ITE 101 - Week 5


Published on

MIS, ITE 101, Charter Oak

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ITE 101 - Week 5

  1. 1. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 5: Business Software
  2. 2. Objectives• Explain the difference between application software and system software• Enumerate the different generations of programming languages and explain how they differ• Cite the latest major developments in application and system software• Identify and explain the roles of Web programming languagesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 2
  3. 3. Objectives (continued)• Explain the types and uses of Web site design tools• Clarify the differences between proprietary software and open source software• List characteristics that are important in evaluating packaged software applications for business use• Understand the problem of software piracy and how it affects businesses and consumersManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 3
  4. 4. Software: Instructions to the Hardware• Applications: computer programs that contribute to productivity• Software: a series of instructions to a computer to execute processes• Two major categories of software: – Application software: enables task completion – System software: • Enables applications to run on a computer • Manages components and devicesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 4
  5. 5. Programming Languages and Software Development Tools• Programs are needed for every computer operation• Programming: process of writing programs• Machine language: the only language that hardware understands – Consists of long strings of 0s and 1s• Assembly language: easier to program than machine language because it uses words for commands• High-level programming languages: use English-like statementsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 5
  6. 6. Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)• Software development tools: develop software with little knowledge of programming languages• Third-generation languages (3GLs): known as “procedural” languages – Programmer must detail logical procedure – Includes languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, RPG, Pascal, and C – One 3GL statement = five to 10 assembly language statementsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 6
  7. 7. Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)• Fourth-generation languages (4GLs): use more English-like statements – Speed up the development process – Built around database management systems – Include many preprogrammed procedures – One 4GL statement = several 3GL statements• Debugging: process of locating and fixing program errorsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 7
  8. 8. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 8
  9. 9. Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 9
  10. 10. Visual Programming• Visual programming languages: create graphical screen objects by selecting icons from a palette• Common visual programming languages include: – Microsoft Visual Basic – Borland Delphi – Micro Focus COBOL – ASNA Visual RPG – Visual C++• Developer can still work at the code levelManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 10
  11. 11. Visual Programming (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 11
  12. 12. Object-Oriented Programming• Object-oriented programming (OOP): modular approach to programming• Advantages: – Ease of maintenance – Efficiency in application development• Object: contains data elements (data members) and the methods to manipulate that data – Data members can only be accessed through the object’s methodsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 12
  13. 13. Object-Oriented Programming (continued)• Objects are reusable and are combined to create complex programs• Popular OOP languages include Smalltalk, C++, Object Pascal, and Java• Increasing amount of software developed for the Web using languages such as Java, JavaScript, J2EE, and PHP• Applet: code produced by a Web programming language – Runs same way on different operating systemsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 13
  14. 14. Object-Oriented Programming (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 14
  15. 15. Language Translation: Compilers and Interpreters• Source code: program as originally written by the developer• Object code: program in machine language that can be run by the computer• Procedural languages need programs to translate source code to object code• Two types of language translators: – Compilers – InterpretersManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 15
  16. 16. Language Translation:Compilers and Interpreters (continued)• Compiler: translates entire source code to object code but does not execute the code – Scans for syntax errors – Generates error messages if syntax errors found• Interpreter: scans one statement at a time – If error-free, interprets and executes the statement – Goes through the program until an error or end of program is encounteredManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 16
  17. 17. Language Translation:Compilers and Interpreters (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 17
  18. 18. Application Software• Application software allows nonprogrammers to develop their own tools• Application-specific software: programs designed to perform specific jobs• General-purpose application software: programs that serve multiple purposes – Usually comes as packaged software• Packaged software: software that is ready to install from external storage media such as CDsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 18
  19. 19. Office Productivity Applications• Productivity tools: assist normal office work – Include word processors, spreadsheets, presentation tools, file/database software, graphics programs, desktop publishing tools, and project management applications• Word processors: used to create text documents• Spreadsheets: store numbers and perform complex mathematical, statistical, and financial analysis functionsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 19
  20. 20. Office Productivity Applications (continued)• Presentation tools: develop impressive presentations quickly• File/database management tools: create and manipulate local or shared databases• Graphics programs: create intricate graphical images and manipulate digital photographs• Desktop publishing tools: develop items for publication, such as pamphlets, newsletters, cards, calendars, etc.Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 20
  21. 21. Office Productivity Applications (continued)• Project management tools: help plan projects and track progress• Suite: collection of various applications that perform multiple interrelated functions – Includes Microsoft Office, Lotus SmartSuite,, ThinkFreeManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 21
  22. 22. Hypermedia and Multimedia• Hypermedia: a feature that enables users to access information by clicking text or graphics• Web page authoring tools: enable hypermedia features – Often part of other applications such as word processors and presentation toolsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 22
  23. 23. Hypermedia and Multimedia (continued)• Multimedia software: handles many different types of data• Often used in: – Education: lessons presented in multimedia – Training exercises – Compiling and integrating data for business situationsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 23
  24. 24. Mashups• Mashup: an integrated application containing some or all features from several applications – Provides enhanced features for the end user• Web site design tools: used to change the content of Web pages – Includes FrontPage, SharePoint Designer, Expression Web from Microsoft, Adobe Dreamweaver, and GoLiveManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 24
  25. 25. Groupware• Groupware: an application that enables workers to collaborate in real time over Web – Integration of multimedia technology and Web technology – Allows for remote collaboration – Eliminates travel times and facilitates expression and exchange of ideasManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 25
