/Skylight Publishing, Illinois. *Companion to above, with many fine examples. Marks-Tarlow, Terry. (1996) Creativity Inside Out: Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. Innovative Learning Publications, Addison Wesley, Menlo Park, CA. *A lively, interesting and practical celebration of differences, extracting creativity using all the intelligences Rhodes Offutt, Dr. Elizabeth. (1997) An Elementary Teacher's Guide to Multiple Intelligences Good Apple, Torrence, CA. *Chock full of great practical suggestions for elementary grades. “Traditional universities and high schools tend to neglect active student involvement. Research evidence shows that students understand deeply when they investigate authentic problems, rather than simply recite back isolated facts on standardized tests. When students enjoy a climate where they think critically and creatively and where they relate classroom instruction to tasks and experiences they encounter outside of school, they prepare for meaningful contributions to humanity. “MITA: The Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach