ITE 101 - Week 7


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ITE 101 - Week 7

  1. 1. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 7: Databases and Data Warehouses
  2. 2. Objectives• Explain the difference between traditional file organization and the database approach to managing digital data• Explain how relational and object-oriented database management systems are used to construct databases, populate them with data, and manipulate the data to produce information• Enumerate the most important features and operations of a relational database, the most popular database modelManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 2
  3. 3. Objectives (continued)• Understand how data modeling and design creates a conceptual blueprint of a database• Discuss how databases are used on the Web• List the operations involved in transferring data from transactional databases to data warehousesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 3
  4. 4. Managing Digital Data• Businesses collect and dissect data for many purposes• Data can be stored in database format – Easy access and manipulation• Databases have had a profound impact on business – An information industry has been created• Database technology integrated with the Internet has contributed to commerce significantlyManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 4
  5. 5. The Traditional File Approach• Traditional file approach: no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, or manipulating data• Database approach: provides powerful mechanism for managing and manipulating data• Traditional approach is inconvenient: – Program-data dependency – High data redundancy – Low data integrity• Data redundancy: duplication of data• Data integrity: accuracy of dataManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 5
  6. 6. The Traditional File Approach (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 6
  7. 7. The Database Approach• Database approach: data organized as entities• Entity: an object about which an organization chooses to collect data, such as: – People – Events – Products• Character: smallest piece of data – A single letter or a digit• Field: single piece of information about entityManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 7
  8. 8. The Database Approach (continued)• Record: collection of related fields• File: collection of related records• Database fields can hold images, sounds, video clips, etc.• Field name allows easy access to the data• Database management system (DBMS): program used to: – Build databases – Populate a database with data – Manipulate data in a databaseManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 8
  9. 9. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 9
  10. 10. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 10
  11. 11. The Database Approach (continued)• Query: a message to the database requesting data from specific records and/or fields• Database must be properly secured – Not everyone should have access to all data – Users will have different views of the database, based on the data they are allowed to seeManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 11
  12. 12. The Database Approach (continued)• Database administrator (DBA): the person responsible for managing the database – Sets user limits for access to data in the database• DBMS is usually bundled with a programming languageManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 12
  13. 13. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 13
  14. 14. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 14
  15. 15. Database Models• Database model: general logical structure – How records stored in the database – How relationships between records are established• Database models differ in: – How records are linked to each other – How users can navigate the database, retrieve records, and create recordsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 15
  16. 16. The Relational Model• Relational Model: consists of tables• Based on relational algebra – Tuple: record (or row) – Attribute: field (or column) – Relation: table of records• To design a relational database, you must understand the entities to be stored in the database and how they relate• Tables are independent of each other, but can be related to each otherManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 16
  17. 17. The Relational Model (continued)• Key: a field whose values identify records – Used to retrieve records• Primary key: a field by which records are uniquely identified – Each record in the table must have a unique key value• Composite key: combination of fields that serve as a primary keyManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 17
  18. 18. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 18
  19. 19. The Relational Model (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 19
  20. 20. The Relational Model (continued)• Foreign key: a field that is common to two tables – Used to link the tables – This field is a primary key in one table and a foreign key in the other• Join table: composite of tables• Two types of table relationships: – One-to-many relationship: one item in a table is linked to many items in the other table – Many-to-many relationship: many items in a table are linked to many items of the other tableManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 20
  21. 21. The Object-Oriented Model• Object-oriented database model: uses object- oriented approach for the database structure• Encapsulation: combined storage of data and relevant procedures to process it – Allows object to be “planted” in different data sets• Inheritance: the ability to create a new object by replicating the characteristics of an existing (parent) object• Object-oriented databases (ODBs) store data objects, not recordsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 21
  22. 22. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 22
  23. 23. Relational Operations• Relational operation: creates a temporary subset of a table or tables• Used to create a limited list or a joined table list• Three important relational operations: – Select: a selection of records based on conditions – Project: a selection of certain columns from a table – Join: join data from multiple tables to create a temporary tableManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 23
  24. 24. Structured Query Language• Structured Query Language (SQL): query language of choice for DBMSs• Advantages of SQL: – It is an international standard – It is provided with most relational DBMSs – It has easy-to-remember, intuitive commandsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 24
  25. 25. The Schema and Metadata• Schema: a plan that describes the structure of the database, including: – Names and sizes of fields – Identification of primary keys – Relationships• Data dictionary: a repository of information about the data and its organization – Also called metadata: the data about the dataManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 25
  26. 26. The Schema and Metadata (continued)• Metadata includes: – Source of the data – Tables related to the data – Field and index information – Programs and processes that use the data – Population rules: what is inserted, or updated, and how oftenManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 26
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  28. 28. Data Modeling• Databases must be carefully planned and designed to meet business goals• Data modeling: analysis of an organization’s data and identification of the data relationships – A proactive process – Develops a conceptual blueprint of the database• Entity relationship diagram: a graphical representation of all entity relationshipsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 28
  29. 29. Data Modeling (continued)• Entity relationship diagram is composed of: – Boxes: identify entities – Lines: indicate relationship between entities – Crossbars: indicate mandatory fields – Circles: indicate optional – Crow’s feet: identify “many”Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 29
  30. 30. Data Modeling (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 30
  31. 31. Data Modeling (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 31
  32. 32. Databases on the Web• Web is dependent on databases – Organizations must link their databases to the Web• Interface between Web and database required• Interface may be programmed in one of several Web programming languages, including: – Java servlets – Active server pages (ASP) – PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) – Web application program interfaces (APIs)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 32
  33. 33. Databases on the Web (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 33
  34. 34. Data Warehousing• Most data collections are used for transactions• Accumulation of transaction data is useful• Data warehouse: a large repository database that supports management decision making – Typically relational – Data is collected from transactional databases• Data mart: a smaller collection of data focusing on a particular subject or departmentManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 34
  35. 35. From Database to Data Warehouse• Transactional databases are not suitable for business analysis – Contain only current, not historical data• Data warehouse requires large storage capacity: – Mainframe computers are often used – Scalability is an issue – Data warehouses grow continuallyManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 35
  36. 36. Phases in Data Warehousing• Three phases in transferring data from a transactional database to a data warehouse: – Extraction phase: create files from transactional database – Transformation phase: cleanse and modify the data format – Loading phase: transfer files to data warehouse• A properly built data warehouse becomes a single source for all data required for analysis• Data mining and online analytical processing (OLAP) use data in data warehousesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 36
  37. 37. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 37
  38. 38. Summary• Organizations collect vast amounts of data• Database approach has several advantages over traditional file approach• Character: smallest piece of data• Field: made up of multiple characters• Record: collection of related fields• File: collection of related records• Database management system (DBMS): tool to construct databasesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 38
  39. 39. Summary (continued)• Relational and object-oriented database models have different advantages• Keys are used to form links among entities• Primary keys are unique identifiers• Object-oriented database maintains objects that contain data and procedures that process it• Structured Query Language (SQL) is an international standard for querying databases• Database designer must construct a schema to construct a databaseManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 39
  40. 40. Summary (continued)• Database designers conduct data modeling and create entity relationship diagrams to plan databases• Many databases are linked to Web• Data warehouses contain huge collections of historical transaction data• Data warehouse requires data extraction, transformation, and loading of transactional data• Invasion of privacy is exacerbated by database technologyManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 40