  26. 26. Virtual Reality• Virtual reality (VR): an application that mimics sensory reality using software – Simulates sight, hearing, and touch – Uses equipment such as goggles, gloves, earphones, and moving bases• VR devices provide two elements: – Immersion: user senses that she/he is surrounded by the simulated environment – Interaction: allows users to simulate changes in the environment using VR devicesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 26
  27. 27. Virtual Reality (continued)• VR environment senses movement, responds to signals, and provides feedback to user• Businesses use VR to decrease cost of planning buildings, machines, and vehicles• Avatar: an imaginary figure used to represent real person• VR on the Web includes public gathering applications – Second Life: an imaginary world using avatars to allow real people to meet and communicateManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 27
  28. 28. 3D Geographic Software• Similar to virtual reality• Used to develop three-dimensional models of geographic locations• Models are created from land and aerial photographs• Helps with navigation when tied to global positioning system software• Useful for city planners, service agencies, tourism, and travel agenciesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 28
  29. 29. System Software• System software: deals with essential operations between the user and computer such as: – Loading, copying, and deleting files – Managing memory resources – Operating peripheral equipment – Encompasses compilers and interpreters• Applications must be compatible with system softwareManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 29
  30. 30. Operating Systems• Operating system (OS): most important program on the computer – Recognizes input from keyboard and mouse – Sends output to computer display – Keeps track of files and directories – Runs applications – Manages memory• Usually developed using low-level programming languages such as assembly languages• Also known as “platforms”Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 30
  31. 31. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 31
  32. 32. Operating Systems (continued)• Application program interfaces (APIs): software included in the OS that can be used by application program developers• Utilities: perform other OS functions such as: – Hardware diagnostics – Disk check – File sortingManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 32
  33. 33. Operating Systems (continued)• OS’s position in logical operation of the computer: – User interacts with user interface using menus, icons, and application commands – Application converts user input into OS commands – OS commands the CPU to carry out the operationManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 33
  34. 34. Operating Systems (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 34
  35. 35. Operating Systems (continued)• OS must manage the system by allocating hardware resources to applications• OS provides several services, including: – User interface – Memory allocation, including the use of virtual memory (hard disk used as an extension of RAM) – Plug-and-play (PnP): recognize and run a device as soon as it is physically attachedManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 35
  36. 36. Operating Systems (continued)• Driver: software that enables OS to control a device• Additional OS services include: – Database management – Networking – Security• Different computers and types of microprocessors use different OSsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 36
  37. 37. Operating Systems (continued)• Popular PC operating systems – Windows XP and Windows Vista – Linux – Mac OS• Popular network OSs that are compatible with DOS, Windows, and MAC clients include: – Netware – Windows Server• Linux: a free OS based on UNIXManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 37
  38. 38. Operating Systems (continued)Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 38
  39. 39. Other System Software• Other types of system software include: – Compilers and interpreters – Communications software – Utilities – Database management systems• Communications software: supports transmission and reception of data across computer networks• Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and antispyware/antiadware programsManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 39
  40. 40. Open Source Software• Proprietary software: sold/licensed for profit – Source code is private and not available – Developer retains all rights to the software; user purchases a license to use the software• Open source software: free source code – Developed through voluntary collaboration of programmers – Fewer bugs because many programmers review the code• Popular open source software includes Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird, MySQL, and PERLManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 40
  41. 41. Open Source Software (continued)• Not all free software is open source – Microsoft Internet Explorer is free but proprietary• Linux: best known open source OS – Includes free versions and versions that charge for support and additional features – Popular because of its versatility, but has limited number of applications that run on it – Runs on mainframes, PCs, handhelds, and electronic devicesManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 41
  42. 42. Software Licensing• Software is usually licensed• Licensed software: provides limited permission to use the software – Time-limited license requires annual fees• Several licensing models – Permissive model: anyone can use and sell modified versions of the software – General public license (GPL): anyone can use and make modified versions, but cannot sell modified versions for profitManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 42
  43. 43. Considerations for Packaged Software• Many goals and custom requirements are considered during development process of in- house software• Factors when purchasing large software packages are more complex, including: – Cost – Time to implement – Cost of interrupting operations – Modification costs to customize the softwareManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 43
  44. 44. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 44
  45. 45. Summary• Software: a collective term for computer programs• Two categories of software: system or application• Programming languages and software development tools are used to develop software• Increasing amount of software is linked to the Internet• Code written in non-machine language must be translated by compilers or interpretersManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 45
  46. 46. Summary (continued)• Some application programs are custom designed, and many are packaged• Office productivity tools such as word processors and spreadsheets help improve worker efficiency• Hypermedia and multimedia technology are useful for training, education, research, and businessManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 46
  47. 47. Summary (continued)• Groupware combines hypermedia and multimedia with Web technologies for collaboration• Virtual reality tools help build models of products and structures• Three-dimensional geographic software helps model maps and locations• Many applications support Web services and access to information on the WebManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 47
  48. 48. Summary (continued)• Most important system software is operating system• Open source software is distributed freely via the Web• Software is either purchased or licensed• Purchase decisions should evaluate suitability, ease of learning, ease of use, vendor reputation, expected quality of vendor support• Software piracy is still a significant problemManagement Information Systems, Sixth Edition 48
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.